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Maurice-Van Eijndhoven M.H.T.,Animal Breeding and Genomics Center | Maurice-Van Eijndhoven M.H.T.,Wageningen University | Maurice-Van Eijndhoven M.H.T.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | Soyeurt H.,University of Liege | And 3 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy to predict detailed fatty acid (FA) composition of bovine milk by mid-infrared spectrometry, for a cattle population that partly differed in terms of country, breed and methodology used to measure actual FA composition compared with the calibration data set. Calibration equations for predicting FA composition using mid-infrared spectrometry were developed in the European project RobustMilk and based on 1236 milk samples from multiple cattle breeds from Ireland, Scotland and the Walloon Region of Belgium. The validation data set contained 190 milk samples from cows in the Netherlands across four breeds: Dutch Friesian, Meuse-Rhine-Yssel, Groningen White Headed (GWH) and Jersey (JER). The FA measurements were performed using gas-liquid partition chromatography (GC) as the gold standard. Some FAs and groups of FAs were not considered because of differences in definition, as the capillary column of the GC was not the same as used to develop the calibration equations. Differences in performance of the calibration equations between breeds were mainly found by evaluating the standard error of validation and the average prediction error. In general, for the GWH breed the smallest differences were found between predicted and reference GC values and least variation in prediction errors, whereas for JER the largest differences were found between predicted and reference GC values and most variation in prediction errors. For the individual FAs 4:0, 6:0, 8:0, 10:0, 12:0, 14:0 and 16:0 and the groups' saturated FAs, short-chain FAs and medium-chain FAs, predictions assessed for all breeds together were highly accurate (validation R 2 > 0.80) with limited bias. For the individual FAs cis-14:1, cis-16:1 and 18:0, the calibration equations were moderately accurate (R 2 in the range of 0.60 to 0.80) and for the individual FA 17:0 predictions were less accurate (R 2 < 0.60) with considerable bias. FA concentrations in the validation data set of our study were generally higher than those in the calibration data. This difference in the range of FA concentrations, mainly due to breed differences in our study, can cause lower accuracy. In conclusion, the RobustMilk calibration equations can be used to predict most FAs in milk from the four breeds in the Netherlands with only a minor loss of accuracy. © The Animal Consortium 2012. Source


Canor T.,University of Liege | Canor T.,National Fund for Scientific Research | Blaise N.,University of Liege | Denoel V.,University of Liege
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2012

The use of normal modes of vibration in the analysis of structures with non-proportional damping reduces the size of the resulting set of governing equations, but does not decouple them. A common practice consists in decoupling the equations by disregarding the off-diagonal elements in the modal damping matrix. Recently, an approximation based on an asymptotic expansion of the modal transfer matrix has been proposed in a deterministic framework to partially account for off-diagonal terms, but still with a set of uncoupled equations. This paper aims at extending this method in a stochastic context. First the mathematical background is introduced and the method is illustrated with a simple example. Then its relevance is demonstrated within the context of the structural analysis of a large and realistic structure. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Lobier M.,Pierre Mendes-France University | Dubois M.,Free University of Colombia | Dubois M.,National Fund for Scientific Research | Valdois S.,Pierre Mendes-France University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

A steady increase in reading speed is the hallmark of normal reading acquisition. However, little is known of the influence of visual attention capacity on children's reading speed. The number of distinct visual elements that can be simultaneously processed at a glance (dubbed the visual attention span), predicts single-word reading speed in both normal reading and dyslexic children. However, the exact processes that account for the relationship between the visual attention span and reading speed remain to be specified. We used the Theory of Visual Attention to estimate visual processing speed and visual short-term memory capacity from a multiple letter report task in eight and nine year old children. The visual attention span and text reading speed were also assessed. Results showed that visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity predicted the visual attention span. Furthermore, visual processing speed predicted reading speed, but visual short term memory capacity did not. Finally, the visual attention span mediated the effect of visual processing speed on reading speed. These results suggest that visual attention capacity could constrain reading speed in elementary school children. © 2013 Lobier et al. Source


Heeren A.,Catholic University of Louvain | Heeren A.,National Fund for Scientific Research | Reese H.E.,Massachusetts General Hospital | McNally R.J.,Harvard University | Philippot P.,Catholic University of Louvain
Behaviour Research and Therapy | Year: 2012

Social phobics exhibit an attentional bias for threat in probe detection and probe discrimination paradigms. Attention training programs, in which probes always replace nonthreatening cues, reduce attentional bias for threat and self-reported social anxiety. However, researchers have seldom included behavioral measures of anxiety reduction, and have never taken physiological measures of anxiety reduction. In the present study, we trained individuals with generalized social phobia (n = 57) to attend to threat cues (attend to threat), to attend to positive cues (attend to positive), or to alternately attend to both (control condition). We assessed not only self-reported social anxiety, but also behavioral and physiological measures of social anxiety. Participants trained to attend to nonthreatening cues demonstrated significantly greater reductions in self-reported, behavioral, and physiological measures of anxiety than did participants from the attend to threat and control conditions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Alpan A.,Free University of Colombia | Maryn Y.,Sint Jan General Hospital | Kacha A.,Free University of Colombia | Grenez F.,Free University of Colombia | And 2 more authors.
Speech Communication | Year: 2011

The objective is to analyse vocal dysperiodicities in connected speech produced by dysphonic speakers. The analysis involves a variogram-based method that enables tracking instantaneous vocal dysperiodicities. The dysperiodicity trace is summarized by means of the signal-to-dysperiodicity ratio, which has been shown to correlate strongly with the perceived degree of hoarseness of the speaker. Previously, this method has been evaluated on small corpora only. In this article, analyses have been carried out on two corpora comprising over 250 and 700 speakers. This has enabled carrying out multi-frequency band and multi-cue analyses without risking overfitting. The analysis results are compared to the cepstral peak prominence, which is a popular cue that indirectly summarizes vocal dysperiodicities frame-wise. A perceptual rating has been available for the first corpus whereas speakers in the second corpus have been categorized as normal or pathological only. For the first corpus, results show that the correlation with perceptual scores increases statistically significantly for multi-band analysis compared to conventional full-band analysis. Also, combining the cepstral peak prominence with the low-frequency band signal-to-dysperiodicity ratio statistically significantly increases their combined correlation with perceptual scores. The signal-to-dysperiodicity ratios of the two corpora have been separately submitted to principal component analysis. The results show that the first two principal components are interpretable in terms of the degree of dysphonia and the spectral slope, respectively. The clinical relevance of the principal components has been confirmed by linear discriminant analysis. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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