Dunger K.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute |
Petersson S.H.-O.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences |
Barreiro S.,University of Lisbon |
Cienciala E.,jilovske a.s |
And 7 more authors.
Forest Science | Year: 2012
Most European countries have signed the United Nations Framework Convention on climate change and its Kyoto Protocol. Because the European Union is a party to the convention just like the individual countries, there is a need for harmonizing emissions reporting. This specifically applies to the Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry sector, for which harmonized reporting is complex and generally challenging. For example, parties use a variety of different methods for estimating emissions and removals, ranging from application of default factors to advanced methods adapted to national circumstances, such as ongoing field inventories. In this study, we demonstrate that without harmonization, national definitions and methods lead to inconsistent estimates. Based on case studies in Finland, Germany, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia, and Sweden, we conclude that common reference definitions and country-specific bridges are means to harmonize the estimates and make greenhouse gas reporting from forests comparable across countries. © 2012 by the Society of American Foresters.
Stahl G.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences |
Cienciala E.,Institute of Forest Ecosystem Research Ltd |
Chirici G.,University of Molise |
Lanz A.,Eidgl Forchungsanstalt fur Wald Schnee und Landschaft |
And 6 more authors.
Forest Science | Year: 2012
Harmonization is the process of making information and estimates comparable across administrative borders. The degree to which harmonization succeeds depends on many factors, including the conciseness of the definitions, the availability and quality of data, and the methods used to convert an estimate according to a local definition to an estimate according to the reference definition. Harmonization requires the availability and use of common reference definitions and methods for converting from estimates based on national definitions to estimates based on reference definitions. This article focuses on conversion methods, which are characterized as "bridges" because they can be seen as a means of crossing from islands of local definitions to the mainland of a reference definition. A structured approach is proposed for constructing bridges of three kinds: reductive, neutral, and expansive bridges. A hierarchical decision tree is presented to guide users and to summarize the propositions and case examples with different types of bridges to illustrate the concepts. Although the article addresses harmonization of forest information, the results are relevant for harmonizing a broad variety of area statistics. © 2012 by the Society of American Foresters.