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Somamoto T.,Kyushu University | Kondo M.,National Fisheries University | Nakanishi T.,Nihon University | Nakao M.,Kyushu University
Developmental and Comparative Immunology | Year: 2014

Although many recent studies have suggested that CD4+ helper T cell (Th-cell) functions are well conserved among teleost fishes and mammals, there is little evidence that CD4+ Th-cells in fish are actually involved in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity during a secondary immune response. In the present study, adoptive transfer using clonal ginbuna crucian carp and crucian carp hematopoietic necrosis virus (CHNV) was used to investigate the functions of CD4+ cells during humoral and cell-mediated immunity. With regard to humoral immunity, transplanting CHNV-sensitized donor cells, containing CD4+ cells, into naive fish induced more rapid and stronger antibody production than by transplanting non-sensitized donor cells or sensitized donor cells lacking CD4+ cells. During cell-mediated immunity, no significant differences were found in recipients that received sensitized cells regardless of whether the donor cells contained CD4+ cells, although recipients that received both sensitized donor cells (with and without CD4+ cells) exhibited more efficient cell-mediated cytotoxicity than those that received non-sensitized donor cells. These findings suggest that inducing a secondary antibody response requires CD4+ cell help, and secondary cell-mediated immunity can be induced both by CD4+ cells and leukocytes other than CD4+ cells. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Tanaka R.,National Fisheries University | Sugiura Y.,National Fisheries University | Matsushita T.,National Fisheries University
Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies | Year: 2013

In this study, we developed a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorometric detection for the simultaneous quantitation of 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) in foods by using 1,3-cyclohexanedione reagent. This method provides good resolution and reproducibility. Chromatography is conducted with a gradient system using a mobile phase of methanol-water-tetrahydrofuran (75:25:1, v/v) (A) and acetonitrile (B). The gradient employed is 5% B to 25% B in 25 min; 25% B to 80% in 30 min; isocratic at 80% B in 40 min. The flow rate is 1.0 mL/min. Fluorescence detection is performed at an exciting wavelength of 385 nm and an emission wavelength of 450 nm. The calibration curves for HHE and HNE concentrations are linear from 0.08 to 14 and 0.08 to 5.2 μmol/mL, respectively. The limits of detection and quantitation for HHE are 27 and 160 nmol/mL and those for HNE are 30 and 149 nmol/mL, respectively. Validation data show that the assay is sensitive, specific, accurate, and reproducible for the simultaneous quantitation of HHE and HNE. This rapid method is, therefore, appropriate for quantitating HHE and HNE in fatty foods such as fish and animal meats. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Nakane Y.,University of Tokyo | Suda Y.,National Fisheries University | Sano M.,University of Tokyo
Marine Biology | Year: 2013

To determine differences in fish assemblage structures between beach morphodynamic types on an exposed sandy shore, three beach types (reflective, intermediate, and dissipative) were sampled at Fukiagehama Beach, Kyushu Island, southern Japan, in May, August, and November 2006 and 2007. Distinct differences in physical conditions and the amount of major prey invertebrates, such as copepods, mysids, and amphipods, were recognized between the three beach types. The reflective beach was characterized mainly by turbulent swashes, coarse sediment, and a low abundance of major prey invertebrates. In contrast, the dissipative beach was characterized mostly by benign swashes, fine sediment, and a high abundance of prey invertebrates. The intermediate beach tended toward an intermediate condition between the reflective and dissipative beaches. The fish assemblage structures also differed clearly between the three beach types, with species and individual numbers being greatest on the dissipative beach and lowest on the reflective beach. A similarity index indicated differences in species composition of the assemblages between the beach types. Such differences arose primarily from the differential distributions of two dominant trophic groups, zooplankton (mostly copepods) and epibenthic crustacean (mainly mysids and amphipods) feeders, between the beach types, both groups tending to increase in species and individual numbers from the reflective beach to the dissipative beach. In addition, the mean standard length of all fish collected in each month tended to decrease toward the dissipative beach. These results suggested that beach types strongly influence sandy beach fish assemblage structures. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Ishida T.,National Fisheries University
Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres | Year: 2014

Understanding the generalized mechanisms of cell self-assembly is fundamental for applications in various fields, such as mass producing molecular machines in nanotechnology. Thus, the details of real cellular reaction networks and the necessary conditions for self-organized cells must be elucidated. We constructed a 2-dimensional cellular automata model to investigate the emergence of biological cell formation, which incorporated a looped membrane and a membrane-bound information system (akin to a genetic code and gene expression system). In particular, with an artificial reaction system coupled with a thermal system, the simultaneous formation of a looped membrane and an inner reaction process resulted in a more stable structure. These double structures inspired the primitive biological cell formation process from chemical evolution stage. With a model to simulate cellular self-organization in a 2-dimensional cellular automata model, 3 phenomena could be realized: (1) an inner reaction system developed as an information carrier precursor (akin to DNA); (2) a cell border emerged (akin to a cell membrane); and (3) these cell structures could divide into 2. This double-structured cell was considered to be a primary biological cell. The outer loop evolved toward a lipid bilayer membrane, and inner polymeric particles evolved toward precursor information carriers (evolved toward DNA). This model did not completely clarify all the necessary and sufficient conditions for biological cell self-organization. Further, our virtual cells remained unstable and fragile. However, the “garbage bag model” of Dyson proposed that the first living cells were deficient; thus, it would be reasonable that the earliest cells were more unstable and fragile than the simplest current unicellular organisms. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


The research presented here evaluates the heat transfer coefficient of the contact interface of a thin liquid polymer film between a pair of columnar aluminum bodies with an initial temperature difference of approximately 160 K. We measured the unsteady temperature changes inside the columns. The heat transfer test was performed with three types of liquid polymers: squalane, oleic acid, and silicone oil. The heat transfer coefficient of the polymer films as a fitting parameter was obtained by ensuring the numerically computed time evolution of the columns’ temperature corresponded with the experimentally measured data. The interfacial heat transfer coefficients of the thin polymer films (mean thickness: 60 μm) for all three polymers used were 1.75 kW/m2·K, 2.75 kW/m2·K, and 4.10 kW/m2·K. The present estimating method for determining interfacial heat transfer coefficients was suitable for a material-polymer film-material contact model. The time evolution of the temperature at the contact surfaces was also effectively evaluated using the numerical simulation. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Ishida T.,National Fisheries University
Modelling and Simulation in Engineering | Year: 2015

We propose a new algorithm to build self-organizing and self-repairing marine structures on the ocean floor, where humans and remotely operated robots cannot operate. The proposed algorithm is based on the one-dimensional cellular automata model and uses simple transition rules to produce various complex patterns. This cellular automata model can produce various complex patterns like sea shells with simple transition rules. The model can simulate the marine structure construction process with distributed cooperation control instead of central control. Like living organism is constructed with module called cell, we assume that the self-organized structure consists of unified modules (structural units). The units pile up at the bottom of the sea and a structure with the appropriate shape eventually emerges. Using the attribute of emerging patterns in the one-dimensional cellular automata model, we construct specific structures based on the local interaction of transition rules without using complex algorithms. Furthermore, the model requires smaller communication data among the units because it only relies on communication between adjacent structural units. With the proposed algorithm, in the future, it will be possible to use self-assembling structural modules without complex built-in computers. © 2015 Takeshi Ishida.


Tokunaga K.,National Fisheries University
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2014

This paper describes a method for finding the topology of a data distribution online using a new growing graph network architecture. Many growing neural networks for finding the topology of data online, such as the Growing Neural Gas, depend on the order and number of input data. For this reason, conventional methods have certain drawbacks: weakness to noise, generating redundant nodes, requiring a great deal of input data, and so on. The proposed method is robust with respect to these issues since it has been developed from the viewpoint of a generative model. This paper presents both the theory and an algorithm in this paper. Moreover, the effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by experiments comparing the proposed method with various growing graph networks. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Ito S.,National Fisheries University
BIOINFORMATICS 2016 - 7th International Conference on Bioinformatics Models, Methods and Algorithms, Proceedings; Part of 9th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies, BIOSTEC 2016 | Year: 2016

Toward system-level understanding of biological systems, we need a formalism to model and analyse them. Due to incompleteness of knowledge about quantitative parameters and molecular mechanisms, qualitative methods have been useful alternatives. We have been working on temporal logic-based approach for qualitative modelling and analysis of gene regulatory networks. Although our framework is well-established to model several aspects of gene regulation, we still lack treatment of alternative splicing, which contributes to proteomic diversity of eukaryotic organisms. In this paper we extend our logic-based qualitative framework to be able to capture alternative splicing, which is crucial to model the gene regulatory networks in eukaryotic organisms. We study mechanisms of alternative splicing and propose how we model each mechanism, then demonstrate the modelling method by analysing the regulatory network of sex determination in Drosophila and verify that the network ensures sex determination. Copyright © 2016 by SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved.


Patent
Japan Eco Science Co., Chiba University, Kanazawa University, National Fisheries University, Miroku Co. and Keiyo Plant Engineering Co. | Date: 2013-02-13

To provide a mixture, a dissolving solution and a pharmaceutical agent, which contain a thermophilic microorganism to make it possible to regulate a mucous membrane immune system gene cluster and metabolism-related gene clusters of the intestines and the liver. Each of them is prepared by fermentation of an organic material containing a thermophilic microorganism at a temperature of 50 C or more and 90 C or less. By being administered to the animal, it regulates at least one of a mucous membrane immune system gene cluster, a metabolism-related gene cluster in the intestines, and a metabolism-related gene cluster in the liver of the animal. The microorganism includes at least one species of the genus Bacillus, Oceanobacillus, Paenibacillus, Anoxybacillus, Lysinibacillus, Methanopyrus, Geogemma, Pyrolobus, Pyrodictium, Hyperthermus, Pyrococcus, Pyrobaculum, Thermococcus, Aeropyrum, Aquifex, Thermotoga, Thermodesulfobacterium, Thermus, Geobacillus, and Thermomyces.


Patent
Japan Eco Science Co., Chiba University, Kanazawa University, National Fisheries University, Miroku Co. and Keiyo Plant Engineering Co. | Date: 2015-07-09

To provide a mixture, a dissolving solution and a pharmaceutical agent, which contain a thermophilic microorganism to make it possible to regulate a mucous membrane immune system gene cluster and metabolism-related gene clusters of the intestines and the liver. Each of them is prepared by fermentation of an organic material containing a thermophilic microorganism at a temperature of 50 C. or more and 90 C. or less. By being administered to the animal, it regulates at least one of a mucous membrane immune system gene cluster, a metabolism-related gene cluster in the intestines, and a metabolism-related gene cluster in the liver of the animal. The microorganism includes at least one species of the genus Bacillus, Oceanobacillus, Paenibacillus, Anoxybacillus, Lysinibacillus, Methanopyrus, Geogemma, Pyrolobus, Pyrodictium, Hyperthermus, Pyrococcus, Pyrobaculum, Thermococcus, Aeropyrum, Aquifex, Thermotoga, Thermodesulfobacterium, Thermus, Geobacillus, and Thermomyces.

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