Wretling S.,National Food Administration |
Eriksson A.,National Food Administration |
Eskhult G.A.,National Food Administration |
Larsson B.,Bonny Larsson
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2010
An official control programme of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) levels in Swedish smoked meat and fish was carried out in 2006 and 2007. Thirty-eight samples of smoked meat and meat products and 39 samples of smoked fish were analysed for BaP and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS) method employed was elaborated and validated for the control programme. The method complies with the criteria for official control according to Commission Regulation (EC) No 333/2007. Nine samples of smoked meat showed high BaP levels ranging from 6.6 to 36.9 μg/kg, exceeding the 5.0 μg/kg maximum level for smoked meat and fish established by the European Commission (Regulation (EC) No 208/2005). These samples were produced by traditional "sauna" smoking, where the food is directly exposed to hot smoke from a burning log fire. Six samples of smoked fish had BaP levels exceeding 5.0 μg/kg, the concentrations ranging from 8.4 to 14.4 μg/kg. Samples of meat and fish smoked by indirect technique, using smoke from an external smoke generator, all had BaP levels below the limit of quantification, i.e., 0.3 μg/kg. Actions have been initiated by the food control authorities on account of the non-complying results. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sand S.,National Food Administration |
Sand S.,University of Ottawa |
Portier C.J.,U.S. National Institutes of Health |
Krewski D.,University of Ottawa
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2011
Background: The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) cancer bioassay database provides an opportunity to compare both existing and new approaches to determining points of departure (PoDs) for establishing reference doses (RfDs). Objectives: The aims of this study were a) to investigate the risk associated with the traditional PoD used in human health risk assessment [the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL)]; b) to present a new approach based on the signal-to-noise crossover dose (SNCD); and c) to compare the SNCD and SNCD-based RfD with PoDs and RfDs based on the NOAEL and benchmark dose (BMD) approaches. Methods: The complete NTP database was used as the basis for these analyses, which were per- formed using the Hill model. We determined NOAELs and estimated corresponding extra risks. Lower 95% confidence bounds on the BMD (BMDLs) corresponding to extra risks of 1%, 5%, and 10% (BMDL 01, BMDL 05, and BMDL 10, respectively) were also estimated. We introduce the SNCD as a new PoD, defined as the dose where the additional risk is equal to the "background noise" (the difference between the upper and lower bounds of the two-sided 90% confidence inter- val on absolute risk) or a specified fraction thereof. Results: The median risk at the NOAEL was approximately 10%, and the default uncertainty fac- tor (UF = 100) was considered most applicable to the BMDL 10. Therefore, we chose a target risk of 1/1,000 (0.1/100) to derive an SNCD-based RfD by linear extrapolation. At the median, this approach provided the same RfD as the BMDL 10 divided by the default UF. Conclusions: Under a standard BMD approach, the BMDL 10 is considered to be the most appro- priate PoD. The SNCD approach, which is based on the lowest dose at which the signal can be reli- ably detected, warrants further development as a PoD for human health risk assessment.
Wahlstrom H.,National Veterinary Institute |
Andersson Y.,Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control |
Plym-Forshell L.,National Food Administration |
Pires S.M.,Technical University of Denmark
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2011
The aim of this study was to identify the sources of sporadic domestic Salmonella cases in Sweden and to evaluate the usefulness of a source-attribution model in a country in which food animals are virtually free from Salmonella. The model allocates human sporadic domestic Salmonella cases to different sources according to distribution of Salmonella subtypes in the different sources. Sporadic domestic human Salmonella cases (n=1086) reported between July 2004 and June 2006 were attributed to nine food-animal and wildlife sources. Of all Salmonella cases, 82% were acquired abroad and 2·9% were associated with outbreaks. We estimated that 6·4% were associated with imported food, 0·5% with food-producing animals, and 0·6% with wildlife. Overall, 7·7% could not be attributed to any source. We concluded that domestic food-producing animals are not an important source for Salmonella in humans in Sweden, and that the adapted model is useful also in low-prevalence countries. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.
Lindqvist R.,National Food Administration |
Lindqvist R.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences |
Lindblad M.,National Food Administration
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2011
Published models predicting growth and survival capabilities of shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) under aw and lactic acid stress were validated by performing experiments with fermented sausage associated outbreak strains. Strain variation in inactivation and time to growth (TTG) were investigated for strains representing three serotypes (O103, O111, and O157). The TTG and growth boundaries of each strain were compared with predictions of a model for generic acid adapted E. coli and survival with predictions of two inactivation models. In addition, the influence of strain variation on the performance of the inactivation models, in terms of bias and accuracy factors, was illustrated. Strains with induced acid tolerance were used in broths containing 50 or 110mM total lactic acid. The concentration of undissociated lactic acid (HLac) was adjusted by setting the pH-value, and water activity (0.900 to 0.995 depending on experiment) was adjusted by adding NaCl. The survival capabilities of the outbreak strains were good compared to the model predictions. The average bias factors of inactivation model predictions were within a factor of 2.2 depending on the strain used to validate the model indicating that inactivation rates of outbreak strains were slower than predicted. However, the observed rates were similar to the rates of a previously studied acid tolerant generic E. coli strain. Similarly, the time to growth of two of the strains (O103 and O157) was comparable with model predictions, whereas the growth capability of the third strain (O111) was lower than predicted. These results suggest that the properties of the most tolerant sausage outbreak strains are comparable to tolerant generic E. coli strains, which imply that suitable non-pathogenic E. coli strains are valid surrogates for fermented sausage outbreak strains. The relative sensitivity of strains depended on the environmental parameters and the response evaluated. The strain with the smallest log reduction at 20°C was O157, whereas it was strain O103 at 8°C. Under conditions unfavorable for growth, the time to growth was much shorter for strains O103 and O157 than for strain O111, whereas differences between strains were negligible under conditions favorable for growth. Depending on the response variable and the specific application the limitation of not addressing strain variation may lead to biased, fail-dangerous, predictions. Thus, solutions on how to best address strain variation in the development and validation of predictive models are needed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Backhans A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences |
Fellstrom C.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences |
Lambertz S.T.,National Food Administration
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2011
Rodents are a potential source of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. In order to study this, 190 rodents were captured and sampled on seven pig farms (n=110), five chicken farms (n=55) and six other locations (n=25) in Sweden. Pigs from three of the pig farms were also sampled (n=60). Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was detected by TaqMan PCR in about 5% of rodent samples and 18% of pig samples. Only rodents caught on pig farms tested positive for the pathogen. Y. enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 strains isolated from the rodent and pig samples were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and revealed a high degree of similarity, which was confirmed by random amplified polymorphic DNA. Y. pseudotuberculosis was only detected in one rodent sample. Thus, rodents may be vectors for the transmission of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica to pigs, acting as carriers rather than a reservoir, and should therefore remain an important issue in hygiene control measures on farms. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.
Jiang L.,University of Stockholm |
Kiselova N.,University of Stockholm |
Rosen J.,National Food Administration |
Ilag L.L.,University of Stockholm
Scientific Reports | Year: 2014
The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) produced naturally by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates can be transferred and accumulated up the food chain, and may be a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. This study provides the first systematic screening of BMAA exposure of a large population through the consumption of seafood sold in metropolitan markets. BMAA was distinguished from known isomers by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry after acidic hydrolysis and derivatization. Using deuterium-labeled internal standard, BMAA was quantified as 0.01-0.90 μg/g wet weight of tissues in blue mussel, oyster, shrimp, plaice, char and herring, but was undetectable (<0.01 μg/g) in other samples (salmon, cod, perch and crayfish). Provided that the content of BMAA detected is relevant for intake calculations, the data presented may be used for a first estimation of BMAA exposure through seafood from Swedish markets, and to refine the design of future toxicological experiments and assessments.
Becker W.,National Food Administration
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010
Background/Objectives:A major goal of the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence is to provide tools to overcome existing differences among member states and parties with respect to documentation and interchange of food composition data. Establishment of a common CEN (Comité Européen de Normalisation/European Committee for Standardization) Standard on food data was regarded as an important goal, enabling unambiguous identification and description of food data and its quality in databases, for dissemination and interchange.Results:In 2008, the CEN Project Committee on Food Data (CEN/TC387) was established following preparatory work by a national Swedish technical committee involving stakeholders representing the Swedish EuroFIR partner (National Food Administration), food sector and consumers. TC387 is led by the Swedish CEN member Swedish Standards Institute. Nine national standardisation organisations are project members, with four other organisations being observers. During 2009, a so-called working draft standard was prepared on the basis of EuroFIR specifications, the Food Beverage extension of the GS1 GDSN (Global Data Synchronisation Network) Trade Item standard specifications and on the basis of input from various national delegations. This formed the basis for an enquiry draft that was submitted to CEN in early 2010. A final, ratified Standard is expected to be published in 2012.Conclusions:The establishment of the CEN Project Committee was an important milestone for the EuroFIR Network of Excellence. Liaison with the GS1 initiative on food and beverage articles will enhance coverage and uptake of the future Standard, thus promoting access to and interchange of well-documented food information. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.
Lindblad M.,National Food Administration |
Lindqvist R.,National Food Administration
Letters in Applied Microbiology | Year: 2010
Aims: To model the effect of water activity (aw) and concentration of undissociated lactic acid (HLac) on the time to growth (TTG) and the growth/no growth boundary of acid-adapted generic Escherichia coli, used as model organisms for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Methods and Results: For each of two E. coli strains, the TTG in brain heart infusion broth at 27°C was estimated at 30 combinations of aw (range 0·945-0·995) and concentration of HLac (range 0-6·9 mol m-3) by using an automated turbidity reader. Survival analysis was used to develop a model predicting the TTG and the growth/no growth boundary. Conclusions: The present model can be used to predict the TTG and to indicate the growth/no growth boundary of acid-adapted E. coli strains as a function of aw and concentration of HLac. Significance and Impact of the Study: Fermented food products have been implicated as sources of STEC in several outbreaks. The study results are relevant for modelling of growth of STEC in fermented food and can be used in microbiological risk assessments or in the design and validation of food-production processes. © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Busk L.,National Food Administration
Food Control | Year: 2010
The concept of risk analysis, as defined by WHO, foresees strict functional separation between risk assessment and risk management. However, at the same time, it also expects close cooperation between risk assessors and risk managers. This is not always the case, as exemplified by acrylamide, a heat-induced toxicant in foods. The proposed SAFE FOOD Risk Analysis Framework puts forward the need for institutionalizing the cooperation between assessors and managers by introducing two steps, framing and evaluation. The paper argues that if these steps had been introduced in 2002 it would have led to a more efficient risk management of acrylamide. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Ohrvik V.E.,National Food Administration
Nutrients | Year: 2011
The vitamin folate is recognized as beneficial health-wise in the prevention of neural tube defects, anemia, cardiovascular diseases, poor cognitive performance, and some forms of cancer. However, suboptimal dietary folate intake has been reported in a number of countries. Several national health authorities have therefore introduced mandatory food fortification with synthetic folic acid, which is considered a convenient fortificant, being cost-efficient in production, more stable than natural food folate, and superior in terms of bioavailability and bioefficacy. Other countries have decided against fortification due to the ambiguous role of synthetic folic acid regarding promotion of subclinical cancers and other adverse health effects. This paper reviews recent studies on folate bioavailability after intervention with folate from food. Our conclusions were that limited folate bioavailability data are available for vegetables, fruits, cereal products, and fortified foods, and that it is difficult to evaluate the bioavailability of food folate or whether intervention with food folate improves folate status. We recommend revising the classical approach of using folic acid as a reference dose for estimating the plasma kinetics and relative bioavailability of food folate.