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Heruc G.A.,University of Adelaide | Heruc G.A.,National Health and Medical Research Council Center for Research Excellence in Translating Nutritional Science to Good Health | Horowitz M.,University of Adelaide | Horowitz M.,National Health and Medical Research Council Center for Research Excellence in Translating Nutritional Science to Good Health | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Fat is the most potent stimulus for glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. The aims of this study were to determine whether dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibition would enhance plasma active incretin [glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), GLP-1] concentrations and modulate the glycemic, gut hormone, triglyceride, energy expenditure, and energy intake responses to intraduodenal fat infusion. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design, 16 healthy lean males received 50 mg vildagliptin (V), or matched placebo (P), before intraduodenal fat infusion (2 kcal/min, 120 min). Blood glucose, plasma insulin, glucagon, active GLP-1, and GIP and peptide YY (PYY)-(3–36) concentrations; resting energy expenditure; and energy intake at a subsequent buffet meal (time = 120–150 min) were quantified. Data are presented as areas under the curve (0–120 min, means ± SE). Vildagliptin decreased glycemia (P: 598 ± 8 vs. V: 573 ± 9 mmol·l−1·min−1, P < 0.05) during intraduodenal lipid. This was associated with increased insulin (P: 15,964 ± 1,193 vs. V: 18,243 ± 1,257 pmol·l−1·min−1, P < 0.05), reduced glucagon (P: 1,008 ± 52 vs. V: 902 ± 46 pmol·l−1·min−1, P < 0.05), enhanced active GLP-1 (P: 294 ± 40 vs. V: 694 ± 78 pmol·l−1·min−1) and GIP (P: 2,748 ± 77 vs. V: 4,256 ± 157 pmol·l−1·min−1), and reduced PYY-(3–36) (P: 9,527 ± 754 vs. V: 4,469 ± 431 pM/min) concentrations compared with placebo (P < 0.05, for all). Vildagliptin increased resting energy expenditure (P: 1,821 ± 54 vs. V: 1,896 ± 65 kcal/day, P < 0.05) without effecting energy intake. Vildagliptin 1) modulates the effects of intraduodenal fat to enhance active GLP-1 and GIP, stimulate insulin, and suppress glucagon, thereby reducing glycemia and 2) increases energy expenditure. These observations suggest that the fat content of a meal, by enhancing GLP-1 and GIP secretion, may contribute to the response to DPP-IV inhibition. © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

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