National Forestry Resources Research Institute NaFORRI

Kampala, Uganda

National Forestry Resources Research Institute NaFORRI

Kampala, Uganda
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Kadu C.A.C.,Federal Research and Training Center for Forests | Kadu C.A.C.,Kenyatta University | Konrad H.,Federal Research and Training Center for Forests | Schueler S.,Federal Research and Training Center for Forests | And 11 more authors.
Annals of Botany | Year: 2013

Background and AimsAfromontane forest ecosystems share a high similarity of plant and animal biodiversity, although they occur mainly on isolated mountain massifs throughout the continent. This resemblance has long provoked questions on former wider distribution of Afromontane forests. In this study Prunus africana (one of the character trees of Afromontane forests) is used as a model for understanding the biogeography of this vegetation zone.MethodsThirty natural populations from nine African countries covering a large part of Afromontane regions were analysed using six nuclear microsatellites. Standard population genetic analysis as well as Bayesian and maximum likelihood models were used to infer genetic diversity, population differentiation, barriers to gene flow, and recent and all migration among populations.Key ResultsPrunus africana exhibits strong divergence among five main Afromontane regions: West Africa, East Africa west of the Eastern Rift Valley (ERV), East Africa east of the ERV, southern Africa and Madagascar. The strongest divergence was evident between Madagascar and continental Africa. Populations from West Africa showed high similarity with East African populations west of the ERV, whereas populations east of the ERV are closely related to populations of southern Africa, respectively. ConclusionsThe observed patterns indicate divergent population history across the continent most likely associated to Pleistocene changes in climatic conditions. The high genetic similarity between populations of West Africa with population of East Africa west of the ERV is in agreement with faunistic and floristic patterns and provides further evidence for a historical migration route. Contrasting estimates of recent and historical gene flow indicate a shift of the main barrier to gene flow from the Lake Victoria basin to the ERV, highlighting the dynamic environmental and evolutionary history of the region. © 2012 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved.

Kadu C.A.C.,Federal Research Center for Forests | Schueler S.,Federal Research Center for Forests | Konrad H.,Federal Research Center for Forests | Muluvi G.M.M.,Kenyatta University | And 10 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2011

Scattered populations of the same tree species in montane forests through Africa have led to speculations on the origins of distributions. Here, we inferred the colonization history of the Afromontane tree Prunus africana using seven chloroplast DNA loci to study 582 individuals from 32 populations sampled in a range-wide survey from across Africa, revealing 22 haplotypes. The predominant haplotype, HT1a, occurred in 13 populations of eastern and southern Africa, while a second common haplotype, HT1m, occurred in populations of western Uganda and western Africa. The high differentiation observed between populations in East Africa was unexpected, with stands in western Uganda belonging with the western African lineage. High genetic differentiation among populations revealed using ordered alleles (NST = 0.840) compared with unordered alleles (GST = 0.735), indicated a clear phylogeographic pattern. Bayesian coalescence modelling suggested that 'east' and 'west' African types likely split early during southward migration of the species, while further more recent splitting events occurred among populations in the East of the continent. The high genetic similarity found between western Uganda and west African populations indicates that a former Afromontane migration corridor may have existed through Equatorial Africa. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Gwali S.,Makerere University | Gwali S.,National Forestry Resources Research Institute NaFORRI | Nakabonge G.,Makerere University | Okullo J.B.L.,Makerere University | And 3 more authors.
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2012

Vitellaria paradoxa C. Gaertn. (shea butter tree) is an indigenous African tree species that is widely distributed in the dry areas of northern and eastern Uganda. The species is widely known for its oil which is used in cooking, cosmetics and traditional medicine. Local folk classification recognises the presence of different ethno-varieties on the basis of fruit and nut characters. In the present study, 176 trees representing 44 ethno-varieties from three farming systems of Uganda were assessed to determine the patterns of morphological variation and establish the congruence between morphological variation and folk classification. The results show high variation in pulp weight (CV = 35.9 %), stem diameter (CV = 28.48 %), fruit weight (CV = 27.81 %) and canopy diameter (CV = 26.69 %). There was a strong positive correlation between pulp and fruit weight (r = 0.963, p < 0.001), leaf length and leaf width (r = 0.652, p <0.001) and between petiole length and leaf length (r = 0.788, p < 0.001). There was no underlying quantitative morphological structuring among the 44 ethno-varieties. Hierarchical cluster analysis using quantitative morphometric data produced three groups without clear aggregation based on ethnographic or geographic separation. However, a combination with qualitative traits as perceived by farmers provided good congruence with folk classification. Quantitative morphological data alone does not resolve any discrete forms of V. paradoxa that are related to folk classification. There is need to utilise biochemical and molecular markers to unravel the underlying variation for use in selection and improvement of shea butter tree ethno-varieties. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Gwali S.,Makerere University | Gwali S.,National Forestry Resources Research Institute NaFORRI | Okullo J.B.L.,Makerere University | Eilu G.,Makerere University | And 3 more authors.
Environment, Development and Sustainability | Year: 2012

Traditional practices are universally recognised as a basis for conservation of biodiversity. However, such practices are often not included in natural resource conservation policies. This study assessed local conservation practices of shea trees (Vitellaria paradoxa) within different farming systems in Uganda and developed conservation guidelines for the species. The assessment involved 300 respondents, 15 focus groups and 41 key informants. Content analysis was used to identify the most important management and conservation practices. Local uses were categorised on the basis of shea tree products while differences in conservation practices were analysed using the Friedman test. The results show that eight shea tree products are used for 36 different purposes. Respondents' age significantly influenced their knowledge about the shea tree. Traditional conservation practices include on-farm retention during cultivation and the use of folklore (mainly taboos), customs and rituals. Traditional management practices include weeding, bush burning, pollarding and pruning. Based on the current management and traditional conservation practices, a framework for the conservation of shea trees is proposed for integration into conservation policy decisions. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Gwali S.,Makerere University | Gwali S.,National Forestry Resources Research Institute NaFORRI | Nakabonge G.,Makerere University | Okullo J.B.L.,Makerere University | And 4 more authors.
Forests Trees and Livelihoods | Year: 2012

Fat content and fatty acid composition are important nutritional properties of shea fruits. Farmers in Uganda report the presence of local shea tree ethno-varieties, but it is necessary to investigate their relative fat content and fatty acid composition to evaluate the economic importance of these ethno-varieties. Near infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) was used to determine the fat content as well as the fatty acid composition of 44 ethno-varieties. Wet chemistry (soxtec petroleum - ether fat extraction and gas chromatography) methods were used to validate the results from NIRS. Fat content ranged from 43.9% to 58.4% while fatty acid composition was dominated by oleic (47-62%) and stearic acid (25-38%). Other fatty acids present were palmitic, vaccenic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic acids. There was no significant difference in stearic, palmitic and oleic acid composition between ethno-varieties. However, significant variation of fat content, vaccenic and linoleic acids was observed between some ethno-varieties, perhaps due to locality, climatic and tree-totree differences. These findings can be utilized for the selection of ethno-varieties that are suitable for commercial production of shea oil in Uganda. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.

Shaban K.S.,Makerere University | Okumu J.O.,Makerere University | Paul O.,National Forestry Resources Research Institute NaFoRRI | Joseph O.,Makerere University
Forests Trees and Livelihoods | Year: 2015

Mt. Elgon ecosystem is one of the most important watersheds in the East African region rich in biodiversity but extremely fragile and vulnerable to degradation effects such as landslides and soil erosion with heavy negative impact on local peoples’ livelihoods. Farmers carry out tree and grass planting in an effort to manage forest, soil, and water. In 2013, we assessed the influence of community-based organizations (CBOs) on on-farm trees and grass planting around Mt. Elgon National Park (MENP) with the aim of determining its impact on the community forestry strategy. Data were collected from 364 households in 52 villages and entered in MS excel. R statistical environment was used to perform Redundancy Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering of planted species outside forest, among other analysis. The presence of functional community-based organizations (F1,119 = 9.08, p < 0.001), respondents training (F1,119 = 2.28, p < 0.028), and landholding (F1,119 = 1.99, p < 0.048) was found to significantly influence trees and grass planting around MENP. It is recommended that more CBOs be formed to increase community participation and effectiveness in on-farm trees and grass planting in order to increase environmental services benefits. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

Mwanja C.,National Forestry Resources Research Institute NaFORRI | Mugabi P.,Makerere University | Banana A.Y.,Makerere University
European Journal of Wood and Wood Products | Year: 2016

In this study, the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of three Ficus species growing in Uganda were determined. Basic density and water absorption rate were (0.33 g/cm3, 134) in Ficus natalensis, (0.32 g/cm3, 137) in Ficus thonningii and (0.28 g/cm3, 145) in Ficus glumosa, respectively. Lignin content and tensile strength were highest in the bark of F. natalensis, and lowest in F. glumosa while cellulose content was highest in the bark of F. glumosa and lowest in F. natalensis. Based on the results, the bark is not suitable for use in industries such as paper manufacturing, where lignin is undesirable, but it can be used in manufacture of dyes and adhesives. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Agaba H.,National Forestry Resources Research Institute NaFORRI | Orikiriza L.J.B.,Makerere University | Esegu J.F.O.,National Forestry Resources Research Institute NaFORRI | Obua J.,Makerere University | And 2 more authors.
Clean - Soil, Air, Water | Year: 2010

Dedicated to Aloys Hüttermann, to his honor and memory The effect of super absorbent polyacrylate (SAP) hydrogel amendment to different soil types on plant available water (PAW), evapotranspiration and survival of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus citriodora, Pinus caribaea, Araucaria cunninghamii, Melia volkensii, Grevil-lea robusta, Azadirachta indica, Maesopsis eminii and Terminalia superba was investigated. The seedlings were potted in 3 kg size polythene bags filled with sand, loam, silt loam, sandy loam and clay soils, amended at 0 (control), 0.2 and 0.4% w/w hydrogel. The tree seedlings were allowed to grow normally with routine uniform watering in a glass house set up for a period of eight weeks, after which they were subjected to drought conditions by not watering any further. The 0.4% hydrogel amendment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the PAW by a factor of about three in sand, two fold in silt loam and one fold in sandy loam, loam and clay soils compared to the control. Similarly, the addition of either 0.2 or 0.4% hydrogel to the five soil types resulted in prolonged tree survival compared to the controls. Araucaria cunninghammi survived longest at 153 days, while Maesopsis eminii survived least (95 days) in sand amended at 0.4% after subjection to desiccation. Evapotranspiration was reduced in eight of the nine tree species grown in sandy loam, loam, silt loam and clay soils amended at 0.4% hydrogel. It is probable that soil amendment with SAP decreased the hydraulic soil conductivity that might reduce plant transpiration and soil evaporation. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Turinawe H.,National Forestry Resources Research Institute NaFORRI | Mugabi P.,Makerere University | Tweheyo M.,Makerere University
Maderas: Ciencia y Tecnologia | Year: 2014

This study was done to ascertain the suitability of Uganda's clonal eucalypts for fuelwood. The objectives were to determine: (i) basic density (BD); (ii) calorific value (CV); and (iii) cleavage resistance (CLR) parallel to the grain of widely adopted clones i.e. GU7, GU8, GC540, GC550 and GC796 and to compare these properties with those of their parent materials; i.e. Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus cammaldulensis, and Eucalyptus urophylla. Tests were done according to BS373(1957) and ASTM:E870-82(2006) procedures. Clone GC540 showed the highest BD (664kg/m3), GU7 had the highest CV (17800kJ/kg), GU7 and GC540 had higher values for CLR (20N/mm). BD and CLR means were in-between parent material means for GC clones. All clones had lower values of CV compared to parent materials. It was concluded that clonal wood at 6-7 years remains a viable alternative for fuelwood due to high volume increment per unit time and moderate CLR values to allow ease of splitting.

Gwali S.,National Forestry Resources Research Institute NaFORRI | Agaba H.,National Forestry Resources Research Institute NaFORRI | Balitta P.,National Forestry Resources Research Institute NaFORRI | Hafashimana D.,Bulindi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute BuZARDI | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystems Services and Management | Year: 2015

Coffee production in Uganda is done on small-scale farms containing a very significant tree component. However, there is little information on how tree species abundance, richness and diversity change in coffee farms as distance from forest changes. The main objectives of this study, therefore, were to assess (a) abundance and (b) diversity of tree species in the coffee production systems in proximity to disturbed and undisturbed forest around Mabira forest, one of Ugandas Robusta coffee-growing areas. Seventy-nine 0.1 ha plots were established in nine villages close to undisturbed and disturbed forest, and over 5 km from the forest. A total of 875 trees belonging to 63 species were recorded. There was significant similarity in species composition among the three study sites (analysis of similarity R = 0.09, p < 0.01; analysis of variance: F3,12 = 0.353, p = 0.79). Non-metric dimensional scaling supported these findings (stress value = 0.224 at k = 2) and showed that tree species composition in the three proximity categories was very similar. These results demonstrate that tree species composition and diversity is similar in coffee farms regardless of their distance from the nearest natural forest and forest exploitation history. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

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