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Zoi K.,Academy of Athens | Cross N.C.P.,National Genetics Reference Laboratory Wessex | Cross N.C.P.,University of Southampton
International Journal of Hematology | Year: 2015

According to the 2008 WHO classification, the category of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) includes atypical chronic myeloid leukaemia (aCML), chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML), MDS/MPN-unclassifiable (MDS/MPN-U), juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML) and a “provisional” entity, refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis (RARS-T). The remarkable progress in our understanding of the somatic pathogenesis of MDS/MPN has made it clear that there is considerable overlap among these diseases at the molecular level, as well as layers of unexpected complexity. Deregulation of signalling plays an important role in many cases, and is clearly linked to more highly proliferative disease. Other mutations affect a range of other essential, interrelated cellular mechanisms, including epigenetic regulation, RNA splicing, transcription, and DNA damage response. The various combinations of mutations indicate a multi-step pathogenesis, which likely contributes to the marked clinical heterogeneity of these disorders. The delineation of complex clonal architectures may serve as the cornerstone for the identification of novel therapeutic targets and lead to better patient outcomes. This review summarizes some of the current knowledge of molecular pathogenetic lesions in the MDS/MPN subtypes that are seen in adults: atypical CML, CMML and MDS/MPN-U. © 2014, The Japanese Society of Hematology. Source

Docherty L.E.,Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory | Docherty L.E.,University of Southampton | Poole R.L.,Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory | Poole R.L.,University of Southampton | And 5 more authors.
Diabetologia | Year: 2010

Aims/hypothesis: Transient neonatal diabetes (TND) is associated with overexpression of genes within a critical region on 6q24. This study aims to refine the boundaries of this region to reduce the number of potential candidate genes for 6q24 TND. Methods: Fifteen patients with transient neonatal diabetes and submicroscopic chromosome 6 duplications were investigated. The duplications were confirmed by microsatellite analysis and subsequently mapped using tiled chromosome 6 array Comparative Genomic Hybridisation (aCGH) and MLPA. Duplication boundaries were compared to identify the minimal shared region of duplication. These data were then used with available clinical data to identify associations between size of 6q24 duplication and severity of TND phenotype. Results: Alignment of the minimal region of duplication to the human genome reduced the minimal TND critical region, formerly estimated at 440 kb, to 160-173 kb, revealing PLAGL1 (pleiomorphic adenoma gene-like 1) and HYMAI (imprinted in hydatidiform mole) to be the only genes wholly included therein. Additionally, the complete paternal duplication of a region containing the theoretical protein FAM164B was associated with the severe growth restriction observed in 6q24 duplication patients. Conclusions/interpretation: This study has significantly reduced the critical region associated with 6q24 TND. It has eliminated several previous TND candidate genes, leaving the overlapping imprinted genes PLAGL1 and HYMAI as the only remaining complete candidate genes for 6q24 TND. Moreover, these data provide the first evidence that an additional region, encompassing the theoretical protein FAM164B, may have a critical role in the growth restriction phenotype observed in many 6q24 TND patients. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Mattocks C.J.,National Genetics Reference Laboratory Wessex | Morris M.A.,Geneva Lab | Matthijs G.,Center for Human Genetics EuroGentest | Swinnen E.,Center for Human Genetics EuroGentest | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2010

The validation and verification of laboratory methods and procedures before their use in clinical testing is essential for providing a safe and useful service to clinicians and patients. This paper outlines the principles of validation and verification in the context of clinical human molecular genetic testing. We describe implementation processes, types of tests and their key validation components, and suggest some relevant statistical approaches that can be used by individual laboratories to ensure that tests are conducted to defined standards. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Barber J.C.K.,University of Southampton | Huang S.,National Genetics Reference Laboratory Wessex | Bateman M.S.,Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory | Collins A.L.,University of Southampton
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2011

The central portion of the short arm of chromosome 5 is unusual in that large, cytogenetically visible interstitial deletions segregate in families with and without phenotypic consequences. Here we present a family in which a transmitted interstitial deletion of 5p13.3 to 5p14.3 co-segregated with learning and/or behavioral difficulties in six family members. Facial dysmorphism was not striking but a father and daughter both had lacrimal fistulae. The deletion was 12.23Mb in size (chr5:20,352,535-32,825,775) and contained fifteen known protein coding genes. Five of these (GOLPH3; MTMR12; ZFR; SUB1; and NPR3) and an ultra-conserved microRNA (hsa-miR-579) were present in an 883kb candidate gene region in 5p13.3 that was deleted in the present family but not in previously reported overlapping benign deletions. Members of the cadherin precursor gene cluster, with brain specific expression, were deleted in both affected and benign deletion families. The candidate genes in 5p13.3 may be sufficient to account for the consistent presence or absence of phenotype in medial 5p deletions. However, we consider the possibility of position effects in which CDH6, and/or other cadherin genes, become penetrant when adjacent genes, or modifiers of gene expression, are also deleted. This could account for the absence of intellectual disability in benign deletions of the cadherin cluster, the cognitive phenotype in medial 5p deletion syndrome and the greater severity of intellectual disability in patients with cri-du-chat syndrome and deletions of 5p15 that extend into the region deleted in the present family. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Hill M.,University College London | Barrett A.N.,University College London | Barrett A.N.,NE Thames Regional Service Laboratories | White H.,National Genetics Reference Laboratory Wessex | Chitty L.S.,University College London
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2012

For over a decade, researchers have focused their attention on the development of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis tests based on cell-free fetal DNA circulating in maternal blood. With the possibility of earlier and safer testing, non-invasive prenatal diagnosis has the potential to bring many positive benefits to prenatal diagnosis. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for fetal sex determination for women who are carriers of sex-linked conditions is now firmly established in clinical practice. Other non-invasive prenatal diagnosis-based tests are set to follow, as future applications, such as the detection of single-gene disorders and chromosomal abnormalities, are now well within reach. Here, we review recent developments in non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for genetic conditions and chromosomal abnormalities, and provide an overview of research into ethical concerns, social issues and stakeholder view points. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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