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Wlodarczyk M.,National Food and Nutrition Institute | Nowicka G.,National Food and Nutrition Institute | Nowicka G.,Medical University of Warsaw
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2012

Endogenous DNA damage levels were analyzed in relation to polymorphisms in genes encoding phase I detoxifying enzyme-CYP1A1, phase II detoxifying enzymes-GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 and enzyme involved in nucleotide excision repair-XPD. The study group consisted of 220 healthy non-smoking volunteers; 90 men and 130 woman, 25-60 years old (44 ± 10 years). The level of DNA damage (% DNA in tail) was evaluated by alkaline comet assay. The genetic variants were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR. The highest level of DNA damage (6.7%) was found in carriers of both: AA variant of XPD gene and M1 null variant of GSTM1 gene. The lowest level of DNA breaks (3.7%) was associated with the genotype GSTP1-AA/GSTM1 (?). ©Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

Bobinski R.,University of Bielsko Biala | Mikulska M.,University of Bielsko Biala | Mojska H.,National Food and Nutrition Institute | Simon M.,Provincial Specialist Hospital
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Background/objectives: The fatty acid (FA) composition of breast milk throughout the period of lactation is fairly well understood. What is not known, however, is the FA composition of breast milk at the interface of physiology and pathology of pregnancy. We therefore decided to analyse and compare the differences in the FA composition of transitional and mature milk of mothers who delivered small for gestational age (SGA) neonates born at term; infants delivered at 35-37 weeks of gestation, that is 'late preterm'; and that of mothers who gave birth to appropriate for gestational age neonates (AGA). Subject/methods: The FAs were analysed by HPLC equipped with MS detector. Results: We found differences in the percentage share of the studied FA pool regarding levels of capric, lauric and gadoleic acids. Comparing transitional and mature milk, the greatest diversity was seen in the group of mothers of AGA neonates and the least was noted in the group of mothers of SGA neonates. Conclusions: Both 'late prematurity' and reduced neonatal weight of children born at term affect the FA composition of breast milk. Even a small degree of fetal malformation alters the composition of breast milk, which is probably related to the child's needs and condition. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Gielecinska I.,National Food and Nutrition Institute
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2013

Numerous studies have demonstrated acrylamide to be both neurotoxic and carcinogenic. At present it is widely recognised that acrylamide is mainly formed through the Maillard reaction from free asparagine and reducing sugars. The major sources of dietary acrylamide are potato products, processed cereals and coffee. To optimise and validate an analytical method for determining acrylamide in coffee by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC/MS/MS) using SPE clean-up. Analytical separation of acrylamide from roasted coffee was performed by liquid chromatography using a Hypercarb column followed by LC/MS/MS analysis, with 2,3,3-d3 acrylamide as an internal standard. The method was based on two purification steps: the first with hexane and Carrez solutions in order to remove of fat and to precipitate proteins, respectively; and the second with a solid-phase extraction (SPE) column which proved to be efficient in the elimination of the main chromatographic interferences. Limit of quantification (LOQ) for measuring acrylamide in coffee was 50 microg/kg. The described method demonstrates satisfactory precision (RSD = 2.5%), repeatability (RSD = 9.2%) and accuracy (mean recovery - 97.4%). Our results confirm that LC-MS/MS with SPE clean-up is selective and suitable for determination of acrylamide in coffee. Indeed, this method meets the criteria of EU Commission Recommendations (No. 2007/331/EC and No. 2010/307/EU), on the monitoring of acrylamide levels in food.

Mojska H.,National Food and Nutrition Institute
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2013

Many animal studies have shown that acrylamide is both neurotoxic and carcinogenic. The first reports of acrylamide actually having been found in foodstuffs were published in 2002 by the Swedish National Food Agency in conjunction with scientists from the University of Stockholm. It has since been demonstrated that acrylamide arises in foodstuffs by the Maillard reaction, ie. between free asparagine and reducing sugars at temperatures >120 degrees C. Coffee in fact, forms one of the principal dietary sources of acrylamide, where it is normally drunk in large quantities throughout many countries worldwide that includes Poland. Thus, it constitutes a major dietary component in a wide range of population groups, mainly ranging from late adolescents to the elderly. To determine the acrylamide level in commercial samples of roasted and instant coffee and in coffee substitutes by LC-MS/MS method. The influence of coffee species and colour intensity of coffee on acrylamide level was also detailed. A total of 42 samples of coffee were analysed which included 28 that were ground roasted coffee, 11 instant coffees and 3 coffee substitutes (grain coffee). Analytical separation of acrylamide from coffee was performed by liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To evaluate the colour intensity of ground roasted coffee and instant coffee we used method of arranging (sequence). The highest mean acrylamide concentrations were found in coffee substitutes (818 pg/kg) followed by instant coffee (358 microg/kg) and then roasted coffee (179 microg/kg). One single cup of coffee (160 ml) delivered on average from 0.45 microg acrylamide in roasted coffee to 3.21 microg in coffee substitutes. There were no significant differences in acrylamide level between the coffee species ie. Arabica vs Robusta or a mixture thereof. The various methods of coffee manufacture also showed no differences in acrylamide (ie. freeze-dried coffee vs agglomerated coffee). A significant negative correlation was observed between acrylamide levels and the intensity of colour in roasted coffee; this was not the case however for instant coffee. It was demonstrated that roasting process had the most significant effect on acrylamide levels in natural coffee, however there were no relationships found with coffee species. Due to the high acrylamide levels demonstrated in coffee substitutes, recommended amounts should be defined and manufacturers should be obliged to reduce such levels in these products.

Jarosz M.,National Food and Nutrition Institute | Taraszewska A.,National Food and Nutrition Institute
Przeglad Gastroenterologiczny | Year: 2014

Introduction: Nutrition can contribute to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The relevant studies often provide contradictory results. Aim: To determine GERD risk factors associated with dietary habits. Material and methods: A total of 513 subjects were included. The study group consisted of adults with a recent clinically confirmed diagnosis of GERD, and the control group were healthy adults. The research tool was a proprietary questionnaire. Risk factors were evaluated by logistic regression models. Results: An association was found between the severity of typical GERD symptoms and a certain diet (p < 0.001). The symptoms were experienced more often after fatty, fried, sour, or spicy food and sweets. The univariate logistic regression analysis showed the following risk factors: eating 1-2 meals per day (OR = 3.50, 95% CI: 1.75-6.98), everyday consumption of peppermint tea (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.14-3.50), and eating one, big meal in the evening instead of dinner and supper (OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.05-3.11). The multivariate analysis confirmed that frequent peppermint tea consumption was a risk factor (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.08-3.70). Conclusions: Taking into consideration the results of this study, it seems that patients should be recommended to eat more than three meals a day and eat dinner and supper at appropriate times instead of one, big meal in the evening. The role of frequent peppermint tea consumption in GERD development requires further studies.

Wierzejska R.,National Food and Nutrition Institute
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences | Year: 2016

The question whether coffee has a negative or a positive impact on human health has been the topic of much heated debate for years. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only failed to confirm earlier concerns, but in fact suggested a positive effect of coffee intake. Latest studies revealed that people who drink at least 3 cups of coffee per day are at a lower risk for type 2 diabetes, as well as liver and colon cancer. The reports on a possible correlation between coffee drinking and heart diseases have also generated optimistic results. No adverse associations between coffee consumption and coronary heart disease, stroke, and hypertension have been found. What is more, some authors demonstrated that coffee drinking may prevent cardiovascular diseases. Composition of coffee is determined by the strength of the brew and brewing methods. Unfiltered coffee is rich in cholesterol-raising diterpenes, therefore patients with dyslipidemia should be advised to drink filtered rather than non-filtered coffee. On the other hand coffee contains polyphenols which act as antioxidants, and these compounds are probably responsible for the suggested beneficial effect of coffee on health. This article summarizes the current literature reports on this controversial topic. © 2016 Regina Wierzejska et al.

Mojska H.,National Food and Nutrition Institute
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology | Year: 2015

We determined metabolites of acrylamide and glycidamide concentrations (AAMA and GAMA, respectively) in urine of 93 women within the first days after delivery, using LC-MS/MS. The median AAMA and GAMA levels in urine were 20.9 μg/l (2.3÷399.0 μg/l) and 8.6 μg/l (1.3÷85.0 μg/l), respectively. In smokers we found significantly (P<0.01) higher levels of metabolites in comparison with the non-smoking women. As demonstrated by the 24-h dietary recall, acrylamide intake was low (median: 7.04 μg/day). Estimated exposure to acrylamide based on AAMA and GAMA levels in the whole group of women was 0.16 μg/kg b.w./day (1.15 μg/kg b.w./day, P95). We found significantly (P<0.05) higher exposure in women who consumed higher amount of acrylamide in the diet (≥10 μg/day vs <10 μg/day). A weak but significant positive correlation between acrylamide intake calculated on the basis of urinary levels of AAMA and GAMA and estimated on the basis of 24-h dietary recall (r=0.26, P<0.05) was found. The estimated margin of exposure values were below 10 000 and ranged from 156 for 95th percentile to 1938 for median acrylamide intake. Our results have shown that even a low dietary acrylamide intake may be associated with health risk.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 1 April 2015; doi:10.1038/jes.2015.12. © 2015 Nature America, Inc.

Jarosz M.,National Food and Nutrition Institute | Wierzejska R.,National Food and Nutrition Institute | Siuba M.,National Food and Nutrition Institute
European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology | Year: 2012

Objective: Estimation of the maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and its influence on pregnancy duration, birthweight and Apgar score of the newborn. Study design: The research was conducted on pregnant women who gave birth at the Clinic of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Oncology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw. It covered unifetal pregnancies without diseases (N = 509). Research data were collected by direct questionnaire supplemented with data from patients' records. Statistical analysis employed a multivariate logistic regression model and a non-parametric Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: 98.4% of pregnant women consume no more than 300 mg of caffeine per day. Pregnant women who smoke and older women consume more caffeine than non-smokers and younger women [β 1.95 (95% CI: 1.02-2.88)] and [β 0.68 (95% CI: 0.05-1.3)] respectively. There is no association between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and the risk of premature birth, the birthweight or the Apgar score of newborns. Conclusion: Caffeine intake of no more than 300 mg per day during pregnancy does not affect pregnancy duration and the condition of the newborn. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Mojska H.,National Food and Nutrition Institute | Gielecinska I.,National Food and Nutrition Institute | Stos K.,National Food and Nutrition Institute
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2012

Acrylamide is a monomer that can form in heated starchy food as a result of Maillard reaction. The adverse effects of acrylamide in humans are neurotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Aim of our study was to determine acrylamide levels in the main categories of commercially made Polish baby food products and to assess the dietary acrylamide exposure of infants aged 6-12. months. Acrylamide content in baby food products was analysed by GCQ-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS methods. The exposure assessment was carried out using analytical data and recommended daily consumption of food in individual months of infant life. The infant exposure was estimated at three levels: minimum, average and maximum. The mean content of acrylamide in the baby foods ranged from 2 to 516 μg/kg depending on the food product. The exposure of infants aged 6-12. months of life was estimated at the minimum level in the range from 0.41 to 0.62 μg/kg b.w./day, and at the average level - from 2.10 to 4.32 μg/kg b.w./day. For the worst case scenario the exposure ranged from 7.47 to 12.35 μg/kg b.w./day and was more than a dozen times and even several dozen times higher than the exposure estimated for the total Polish population. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Wierzejska R.,National Food and Nutrition Institute
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2015

Coffee and its impact on health continue to be the topic of much heated debate. Until recently, coffee consumption has been believed to be associated with adverse effects, mainly cardiovascular problems. However, the vast majority of contemporary sources not only emphasize a lack of detrimental effect, but also suggest a beneficial effect of coffee intake. According to the current state of knowledge, coffee consumption is not associated with the majority of cancers although the results of studies on bladder and lung cancer remain conflicting. In case of colorectal, liver and breast cancers, coffee drinking may even have a protective effect. Coffee contains numerous compounds, potentially beneficial as well as harmful. The former include polyphenols which inhibit harmful oxidation processes in the body, while the latter include acrylamide, whose high intake in daily diet may have carcinogenic action. The impact of coffee on the human body is associated also with other factors, e.g. the rate of metabolism and other individual features.

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