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Minato-ku, Japan

The Graduate Research Institute for Policy Studies , or GRIPS, is an elite Japanese national university in Minato, Tokyo, founded in 1997. It is one of Asia's most prestigious graduate schools. It is focused on policy studies and research on a diverse range of social disciplines, from local governance to development economics. It also offers programs in security and international affairs, international development studies, and science and technology policies. Wikipedia.

Suzuki M.H.,National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
Clinical calcium | Year: 2013

Osteoporosis associated with anorexia nervosa (AN) is common, and tends to be severe, slow to recover from, and sometimes irreversible. The abnormal bone metabolism in severely emaciated AN patients involves both a reduction in bone formation and an increase in bone resorption. The annual change in lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) is significantly correlated with BMI at the entry. The critical BMI for a positive increase in BMD was 16.4±0.3 kg/m(2). Nutritional improvement with body weight gain is the most important goal of treatment for AN-related osteoporosis since it increases both serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I, a potent osteogenic factor, and estradiol, a powerful bone resorption inhibitor. However, it is difficult for AN patients to accept weight gain. About 50% of AN patients are insufficient of vitamin D and 43% show an increase in plasma undercalboxylated osteocalcin, indicating a deficiency state of the vitamin K(2). Vitamin D(3) or vitamin K(2) (menatetrenone) can prevent further bone loss in severely emaciated AN patients. Recently, bone strength has been evaluated by both BMD and bone quality. Plasma levels of homocysteine, a marker of degradation of bone quality, have significantly positive correlation with their ages of AN patients. We must evaluate bone density as well as bone quality in AN patients.

Adenle A.A.,United International University Dhanmondi | Adenle A.A.,National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2012

Conservation and wise management of biodiversity is critical for better livelihoods, especially in developing countries. Given the failure to achieve the global target set under convention on biological diversity (CBD) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to reduce the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010, developing countries more than ever need better technologies to conserve and manage biodiversity. Despite billions of poor people depending on biodiversity as their main source of health care needs and food the lack of effective strategy or coherent policy instrument for biodiversity conservation remains a key issue. The importance of biodiversity conservation for the benefit of developing countries is inextricably linked to developments in biotechnology, particularly genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The Rio+20 meeting in June 2012 and CBD conference of the parties 11 in October 2012 are the next real opportunities to strengthen existing frameworks and prioritize types of technological innovation to enhance biodiversity conservation and development. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.

Tanaka T.,School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London | Hosoe N.,National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
Food Policy | Year: 2011

Agriculture is the focus of much contention in free trade negotiations. The Japanese government is against liberalizing the rice trade on the grounds that it would threaten " national food security" in the events of such shocks as crop failure and embargoes. Trade liberalization is expected to make the Japanese economy more dependent upon food imports and, thus, more susceptible to these risks. Using a computable general equilibrium model with a Monte Carlo simulation, we quantify the welfare impacts of productivity shocks and export quotas by major rice exporters to Japan and found little evidence of Japan suffering from such shocks. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Tanaka M.,National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies | Chen Y.,University of California at Merced
Energy Economics | Year: 2013

Renewable portfolio standard (RPS), which requires a certain percentage of electricity production from renewables, has received considerable attention. One emerging issue is the possibility of strategic behavior in the renewable energy certificate/credit (REC) market, and its spillover effects on the electricity market. This paper develops dominant firm-competitive fringe models that account for market power. We show that market power could have significant impacts on the REC and power prices. In particular, when a nonrenewable generator is a dominant firm and a renewable generator is a competitive fringe, the nonrenewable firm has a strong incentive to lower the REC price, even to zero for avoiding REC costs. The zero REC price would negate price impacts in the power market, thereby mitigating market power of the dominant firm. However, this could lead to an underinvestment in renewables in the long run as subsidies received by renewables in form of RECs vanish. Therefore, regulatory agencies need to carefully oversee the market performance to ensure a healthy development of renewable industries under the RPS policies. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Suzuki J.,National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
Research Policy | Year: 2011

There is a considerable volume of prior research on the relationship between innovation and patents. Those research studies reveal that patents contain a great deal of noise, and unless a correction is made in terms of the value of individual patents, a simple count of the number of patents does not constitute a very useful indicator. From research that has been conducted for the purpose of finding such an indicator to show the value of individual patents (that is, research to identify the characteristics of valuable patents), many kinds of value indicators have been proposed. Nevertheless, research hitherto has focused primarily on business or private value derived from the possession of patents, and little attention has been paid to value in terms of technical knowledge or social value. In a survey of inventors conducted by RIETI in 2007, terminology describing broad concepts was used when questioning inventors about the value of individual patents, and this has provided an excellent opportunity to analyze the multiple factors lying behind the value of patents and how they impact one another. The purpose of this research is to use data from the RIETI survey of inventors and structural equation modeling methods to elucidate the relationships between the technological and business value of patents, and the latent factors that influence them. The findings show that a scientific-technological motive for inventors would have a positive effect on both the business and technological value, meanwhile, the monetary or promotion motive would not have any direct effects on the value of a patent. The model also suggests that academic linkage would have a strong positive effect on the technological value but a weak negative effect on the business value. Furthermore, these relationships differ more markedly according to technological field. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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