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Li L.,National Flower Engineering Research Center | Cheng F.-Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhang Q.-X.,National Flower Engineering Research Center
American Journal of Botany

Premise of the study: Microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR) primers were developed for the Chinese peony, P. lactiflora, to investigate the diversity within Chinese peony germplasm resources. Methods and Results: Using an SSR-enriched genomic library, a set of 10 unique polymorphic genomic SSRs was developed and characterized. The primers amplified 61 alleles in all 10 loci, including di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats. The primers were also effective for P. veitchii and P. obovata. Conclusions: The new primers will be useful for genetic research of the Chinese peony and extend the repertoire of SSR markers available to study the herbaceous taxa in Paeonia. © 2011 Botanical Society of America. Source

Yuan J.-h.,Beijing Forestry University | Yuan J.-h.,CAS Institute of Botany | Yuan J.-h.,Gansu Forestry Technological College | Cheng F.-Y.,Beijing Forestry University | And 2 more authors.

Background: Tree peonies are great ornamental plants associated with a rich ethnobotanical history in Chinese culture and have recently been used as an evolutionary model. The Qinling Mountains represent a significant geographic barrier in Asia, dividing mainland China into northern (temperate) and southern (semi-tropical) regions; however, their flora has not been well analyzed. In this study, the genetic differentiation and genetic structure of Paeonia rockii and the role of the Qinling Mountains as a barrier that has driven intraspecific fragmentation were evaluated using 14 microsatellite markers. Methodology/Principal Findings: Twenty wild populations were sampled from the distributional range of P. rockii. Significant population differentiation was suggested (F ST value of 0.302). Moderate genetic diversity at the population level (H S of 0.516) and high population diversity at the species level (H T of 0.749) were detected. Significant excess homozygosity (F IS of 0.076) and recent population bottlenecks were detected in three populations. Bayesian clusters, population genetic trees and principal coordinate analysis all classified the P. rockii populations into three genetic groups and one admixed Wenxian population. An isolation-by-distance model for P. rockii was suggested by Mantel tests (r = 0.6074, P<0.001) and supported by AMOVA (P<0.001), revealing a significant molecular variance among the groups (11.32%) and their populations (21.22%). These data support the five geographic boundaries surrounding the Qinling Mountains and adjacent areas that were detected with Monmonier's maximum-difference algorithm. Conclusions/Significance: Our data suggest that the current genetic structure of P. rockii has resulted from the fragmentation of a formerly continuously distributed large population following the restriction of gene flow between populations of this species by the Qinling Mountains. This study provides a fundamental genetic profile for the conservation and responsible exploitation of the extant germplasm of this species and for improving the genetic basis for breeding its cultivars. © 2012 Yuan et al. Source

Yuan J.-H.,Beijing Forestry University | Yuan J.-H.,Gansu Forestry Technological College | Cheng F.-Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Cheng F.-Y.,National Flower Engineering Research Center | Zhou S.-L.,CAS Institute of Botany
International Journal of Plant Sciences

In Paeonia, hybridization is an important path for both the development of new cultivars and species formation in nature, but the characterization of hybrids has long been a problem. To establish the relationship among Paeonia yananensis, P. jishanensis, and P. rockii, we sampled 159 individuals from 11 populations around the core population of P. yananensis. Samples were subjected to morphological analysis of 22 characters and molecular analysis of three chloroplastDNA(cpDNA) fragments and 14 microsatellites. Paeonia yananensis was distinguishable from the other two species on the basis of morphological characteristics. The phylogenetic tree based on three intergenic spacers in the chloroplast genome (petB-petD, rps16-trnQ, and psbA-trnH) demonstrated that P. yananensis was very closely related to P. jishanensis. However, analysis of 14 microsatellite loci revealed that P. yananensis shared a considerable number of alleles with both P. jishanensis and P. rockii. These results demonstrated that P. yananensis (P × 3 yananensis) is of hybrid origin, with P. jishanensis as a maternal parent and P. rockii as a paternal parent. Our success in documenting the hybrid origin of P. yananensis suggests that combined evidence from morphology, maternally inherited cpDNA, and biparentally inherited microsatellites could serve as a powerful tool in hybrid studies. © 2010 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved. Source

Yuan J.,Beijing Forestry University | Yuan J.,Gansu Forestry Technological College | Cheng F.-Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Cheng F.-Y.,National Flower Engineering Research Center | Zhou S.-L.,CAS Institute of Botany
Conservation Genetics

The endangered species Paeonia rockii is the most important ancestral species of the cultivated tree peonies. These well-known ornamental plants are termed the 'King of Flowers' in China. In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of 335 wild samples from 20 populations throughout the entire distributional range of the species based on three chloroplast DNA sequences (petB-petD, rps16-trnQ and psbA-trnH). At those loci, high levels of genetic differentiation (GST = 0. 94) and low levels of genetic variation (θ = 0. 00185) were detected. The intraspecific phylogeny revealed four groups, the western group, the Taibai mountain group, the northern group and the eastern group, which closely coincided with the geographic distribution of the species. A phylogeographic structure of this kind could result from a number of integrated factors, such as allopatric fragmentation, climatic fluctuations, increased abortion and declining germination of seeds, or lack of gene flow among populations, especially across the geographic barrier of the high Qinling Mountains, and it could also result from adaptive evolution. For conservation purposes, each extant population of P. rockii should be recognized as a conservation-significant unit, and a more stringent conservation strategy should incorporate in situ and ex situ methods. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Yu H.-P.,Beijing Forestry University | Cheng F.-Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Cheng F.-Y.,National Flower Engineering Research Center | Zhong Y.,Beijing Forestry University | And 4 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae

The tree peony belongs to section Moutan of Paeonia, known as the 'King of Flowers' in China and has great ornamental, medicinal and economic value. In this study, 12 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers from Paeonia ostii were developed and characterized by constructing a simple sequence repeat (SSR)-enriched genomic library. In total, 42 alleles across 48 tree peony accessions were detected, with an average of 3.5 alleles per locus, the number of effective alleles ranged from 1.4 to 4.7 with an average of 2.4 per locus, the observed and expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.333 to 1.000 (an average of 0.785) and from 0.298 to 0.795 (an average of 0.541), respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) varied from 0.257 to 0.794, with an average of 0.468. Shannon Index was ranged from 0.594 to 1.771 and the mean value was 0.906. Moreover, these markers can also be amplified in herbaceous peonies Paeonia lactiflora and Paeonia veitchii of section Paeon. A neighbor-joining (NJ) tree was constructed using the proportion of shared alleles coefficient to assess the genetic relationships among species and cultivars. In the NJ tree, the accessions in the section Paeon spanned the extremes of the dendrogram and were used as an outgroup. The accessions in the section Moutan primarily grouped into two clusters. In cluster I, Paeonia rockii and Xibei Group cultivars clustered into one branch, indicating that P. rockii was the main ancestor of the Xibei cultivars. P. rockii and its cultivars were closely related to Paeonia decomposita. All Zhongyuan Group cultivars, Paeonia× lemoinei hybrids and P. ostii formed clusterII. P. ostii grouped with Zhongyuan cultivars, indicating that P. ostii contributed significant genetic information to Zhongyuan cultivars. Zhongyuan cultivars and P× lemoinei hybrids were divided into groups with various corresponding bootstrap values. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on gene frequency further illustrated these genetic relationships. PCA supported the results of the clustering analysis, and it is easily discernable that cultivars from the same group distributed together, while wild accessions with a close relationship to cultivars were distributed with the cultivars. The results show that these SSR markers are very powerful in studying genetic relationships and that they have the ability to cross-amplify in other Paeoniaceae family members. Furthermore, the new SSR markers will be useful tools in assessing genetic diversity, detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) and finally in facilitating marker-assisted selection (MAS). © 2013. Source

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