National Forestry Center

Zvolen, Slovakia

National Forestry Center

Zvolen, Slovakia

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Foff V.,Forest Information Agency | Weiser F.,Institute For Forstgenetik | Foffova E.,National Forestry Center | Gomory D.,Technical University In Zvolen
Silvae Genetica | Year: 2014

The study focuses on growth responses of Larix decidua provenances to climatic transfer based on a regional provenance experiment. This comprises a series of 5 trial plots situated in Germany and Slovakia, where 12 indigenous Sudetic and West-Carpathian larch provenances are planted. Transfer rates were defined as differences in altitudes or climatic variables between the site of plantation and the site of origin. 1st and 2nd-order polynomial regressions were used for the identification of overall trends of growth performance and responses to transfer. Sudetic provenances clearly outperformed the Carpathian ones on all test sites. When all provenances were considered jointly, height and breast-height diameter mostly showed significant monotonous geographical and climatic trends: the performance generally decreased with increasing altitude and precipitations and decreasing temperatures. The relationships between growth response and transfer rates (ecodistances) were mostly linear. However, when Sudetic and Carpathian provenances were considered separately, most significant response curves were unimodal. There is a very good correspondence between the responses in height and diameter growth within geographic groups, but the responses are not consistent between groups. Joint regression analysis showed that most provenances exhibited average stability. Stability indices are quite consistent between the response traits and did not show any association with the geographical position, climate of origin, or growth performance. The results indicate that populations in different climates remain adapted to a common optimum, the extent of local adaptation is quite limited. Possible explanations of this observation are briefly discussed.


Gomory D.,Technical University In Zvolen | Longauer R.,National Forestry Center | Paule L.,Technical University In Zvolen | Krajmerova D.,Technical University In Zvolen | Schmidtova J.,Technical University In Zvolen
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2010

The study focuses on geographical patterns of genetic variation at allozyme loci common for four main tree species of Central Europe (Norway spruce, silver fir, common beech and sessile oak). Moving-window averaging of four indicators of allelic richness and diversity (proportion of polymorphic loci, mean number of alleles per locus, effective number of alleles and expected heterozygosity) with window size of 50 × 50 km was used to identify the patterns. Moreover, local genetic divergence was assessed using the GST (Nei, Molecular population genetic and evolution, Amsterdam and Oxford, North-Holland, 1975) and Dj (Gregorius and Roberds, Theor Appl Genet 71:826-834, 1986) statistics for common beech and silver fir, where raw genotype data were available. Spatial patterns of diversity and allelic richness were quite similar. Romanian Carpathians were identified as the most important hotspot of genetic diversity and evolutionary divergence in Central Europe. Implications for genetic conservation are briefly discussed. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Gomory D.,Technical University In Zvolen | Longauer R.,National Forestry Center | Hlasny T.,National Forestry Center | Pacalaj M.,National Forestry Center | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2012

Responses of Norway spruce populations to climatic transfer, in terms of growth and survival, were analyzed on the basis of a provenance experiment derived from the international provenance test IUFRO 1964/1968. The experiment comprises a series of five trial plots situated at contrasting elevations ranging from 484 to 1,275 m a. s. l., with 11 provenances represented at all trial plots that were used for the analysis. Transfer rates were defined as differences in altitudes or climatic variables between the site of plantation and the site of origin. Optimal transfer rates and optimal climates for individual provenances were derived from quadratic response functions. Spruce provenances generally responded positively by height and volume growth to transfer into lower altitudes, i. e., warmer conditions with less precipitations. The analysis at the level of provenances showed that optimal transfer rates were consistently negatively correlated with the underlying environmental variables and optimal climates were consequently nearly the same for all provenances irrespective of the response traits and ecodistance variables. Stability indices based on joint regression analysis indicate that provenances from higher altitudes, colder and wetter climates tend to be more stable, whereas provenances from lower altitudes, drier and warmer sites are more responsive to site quality. However, the differences in the stability are small and stability indices were generally close to 1. The results indicate that populations in different climates remain adapted to a common optimum and the extent of local adaptation is quite limited. Possible explanations of this observation are briefly discussed. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Gomory D.,Technical University In Zvolen | Paule L.,Technical University In Zvolen | Krajmerova D.,Technical University In Zvolen | Romsakova I.,Technical University In Zvolen | Longauer R.,National Forestry Center
Plant Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2012

Genetic exchange between divergent lineages of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) was studied in the Ukrainian Carpathians where two expanding populations originating from different glacial refugia meet. The study included 33 silver fir populations from Ukraine, Romania and Slovakia which were investigated using the maternally inherited mitochondrial nad5-4 marker and biparentally inherited nuclear microsatellites. The boundary between mitochondrial lineages is very sharp; only six populations containing a mixture of different haplotypes were found. Bayesian analysis of population structure based on seven nSSR loci revealed the existence of two clusters which coincided fairly well with mitochondrial lineages. Both haplotype frequencies and proportions of clusters identified by the Bayesian analysis exhibited a clinal transition over the contact zone, with cline widths of 17.6 km for mitochondrial haplotype frequencies (reflecting gene flow by seeds) and 119.6 km for Bayesian clusters based on nSSR (reflecting gene flow by pollen). Allelic richness and gene diversity differ significantly between mitochondrial lineages, the Balkan group being more variable, but an increase in gene diversity towards the boundary between lineages was observed only within the Balkan lineage. The observed patterns are suggested to reflect the postglacial colonization and historical gene flow. They demonstrated that in silver fir as a wind-dispersed species, the colonization front is quite continuous, and the survival of migrant seeds in already established populations is low. The relative contribution of pollen-mediated gene flow to genetic exchange between divergent lineages associated with glacial refugia is much higher than in the case of seeds, but pollen dispersal distance is lower than suggested by earlier studies. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Repac I.,Technical University In Zvolen | Tucekova A.,National Forestry Center | Sarvasova I.,Technical University In Zvolen | Vencurik J.,Technical University In Zvolen
Journal of Forest Science | Year: 2011

Bareroot and containerized seedlings (seedling type) of Norway spruce, Scots pine, European larch, European beech, and sycamore maple were outplanted in autumn 2008 and in spring 2009. Roots of a half of the seedlings were dipped into the commercial fungal product Ectovit prior to spring outplanting. Fifty seedlings were planted for each tree species and seedling type in each of 3 treatments (Autumn, Spring, Spring+Ectovit) and 3 replications (4,500 seedlings in total). Eighty-one per cent of containerized and 75% of bareroot seedlings (most - 89% of bareroot spruce, least - 59% of bareroot pine seedlings) survived after the first growing season. Planting time and Ectovit did not have a marked effect on survival, with the exception of the lower survival of containerized beech and spruce in autumn than in spring. The most extensive damage caused by game and mechanical weed control was found out in both broadleaves; most of the dry leading shoots occurred in beech. Besides beech, higher annual height increment of seedlings was observed in autumn than in spring planting time. Effect of Ectovit on seedling growth was not obvious.


Capuliak J.,National Forestry Center | Pichler V.,Universitatstrasse 16 | Fluhler H.,Dep. of Environmental science | Pichlerova M.,National Forestry Center | Homolak M.,Technical University
Vadose Zone Journal | Year: 2010

Silvicultural operations increasingly aim to achieve desired water-related ecological services of forests and forest soils. Therefore, the effects of forest stand density, site, and soil depth on the water flow types were studied by conducting dye tracer experiments in two montane beech (Fagus sylvati ca L.) forests located in the Western Carpathian Volcanic Range, Central Slovakia. Prevalent flow types were identi filed under usual weather condi-tions. Brilliant Blue FCF dye tracer was periodically applied in powder form on 1-m 2 plots in forest stands with natural and reduced stand densities, as well as in clear-cuts. When cumulati ve precipitati on reached approximately 100 mm, soil pits were excavated. The dye patterns on the exposed profi les were photographed, and dye coverage, relative dye concentra ti on, and stain widths were determined at various soil depths using image analysis. These patterns were used to discriminate two flow types. Continuous verti cal dye plumes were interpreted as an indicator of surface-controlled flow type, which includes heterogeneous infi ltrati on and macropore flow. The matrix-controlled flow type includes both homogeneous and heterogeneous matrix flow, as well as fingering. The log-linear analysis revealed that forest stand density and soil depth were signifi cantly related to the soil water flow type. Preferenti al flow resulted from heterogeneous infiltrati on and fingering in the clear-cuts, from heterogeneous infiltrati on in the natural stands, and from macropore flow in the shelterwood stands. Disti nct humus forms and skeleton fraction played a crucial role for various flow patterns observed in these beech stands. © Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.


Lichner L'.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Capuliak J.,National Forestry Center | Zhukova N.,Nodia Institute of Geophysics | Holko L.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Biologia (Poland) | Year: 2013

Pines, used for sand dune stabilization, can influence the hydrophysical parameters and water flow in an aeolian sandy soil considerably, mainly due to soil water repellency. Two sites, separated by distance of about 20 m, formed the basis of our study. A control soil ("Pure sand") with limited impact of vegetation or organic matter was formed at 50 cm depth beneath a forest glade area. This was compared to a "Forest soil" in a 30-year old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest. Most of the hydrophysical parameters were substantially different between the two soil surfaces. The forest soil was substantially more water repellent and had two-times the degree of preferential flow compared to pure sand. Water and ethanol sorptivities, hydraulic conductivity, and saturated hydraulic conductivity were 1%, 84%, 2% and 26% those of the pure sand, respectively. The change in soil hydrophysical parameters due to soil water repellency resulted in preferential flow in the forest soil, emerging during a simulated heavy rain following a long hot, dry period. The wetting front established in pure sand exhibited a form typical of that for stable flow. Such a shape of the wetting front can be expected in the forest soil in spring, when soil water repellency is alleviated substantially. © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.

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