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Foroni L.,London Health Sciences Center | Wilson G.,Sheffield Childrens NHS Foundation Trust | Gerrard G.,London Health Sciences Center | Mason J.,Birmingham Womens Hospital | And 20 more authors.
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2011

Molecular testing for the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the most sensitive routine approach for monitoring the response to therapy of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. In the context of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy, the technique is most appropriate for patients who have achieved complete cytogenetic remission and can be used to define specific therapeutic milestones. To achieve this effectively, standardization of the laboratory procedures and the interpretation of results are essential. We present here consensus best practice guidelines for RT-qPCR testing, data interpretation and reporting that have been drawn up and agreed by a consortium of 21 testing laboratories in the United Kingdom and Ireland in accordance with the procedures of the UK Clinical Molecular Genetics Society. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Miller D.T.,Childrens Hospital Boston | Adam M.P.,Emory University | Adam M.P.,University of Washington | Aradhya S.,GeneDx | And 29 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2010

Chromosomal microarray (CMA) is increasingly utilized for genetic testing of individuals with unexplained developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), or multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Performing CMA and G-banded karyotyping on every patient substantially increases the total cost of genetic testing. The International Standard Cytogenomic Array (ISCA) Consortium held two international workshops and conducted a literature review of 33 studies, including 21,698 patients tested by CMA. We provide an evidence-based summary of clinical cytogenetic testing comparing CMA to G-banded karyotyping with respect to technical advantages and limitations, diagnostic yield for various types of chromosomal aberrations, and issues that affect test interpretation. CMA offers a much higher diagnostic yield (15%-20%) for genetic testing of individuals with unexplained DD/ID, ASD, or MCA than a G-banded karyotype (∼3%, excluding Down syndrome and other recognizable chromosomal syndromes), primarily because of its higher sensitivity for submicroscopic deletions and duplications. Truly balanced rearrangements and low-level mosaicism are generally not detectable by arrays, but these are relatively infrequent causes of abnormal phenotypes in this population (<1%). Available evidence strongly supports the use of CMA in place of G-banded karyotyping as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for patients with DD/ID, ASD, or MCA. G-banded karyotype analysis should be reserved for patients with obvious chromosomal syndromes (e.g., Down syndrome), a family history of chromosomal rearrangement, or a history of multiple miscarriages. © 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics.

PubMed | National Genetics Reference Laboratory Wessex
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical chemistry | Year: 2010

Indirect alternatives to sequencing as a method for mutation scanning are of interest to diagnostic laboratories because they have the potential for considerable savings in both time and costs. Ideally, such methods should be simple, rapid, and highly sensitive, and they should be validated formally to a very high standard. Currently, most reported methods lack one or more of these characteristics. We describe the optimization and validation of conformation-sensitive capillary electrophoresis (CSCE) for diagnostic mutation scanning.We initially optimized the performance of CSCE with a systematic panel of plasmid-based controls. We then compared manual analysis by visual inspection with automated analysis by BioNumerics software (Applied Maths) in a blinded interlaboratory validation with 402 BRCA1 (breast cancer 1, early onset) and BRCA2 (breast cancer 1, early onset) variants previously characterized by Sanger sequencing.With automated analysis, we demonstrated a sensitivity of >99% (95% CI), which is indistinguishable from the sensitivity for conventional sequencing by capillary electrophoresis. The 95% CI for specificity was 90%-93%; thus, CSCE greatly reduces the number of fragments that need to be sequenced to fully characterize variants. By manual analysis, the 95% CIs for sensitivity and specificity were 98.3%-99.4% and 93.1%-95.5%, respectively.CSCE is amenable to a high degree of automation, and analyses can be multiplexed to increase both capacity and throughput. We conclude that once it is optimized, CSCE combined with analysis with BioNumerics software is a highly sensitive and cost-effective mutation-scanning technique suitable for routine genetic diagnostic analysis of heterozygous nucleotide substitutions, small insertions, and deletions.

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