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Korkmaz A.S.,Ankara University | Cakirogullari G.C.,National Food Reference Laboratory
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2011

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary dried baker's yeast on growth performance, feed utilization and feed ingredients digestibility of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) fingerlings. In the experiment, a total of 270 koi carp fingerlings were equally divided into six groups of 45 (three replicates of 15 koi carp fingerlings each). Six levels (0,10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) of Dried Baker's Yeast (DBY) were included in isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. The experimental period lasted 2 months (4 fortnight period). At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences among the groups of 0, 10, 20, 30% in Body Weight (BW), Feed Intake (FI), Protein Intake (PI), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and apparent digestibility (p>0.05). The inclusion of DBY at the level of 40% to the diets reduced Weight Gain (WG), FCR, Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and apparent digestibility (p<0.05). The highest dry matter, protein, fat, fiber, ash, nitrogen free extract and organic matter digestibility coefficients were observed in fish fed diet T (control diet 0% dry yeast replacement) which were significantly higher than those observed for the other diets (p<0.05). It is concluded that DBY can be used up to 30% in the diets of koi carp fingerlings without adverse effects on the measured parameters. © Medwell Journals, 2011. Source

Olanca B.,National Food Reference Laboratory | Sivri Ozay D.,Hacettepe University
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2015

Wheat grain damaged by wheat bug (Eurygaster spp.) contains the bug salivary secretion which hydrolyses the gluten needed for the dough quality of breadmaking due to its proteolytic activity. Since the protease inhibitors are widespread throughout the plant kingdom, the possibility of using some plants, especially food and feed legumes to decrease the proteolytic activity of flours milled from bug damaged wheats was investigated. The proteolytic activity was considerably inhibited by pefabloc-SC and EDTA-Na2, suggesting that bug protease(s) included serine and metallo proteases. Extracts from cones of hops, seeds of grass pea, red kidney bean and sunflower caused reduction in the activity of bug protease(s). Effects of hop extract on electrophoretic, rheological properties of high protease activity flours milled from different bread wheat cultivars damaged by the bug were also studied. The dough development time and stability values of high protease activity flours increased considerably with hop extract at the lowest addition level (10:1, flour to hop extract ratio). The doughs supplemented with the hop extract had higher maximum resistance and lower extensibility values as compared to their controls. These results suggested that hop extract had improving effects on high protease activity flours due to the bug damage. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Olanca B.,National Food Reference Laboratory | Ozay D.S.,Hacettepe University
Cereal Chemistry | Year: 2010

Suni-bug (Eurygaster spp.) enzyme was partially purified from bugdamaged wheat and used to prepare gluten hydrolysates at 3% and 5% degree of hydrolysis (DH). Functional properties of gluten and gluten hydrolysates were determined at 0.2% (w/v) protein concentration and pH 2-10. Gluten solubility after enzymatic hydrolysis increased significantly (P < 0.05) up to 89.1, 89.6, and 95.0% at pH 7, 8, and 10, respectively. Emulsion stability (ES) of gluten hydrolysates improved at neutral and alkaline pH (P < 0.05) and emulsifying capacity (EC) increased significantly (P < 0.05) except at pH 10. Foaming capacity (FC) values of gluten hydrolysates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) at pH 6, 7, 8; foam stability (FS) values of gluten hydrolysates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) at pH 6 and 7. Enzymatic modification of gluten by wheat-bug enzyme resulted in hydrolysates with higher antioxidant activity compared to gluten. Significant correlations (P < 0.001) were found between solubility and EC, ES, FC, and FS values of gluten and its hydrolysates with 3% and 5% DH. © 2010 AACC International, Inc. Source

Koluman A.,National Food Reference Laboratory | Dikici A.,Tunceli University
Critical Reviews in Microbiology | Year: 2013

Emerging foodborne pathogens are challenging subjects of food microbiology with their antibiotic resistance and their impact on public health. Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp. and Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) are significant emerging food pathogens, globally. The decrease in supply and increase in demand lead developed countries to produce animal products with a higher efficiency. The massive production has caused the increase of the significant foodborne diseases. The strict control of food starting from farm to fork has been held by different regulations. Official measures have been applied to combat these pathogens. In 2005 EU declared that, an EU-wide ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed would be applied on 1 January 2006. The ban is the final step in the phasing out of antibiotics used for non-medical purposes. It is a part of the Commission's strategy to tackle the emergence of bacteria and other microbes resistant to antibiotics, due to their overexploitation or misuse. As the awareness raises more countries banned application of antibiotics as growth promoter, but the resistance of the emerging foodborne pathogens do not represent decrease. Currently, the main concern of food safety is counter measures against resistant bugs. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Cetinkaya M.,National Food Reference Laboratory | Baydan E.,Ankara University
Interdisciplinary Toxicology | Year: 2010

A range of pesticides is widely used in pest management and the chances of exposure to multiple organophosphorus (OP) compounds simultaneously are high, especially from dietary and other sources. Although health hazards of individual OP insecticides have been relatively well characterized, there is lesser information on the interactive toxicity of multiple OP insecticides. The aim of this study is to elicit the possible interactions in case combined exposure of an OP pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and a plant growth regulator ethephon (ETF) which are used worldwide. The ileum segments of 3 months old Wistar Albino male rats were used in isolated organ bath containing Tyrode solution. ETF and CPF were incubated (10-7 M concentration) separately or in combination with each other to ileum and their effects on acetylcholine-induced contractions were studied. The data obtained from this study show that, single and combined exposure to the agents caused agonistic interactions with regard to potency of ACh whereas they caused a decrease on Emax value of ACh. These findings suggest that exposure to these agents which have direct and indirect cholinergic effects, may cause developing clinical responses with small doses and earlier but the extent of toxicity will be lower. © 2009 Slovak Toxicology Society SETOX. Source

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