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Gallardo C.,European Union | Nieto R.,European Union | Soler A.,European Union | Pelayo V.,European Union | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2015

This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time (κ=0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional (κ=0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement (κ=0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Tolgyesi A.,European Commission | Stroka J.,European Commission | Tamosiunas V.,European Commission | Tamosiunas V.,National Food and Veterinary Risk Assessment Institute | Zwickel T.,BfR Federal Institute for Risk Assessment
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2015

Alternaria toxins and citrinin are mycotoxins produced by fungi growing on different raw materials and agricultural commodities. Maximum levels of these toxins in foods are currently under consideration by the European Commission as a risk management measure. In this study, a new quantitative method is described for the determination of five Alternaria toxins and citrinin in tomato and tomato juice samples based on LC-MS/MS detection. Samples were extracted with pure methanol, followed by a derivatisation step with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine to improve the determination of tenuazonic acid and to decrease the wide polarity difference between the compounds of interest. Samples were purified on hydrophilic-modified styrene polymer solid-phase extraction cartridges. High-performance liquid chromatographic columns packed with different core–shell materials were tested for the separation of toxins and a C-18 phase was in the final method applied to achieve sufficient separation of all relevant analytes. A key element of this approach was to prove successful transferability of the method to three different triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. A full single laboratory method validation was performed on two LC-MS/MS systems and performance characteristics met the predefined requirements. Moreover, the method was used in an international proficiency test and the satisfactory z-scores obtained (−0.1 to 0.8 in tomato juice samples) demonstrated the reliability of the approach described. The method will be validated in an inter-laboratory collaborative study and if the criteria for method precision are met, the method will be proposed as a new Work Item to the European Committee for Standardisation. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Gallardo C.,Research Center en Sanidad Animal | Fernandez-Pinero J.,Research Center en Sanidad Animal | Pelayo V.,Research Center en Sanidad Animal | Gazaev I.,National Institute of Veterinary Virology and Microbiology | And 11 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

African swine fever virus (ASFV) was first reported in eastern Europe/Eurasia in 2007. Continued spread of ASFV has placed central European countries at risk, and in 2014, ASFV was detected in Lithuania and Poland. Sequencing showed the isolates are identical to a 2013 ASFV from Belarus but differ from ASFV isolated in Georgia in 2007.

Petraitis J.,National Food and Veterinary Risk Assessment Institute | Jarmalaite I.,National Food and Veterinary Risk Assessment Institute | Vaiciunas V.,National Food and Veterinary Risk Assessment Institute | Uscinas R.,Joint stock company Labtarna | Jankovskiene G.,National Public Health Surveillance Laboratory
Zemdirbyste | Year: 2013

The current paper presents the evolution of pesticide research in Lithuania during the period 1970-2010. Analyses were based on single residue methods until 1993. Most of the products were of domestic origin and it was known exactly which pesticides had been used, therefore it was possible to obtain the necessary information about the contamination by single residue methods. Simple and inexpensive methods were used, which allowed five laboratories to analyze 3-5 thousand samples per year. In 1972, a high level of contamination (up to 8.1%) in food of animal origin was determined. This resulted from environmental pollution and feed contamination with organochlorine pesticides. Later this contamination decreased, and animal products no longer posed a major pollution problem. The contamination of food of plant origin was at level 1-3%. A significant increase in imports and the lack of information on pesticides used made the single residue methods unsuitable to ensure effective contamination control. The multiresidue methods were developed. Implementation of multiresidue methods enables a laboratory to determine up to 300 pesticides per sample. A total of 4593 samples of food of plant origin were analysed by multiresidue methods, pesticide residues were determined in 1428 samples (31%), exceedances of maximum residue levels (MRLs) were determined in 120 samples (2.6%). This data are comparable with the pesticide monitoring results obtained in other European countries.

Serniene L.,Lithuanian University of Health Sciences | Daunoras G.,Lithuanian University of Health Sciences | Sudikiene K.,National Food and Veterinary Risk Assessment Institute | Pridotkas G.,National Food and Veterinary Risk Assessment Institute | Malakauskas M.,Lithuanian University of Health Sciences
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B Surveillance | Year: 2012

Group A pharmacologically active substances monitoring data in the Republic of Lithuania (LR) during the period 1999-2008 are presented. Peer review is based on data taken from residue monitoring plans of the years 1999-2008 and the National Food and Veterinary Risk Assessment Institute (NFVRAI) reports on analyses performed in various foods. The data were analysed with the SPSS statistical package, using descriptive statistics and generalised linear modelling methods. Retrospective analysis of residue monitoring results showed that food processed from animal products presented no risk to consumers as regards to substances of Group A1, A2, A3, A4 and A5. One substance of Group A6 (chloramphenicol) was detected in bovine milk in 2003 (9%), 2006 (2%) and 2008 (1.4%). The decreasing trend is confirmed by statistical data analyses, where year of monitoring (P ≤ 0.0001), product (P ≤ 0.1) and their interaction (P ≤ 0.0001) proved the positive effect of the monitoring system. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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