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Amaral P.P.,University of Cambridge | Dinger M.E.,Garvan Institute of Medical Research | Mattick J.S.,Garvan Institute of Medical Research | Mattick J.S.,National Health and Medical Research Council NHMRC
Briefings in Functional Genomics

Cells and organisms are subject to challenges and perturbations in their environment and physiology in all stages of life. The molecular response to such changes, including insulting conditions such as pathogen infections, involves coordinated modulation of gene expression programmes and has not only homeostatic but also ecological and evolutionary importance. Although attention has been primarily focused on signalling pathways and protein networks, non coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which comprise a significant output of the genomes of prokaryotes and especially eukaryotes, are increasingly implicated in the molecular mechanisms of these responses. Long and short ncRNAs not only regulate development and cell physiology, they are also involved in disease states, including cancers, in host pathogen interactions, and in a variety of stress responses. Indeed, regulatory RNAs are part of genetically encoded response networks and also underpin epigenetic processes, which are emerging as key mechanisms of adaptation and transgenerational inheritance. Here we present the growing evidence that ncRNAs are intrinsically involved in cellular and organismal adaptation processes, in both robustness and protection to stresses, as well as in mechanisms generating evolutionary change ©The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Young J.L.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Rodda J.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Selber P.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Rutz E.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Orthopedic Clinics of North America

This article discusses the sagittal gait patterns in children with spastic diplegia, with an emphasis on the knee, as well as the concept of the "dose" of surgery that is required to correct different gait pathologies. The authors list the various interventions in the order of their increasing dose. The concept of dose is useful in the consideration of the management of knee dysfunction. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Tucker K.,National Health and Medical Research Council NHMRC | Tucker K.,University of Queensland | Hodges P.W.,National Health and Medical Research Council NHMRC | Van Den Hoorn W.,National Health and Medical Research Council NHMRC | And 3 more authors.

Background: Altered muscle activation during pain is thought to redistribute stress within muscles and ultimately decrease the load on painful structures. However, change in muscle stress during pain has not been directly tested. The aim of the present study is to determine whether stress within muscle tissue is reduced during local acute experimental pain. Methods and Results: Ten participants attended 2 experimental sessions that each involved isometric knee extension tasks in 2 series of control trials and 1 series of test trials at ∼10%MVC. Shear elastic modulus was measured from vastus lateralis using a shear wave elastographic technique (Supersonic Shear Imaging). Prior to the test contractions, a bolus of hypertonic (Pain) or isotonic saline (No-pain) was injected into vastus lateralis. Pain intensity was 5.2±1.0 during the painful contractions. The intra-session repeatability of the shear elastic modulus determined between control trials was good (ICC: 0.95 and 0.99; SEM: 5.1 and 9.3 kPa for No-pain and Pain, respectively). Muscle shear elastic modulus did not change systematically during Pain or No-pain contractions (all main effects and interaction P>0.14). Examination of data for individual participants showed that stress either increased or decreased. If the absolute change in modulus is considered between the control and the test trials, the change during Pain (16.2±9.5 kPa) was double that observed with No pain (7.9±5.9 kPa; P = 0.046). Conclusion: This is the first study to directly determine the change in stress within a muscle (change in shear elastic modulus) during pain. We conclude that experimental pain induced by hypertonic saline does not induce a systematic reduction in muscle stress during a single-joint isometric task. Therefore, the changes in muscle activity reported previously during similar tasks are unlikely to systematically reduce load in the painful region. Whether the individual-specific increase and decrease are physiologically relevant or purposeful requires further investigation. © 2014 Tucker et al. Source

Hyndman B.,RMIT University | Telford A.,RMIT University | Finch C.,National Health and Medical Research Council NHMRC | Finch C.,Monash University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of School Health

Background: Enjoyment of physical activity is as an important determinant of children's participation in physical activity. Despite this, there is an absence of reliable measures for assessing children's enjoyment of play activities during school lunchtime. The purpose of this study was to develop and assess the reliability of the Lunchtime Enjoyment of Activity and Play (LEAP) Questionnaire. Methods: Questionnaire items were categorized employing a social-ecological framework including intrapersonal (20 items), interpersonal (2 items), and physical environment/policy (17 items) components to identify the broader influences on children's enjoyment. An identical questionnaire was administered on 2 occasions, 10days apart, to 176 children aged 8-12years, attending a government elementary school in regional Victoria, Australia. RESULTS: Test-retest reliability confirmed that 35 of 39 LEAP Questionnaire items had at least moderate kappa agreement ranging from .44 to .78. Although 4 individual kappa values were low, median kappa scores for each aggregated social-ecological component reached at least moderate agreement (.44-.60). Conclusions: This study confirms the LEAP Questionnaire to be a reliable, context-specific instrument with sound content, and face validity that employs a social-ecological framework to assess children's enjoyment of school play and lunchtime activities. © 2013, American School Health Association. Source

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