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Thāna Bhawan, India

Behera S.,Sambalpur University | Mallick B.,Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar | Rautray T.R.,Siksha O' Anusandhan University | Tiwari T.N.,Unique Research Center | Mishra P.C.,National Green Tribunal
Advanced Science Letters | Year: 2014

A study was conducted to assess the effects of different pH ranges (3.39±0.02, 4.14±0.02, 5.10±0.01 and 5.45±0.04) under simulated acid rain (SiAR) on acidic behavior of a medicinal herb Bacopa monnieri commonly known as Brahmi (India). The herb Bacopa monnieri is used in an indigenous system of medicine for memory boosting, and the treatment of cardiac, respiratory and neuropharmacological disorders. Simulated acid rain-induced effect on acidic property of B. monnieri has been studied and it possesses an interesting phenomenon. Instead of increasing acidity, B. monnieri shows a decreasing value after exposure to SiAR. Analysis by the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique confirmed the presence of Ca and P elements in the B. monnieri herb. So, it is expected that the chemical reactions of AR with the above elements caused neutralization of H2SO4. In the present report, detailed pH, UV-Vis and PIXE analysis of the acid neutralization phenomenon have been reported. © 2014 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

Kalaiselvan P.,Anna University | Nagendran R.,National Green Tribunal | Sivanesan S.,Anna University
Ecology, Environment and Conservation | Year: 2014

Industrialization and urbanization lead to change in land use patterns and increase in utilization of water resources. This paper deals with the study of transformation in spatial distribution of water bodies in a watershed area subjected to urban and industrial development between the years 1995 and 2011. The study area is the Sriperumbudur watershed of Araniyar-Kosathalaiyar (AK) river basin in Tamil Nadu, India. Thematic maps were prepared on the spatial distribution of water bodies using GIS and remote sensing data. Based on this study a negative trend in the change of spatial extent in water bodies was observed between 1995-2005. This trend changed to positive between 2005-2011 resulting in a net reduction of 11.8 % in spatial extent of the water bodies in the watershed between the years 1995 and 2011. Geospatial analysis of the study area has demonstrated that urban and industrial growth that occurred during the time period has lead to a marked transformation in spatial distribution of water bodies. Copyright © EM International.

Nambi A.A.,Ms Swaminathan Research Foundation Mssrf | Bahinipati C.S.,Gujarat Institute of Development Research GIDR | Raghunath R.,Anna University | Nagendran R.,National Green Tribunal
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management | Year: 2015

Purpose – This study aims to provide a methodology for constructing farm household-level adaptation metrics for agriculture and water sectors. The livelihood of farm households is at risk now and in the foreseeable future, as both agriculture and water sectors are vulnerable to climate variability, particularly in developing nations. Adaptation is critical to protect their livelihood. Vulnerable farmers have adopted various adaptation mechanisms to counteract negative impacts of climate variability, though the extent varies temporally and spatially. Design/methodology/approach – It is, therefore, imperative to understand current adaptation practices for successfully implementing them. A few studies have emerged so far in this context, investigating different issues associated with micro-level adaptation strategies related to agriculture and water sectors, e.g. output and cost-effectiveness, and constraints related to farm, household and institutional levels. Findings – While such analysis is critical to enhance micro-level adaptation measures, there is a felt need to formulate adaptation metrics that can investigate the underlying factors in an integrated manner. For empirical assessment, 146 farmers were interviewed from different agro-ecological zones of Tamil Nadu, India, regarding seven adaptation measures, such as micro-irrigation, rainwater harvesting, resistant crops, use of bio-fertilisers, crop insurance, income diversification and community-based efforts. Practical implications – These adaptation measures were evaluated through an Analytical Hierarchy Process using four criteria: effective awareness, economic viability, individual and institutional compatibility and flexibility and independent benefits. Originality/value – The present study provides a methodology to identify barriers that limit implementation of adaptation measures, and enable target-oriented policy measures to promote appropriate adaptation strategies at the local level. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

The "World Culture Festival", organized by one of India's best-known spiritual gurus, Sri Sri Ravi Shankar, spreads across 1,000 acres (400 hectares) on the banks of the Yamuna. It features a 7-acre stage for 35,000 musicians and dancers, newly built dirt tracks and 650 portable toilets. Green groups accuse organizers of ripping up vegetation and ruining the river's fragile ecosystem by damaging its bed and disrupting water flows. They want authorities to cancel the event and avert further harm. "This land is not meant for any of those things. The biodiversity of the land has been completely destroyed," said Anand Arya, one of several environmentalists who petitioned India's top green court. "Where will the sewage and the excrement go? All across the floodplains!" he said, adding that the waste left by visitors would endanger a nearby bird sanctuary. The National Green Tribunal on Wednesday ruled that the event could go ahead but fined Ravi Shankar's Art of Living Foundation 50 million rupees ($744,000). Prime Minister Narendra Modi, a yoga devotee like Ravi Shankar, was due to attend Friday's opening, but it is not clear whether he will do so after the event sparked such uproar - and not just among environmentalists. Delhi police have warned of "utter chaos" at the event unless safety lapses are tackled, the Indian Express said, citing a March 1 letter to the federal government saying the stage lacked a structural stability certificate. Farmers who plough the banks of the river amid Delhi's urban sprawl also accused organizers of forcing them off the land. Ravi Shankar, who enjoys a cult following in India and abroad, has rejected the criticism, saying he should be rewarded for hosting the event beside one of India's most polluted rivers. Saraswati Akshama Nath, the lawyer for his organization, said approvals, including safety certificates, had been given in December before construction began, and the structures would be removed after the three-day festival ends. "Consent was given to us by all the authorities," she told Reuters. "We have only used eco-friendly material." At the site, builders were scrambling to complete what they say is the world's biggest ever performing stage. It can accommodate a symphony orchestra of 8,500 and 20,000 performers, said Prasana Prabhu, a trustee of Ravi Shankar's foundation.

According to an order passed on Wednesday, the registration of sport-utility vehicles and other diesel cars with an engine capacity of 2,000 cc or more is banned in Delhi and the surrounding region with immediate effect until March 31. Delhi's crackdown on diesel cars has unsettled the industry, its salesmen and investors, who warn the ban and uncertainty around it could derail a tentative recovery in Indian sales and leave dealers with forecourts packed with unsold cars. Environmental campaigners and the lawyer who brought the case to the Supreme Court, however, say they want to see the order extended beyond the capital to other smog-choked cities. Daimler AG's Mercedes-Benz, for whom the Delhi region represents almost a quarter of sales in the country, told Reuters the diesel ban and the uncertainty around it would "severely impact" growth plans and future investment in India. "We also have to consider the loss of jobs that this will result (in) at the dealerships, at the vendors producing diesel engines," a spokesman said in an emailed statement, adding its own workers would be affected. The court - which said the order would not hit India's "common man" - stopped short of banning the smaller cars that clog India's roads. But it did also prohibit trucks from passing through the city to reach other states and banned all trucks over 10 years old from the capital. An existing charge imposed on trucks making deliveries to Delhi itself was doubled to up to 2,600 rupees ($39). Other measures include a demand for all taxis in Delhi, mainly those operated by Uber [UBER.UL] and local rival Ola, to replace diesel with natural gas, as well as a broad, immediate ban on burning solid waste. In January, the judges will also consider an application to levy a green tax on all diesel cars sold in the country. Environmentalists have cheered Wednesday's moves, but analysts questioned the detail of the ban. "The (higher truck) levy will just go back to whoever is hiring the trucks. So eventually the consumer ends up paying the levy and inhaling the gas fumes," said Deepesh Rathore, director at consultant Emerging Markets Automotive Advisors. India's National Green Tribunal, an environmental court, last week ordered a ban on the registration of all diesel vehicles for nearly four weeks to help clean up the air in Delhi, one of the world's most polluted cities. That triggered a share price fall among automakers which have invested heavily in diesel technology in India. The drop steepened after the Supreme Court's order. Mahindra & Mahindra, India's top utility-vehicle maker, was one of the biggest losers with shares down 5.5 percent. It said the ban would affect roughly 2 percent of its total monthly sales. Rivals such as Tata Motors and Toyota Motor Corp, the world's top-selling carmaker, also have popular large cars. Greater Delhi contributes 8 percent of Toyota's sales and 80 percent of vehicles sold in this region are diesel. India's auto industry body called for a comprehensive plan, which should include a policy to remove and scrap old vehicles.

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