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Mojska H.,National Food and Nutrition Institute
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2013

Many animal studies have shown that acrylamide is both neurotoxic and carcinogenic. The first reports of acrylamide actually having been found in foodstuffs were published in 2002 by the Swedish National Food Agency in conjunction with scientists from the University of Stockholm. It has since been demonstrated that acrylamide arises in foodstuffs by the Maillard reaction, ie. between free asparagine and reducing sugars at temperatures >120 degrees C. Coffee in fact, forms one of the principal dietary sources of acrylamide, where it is normally drunk in large quantities throughout many countries worldwide that includes Poland. Thus, it constitutes a major dietary component in a wide range of population groups, mainly ranging from late adolescents to the elderly. To determine the acrylamide level in commercial samples of roasted and instant coffee and in coffee substitutes by LC-MS/MS method. The influence of coffee species and colour intensity of coffee on acrylamide level was also detailed. A total of 42 samples of coffee were analysed which included 28 that were ground roasted coffee, 11 instant coffees and 3 coffee substitutes (grain coffee). Analytical separation of acrylamide from coffee was performed by liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To evaluate the colour intensity of ground roasted coffee and instant coffee we used method of arranging (sequence). The highest mean acrylamide concentrations were found in coffee substitutes (818 pg/kg) followed by instant coffee (358 microg/kg) and then roasted coffee (179 microg/kg). One single cup of coffee (160 ml) delivered on average from 0.45 microg acrylamide in roasted coffee to 3.21 microg in coffee substitutes. There were no significant differences in acrylamide level between the coffee species ie. Arabica vs Robusta or a mixture thereof. The various methods of coffee manufacture also showed no differences in acrylamide (ie. freeze-dried coffee vs agglomerated coffee). A significant negative correlation was observed between acrylamide levels and the intensity of colour in roasted coffee; this was not the case however for instant coffee. It was demonstrated that roasting process had the most significant effect on acrylamide levels in natural coffee, however there were no relationships found with coffee species. Due to the high acrylamide levels demonstrated in coffee substitutes, recommended amounts should be defined and manufacturers should be obliged to reduce such levels in these products. Source


Wierzejska R.,National Food and Nutrition Institute
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences | Year: 2016

The question whether coffee has a negative or a positive impact on human health has been the topic of much heated debate for years. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only failed to confirm earlier concerns, but in fact suggested a positive effect of coffee intake. Latest studies revealed that people who drink at least 3 cups of coffee per day are at a lower risk for type 2 diabetes, as well as liver and colon cancer. The reports on a possible correlation between coffee drinking and heart diseases have also generated optimistic results. No adverse associations between coffee consumption and coronary heart disease, stroke, and hypertension have been found. What is more, some authors demonstrated that coffee drinking may prevent cardiovascular diseases. Composition of coffee is determined by the strength of the brew and brewing methods. Unfiltered coffee is rich in cholesterol-raising diterpenes, therefore patients with dyslipidemia should be advised to drink filtered rather than non-filtered coffee. On the other hand coffee contains polyphenols which act as antioxidants, and these compounds are probably responsible for the suggested beneficial effect of coffee on health. This article summarizes the current literature reports on this controversial topic. © 2016 Regina Wierzejska et al. Source


Mojska H.,National Food and Nutrition Institute
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology | Year: 2015

We determined metabolites of acrylamide and glycidamide concentrations (AAMA and GAMA, respectively) in urine of 93 women within the first days after delivery, using LC-MS/MS. The median AAMA and GAMA levels in urine were 20.9 μg/l (2.3÷399.0 μg/l) and 8.6 μg/l (1.3÷85.0 μg/l), respectively. In smokers we found significantly (P<0.01) higher levels of metabolites in comparison with the non-smoking women. As demonstrated by the 24-h dietary recall, acrylamide intake was low (median: 7.04 μg/day). Estimated exposure to acrylamide based on AAMA and GAMA levels in the whole group of women was 0.16 μg/kg b.w./day (1.15 μg/kg b.w./day, P95). We found significantly (P<0.05) higher exposure in women who consumed higher amount of acrylamide in the diet (≥10 μg/day vs <10 μg/day). A weak but significant positive correlation between acrylamide intake calculated on the basis of urinary levels of AAMA and GAMA and estimated on the basis of 24-h dietary recall (r=0.26, P<0.05) was found. The estimated margin of exposure values were below 10 000 and ranged from 156 for 95th percentile to 1938 for median acrylamide intake. Our results have shown that even a low dietary acrylamide intake may be associated with health risk.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 1 April 2015; doi:10.1038/jes.2015.12. © 2015 Nature America, Inc. Source


Wierzejska R.,National Food and Nutrition Institute
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2015

Coffee and its impact on health continue to be the topic of much heated debate. Until recently, coffee consumption has been believed to be associated with adverse effects, mainly cardiovascular problems. However, the vast majority of contemporary sources not only emphasize a lack of detrimental effect, but also suggest a beneficial effect of coffee intake. According to the current state of knowledge, coffee consumption is not associated with the majority of cancers although the results of studies on bladder and lung cancer remain conflicting. In case of colorectal, liver and breast cancers, coffee drinking may even have a protective effect. Coffee contains numerous compounds, potentially beneficial as well as harmful. The former include polyphenols which inhibit harmful oxidation processes in the body, while the latter include acrylamide, whose high intake in daily diet may have carcinogenic action. The impact of coffee on the human body is associated also with other factors, e.g. the rate of metabolism and other individual features. Source


Gielecinska I.,National Food and Nutrition Institute
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2013

Numerous studies have demonstrated acrylamide to be both neurotoxic and carcinogenic. At present it is widely recognised that acrylamide is mainly formed through the Maillard reaction from free asparagine and reducing sugars. The major sources of dietary acrylamide are potato products, processed cereals and coffee. To optimise and validate an analytical method for determining acrylamide in coffee by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC/MS/MS) using SPE clean-up. Analytical separation of acrylamide from roasted coffee was performed by liquid chromatography using a Hypercarb column followed by LC/MS/MS analysis, with 2,3,3-d3 acrylamide as an internal standard. The method was based on two purification steps: the first with hexane and Carrez solutions in order to remove of fat and to precipitate proteins, respectively; and the second with a solid-phase extraction (SPE) column which proved to be efficient in the elimination of the main chromatographic interferences. Limit of quantification (LOQ) for measuring acrylamide in coffee was 50 microg/kg. The described method demonstrates satisfactory precision (RSD = 2.5%), repeatability (RSD = 9.2%) and accuracy (mean recovery - 97.4%). Our results confirm that LC-MS/MS with SPE clean-up is selective and suitable for determination of acrylamide in coffee. Indeed, this method meets the criteria of EU Commission Recommendations (No. 2007/331/EC and No. 2010/307/EU), on the monitoring of acrylamide levels in food. Source

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