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Aoki T.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology | Wang H.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Unajak S.,Kasetsart University | Santos M.D.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Marine Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Shrimp aquaculture is one of the major food-producing industries in the world. However, it is being impacted by several problems including diseases, antibiotic use, and environmental factors. The extent of the effects of these problems in the immune system of the shrimp at the molecular level is just beginning to be understood. Here, we review the gene expression profile of shrimp in response to some of these problems using the high-throughput microarray analysis, including white spot syndrome virus, yellow head virus, Vibrio spp., peptidoglycan, oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, salinity, and temperature. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Willette D.A.,University of California at Los Angeles | Carpenter K.E.,Old Dominion University | Santos M.D.,National Fisheries Research and Development Institute
Bulletin of Marine Science | Year: 2014

We identify the sister species of the world's only freshwater sardinella, Sardinella tawilis (Herre, 1927) of Taal Lake, Philippines as the morphologically-similar marine Taiwanese sardinella Sardinella hualiensis (Chu and Tsai, 1958). Evidence of incomplete lineage sorting and a species tree derived from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene indicate that S. tawilis diverged from S. hualiensis in the late Pleistocene. Neutrality tests, mismatch distribution analysis, sequence diversity indices, and species tree analysis indicate populations of both species have long been stable and that the divergence between these two lineages occurred prior to the putative 18th century formation of Taal Lake.© 2014 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami.

Pedrosa-Gerasmio I.R.,University of the Philippines in the Visayas | Pedrosa-Gerasmio I.R.,National Fisheries Research and Development Institute | Babaran R.P.,University of the Philippines in the Visayas | Santos M.D.,National Fisheries Research and Development Institute
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788) and bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Lowe, 1839) are two of the most economically important tuna species in the world. However, identification of their juveniles, especially at sizes less than 40 cm, is very difficult, often leading to misidentification and miscalculation of their catch estimates. Here, we applied the mitochondrial DNA control region D-loop, a recently validated genetic marker used for identifying tuna species (Genus Thunnus), to discriminate juvenile tunas caught by purse seine and ringnet sets around fish aggregating devices (FADs) off the Southern Iloilo Peninsula in Central Philippines. We checked individual identifications using the Neighbor-Joining Method and compared results with morphometric analyses and the liver phenotype. We tested 48 specimens ranging from 13 to 31 cm fork length. Morpho-meristic analyses suggested that 12 specimens (25%) were bigeye tuna and 36 specimens (75%) were yellowfin tuna. In contrast, the genetic and liver analyses both showed that 5 specimens (10%) were bigeye tuna and 43 (90%) yellowfin tuna. This suggests that misidentification can occur even with highly stringent morpho-meristic characters and that the mtDNA control region and liver phenotype are excellent markers to discriminate juveniles of yellowfin and bigeye tunas. © 2012 Pedrosa-Gerasmio et al.

Ackiss A.S.,Old Dominion University | Pardede S.,Wildlife Conservation Society | Crandall E.D.,Southwest Fisheries Science Center | Ablan-Lagman M.C.A.,De La Salle University - Manila | And 4 more authors.
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2013

The redbelly yellowtail fusilier Caesio cuning has a tropical Indo-West Pacific range that straddles the Coral Triangle, a region of dynamic geological history and the highest marine biodiversity on the planet. Previous genetic studies in the Coral Triangle indicate the presence of multiple limits to connectivity. However, these studies have focused almost exclusively on benthic, reef-dwelling species. Schooling, reef-associated fusiliers (Perciformes: Caesionidae) account for a sizable portion of the annual reef catch in the Coral Triangle, yet to date, there have been no indepth studies on the population structure of fusiliers or other mid-water, reef-associated planktivores across this region. We evaluated the genetic population structure of C. cuning using a 382 bp segment of the mitochondrial control region amplified from over 620 fish sampled from 33 localities across the Philippines and Indonesia. Phylogeographic analysis showed that individuals sampled from sites in western Sumatra belong to a distinct Indian Ocean lineage, resulting in pronounced regional structure between western Sumatra and the rest of the Coral Triangle (φCT = 0.4796, p < 0.004). We found additional significant population structure between central Southeast Asia and eastern Indonesia (φCT = 0.0450, p < 0.001). These data in conjunction with spatial analyses indicate that there are 2 major lineages of C. cuning and at least 3 distinct management units across the region. The location of genetic breaks as well as the distribution of divergent haplotypes across our sampling range suggests that current oceanographic patterns could be contributing to observed patterns of structure. © Inter-Research 2013.

Thomas Jr. R.C.,National Fisheries Research and Development Institute | Willette D.A.,University of California at Los Angeles | Carpenter K.E.,Old Dominion University | Santos M.D.,National Fisheries Research and Development Institute
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Cryptic species continue to be uncovered in many fish taxa, posing challenges for fisheries conservation and management. In Sardinella gibbosa, previous investigations revealed subtle intra-species variations, resulting in numerous synonyms and a controversial taxonomy for this sardine. Here, we tested for cryptic diversity within S. gibbosa using genetic data from two mitochondrial and one nuclear gene regions of 248 individuals of S. gibbosa, collected from eight locations across the Philippine archipelago. Deep genetic divergence and subsequent clustering was consistent across both mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Clade distribution is geographically limited: Clade 1 is widely distributed in the central Philippines, while Clade 2 is limited to the northernmost sampling site. In addition, morphometric analyses revealed a unique head shape that characterized each genetic clade. Hence, both genetic and morphological evidence strongly suggests a hidden diversity within this common and commercially-important sardine. © 2014 Thomas et al.

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