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Baker M.R.,University of Washington | Vynne C.H.,National Fish and Wildlife Foundation
Fisheries Research | Year: 2014

Accurate and controlled methods to measure physiological stress are crucial to effectively monitor and assess the health of wildlife populations and evaluate resilience to external stressors. Glucocorticoids, particularly cortisol, are frequently used to measure stress in fish. While measurements of cortisol concentrations provide a powerful indicator of physiological stress, there are important considerations in accurately measuring and interpreting results. We assessed methods to capture and sample wild populations of salmonids and evaluated potential biases from sampling disturbance. We present results of a stress series and suggest approaches to mitigate bias associated with sampling disturbance. Studies on physiological stress in salmonids often focus on particular life stages (e.g. outward migration to marine waters, return migration to freshwater systems), or processes (e.g. fisheries interactions, spawning success), characterized by dramatic physiological challenges related to the developmental stage of the fish and the external environment. Such pressures influence baseline cortisol levels and complicate efforts to interpret the effects of additional external stressors. We present a profile for naturally occurring shifts in cortisol levels at migration, reproductive maturation, spawning, and senescence. This profile provides a crucial baseline for use as reference in evaluating physiological stress in Pacific salmon during crucial life stages. Our findings provide guidance for sampling wild salmonids and highlight the need for caution in interpreting cortisol in the context of physical challenges and physiological developments relevant to their complex life history. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Crohn K.,University of California at Los Angeles | Birnbaum M.,National Fish and Wildlife Foundation
Evaluation and Program Planning | Year: 2010

Evaluation in environmental education is fairly nascent despite decades-long attention to its importance. In setting the context for future chapters appearing in this special issue of the Journal of Evaluation and Program Planning, attention is devoted to the political circumstances associated with retrenchment in the public sector and increased involvement of citizens in environmental issues in their regions. It further is nested in the context of potential political reforms in a stable market democracy where education is but one strategy that can be bundled with regulations and taxes/subsidies. Additional attention is directed to explaining many of the key evaluation theories - utilization-focused evaluation, evaluative capacity building, and program-theory driven evaluation. The final section of this chapter situates the subsequent chapters of this volume based on the demographic target (youth or adult) as well as connection to a particular evaluation theory. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Williams J.E.,Trout Unlimited | Williams R.N.,Federation of Fly Fishers | Thurow R.F.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Elwell L.,Center for Aquatic Nuisance Species | And 7 more authors.
Fisheries | Year: 2011

The status of freshwater fishes continues to decline despite substantial conservation efforts to reverse this trend and recover threatened and endangered aquatic species. Lack of success is partially due to working at smaller spatial scales and focusing on habitats and species that are already degraded. Protecting entire watersheds and aquatic communities, which we term "native fish conservation areas" (NFCAs), would complement existing conservation efforts by protecting intact aquatic communities while allowing compatible uses. Four critical elements need to be met within a NFCA: (1) maintain processes that create habitat complexity, diversity, and connectivity; (2) nurture all of the life history stages of the fishes being protected; (3) include a large enough watershed to provide long-term persistence of native fish populations; and (4) provide management that is sustainable over time. We describe how a network of protected watersheds could be created that would anchor aquatic conservation needs in river basins across the country.

Dauwalter D.C.,Research Scientist | Sanderson J.S.,The Nature Conservancy of Colorado | Williams J.E.,Trout Unlimited | Sedell J.R.,National Fish and Wildlife Foundation
Fisheries | Year: 2011

Freshwater fishes continue to decline at a rapid rate despite substantial conservation efforts. Native fish conservation areas (NFCAs) are a management approach emphasizing persistent native fish communities and healthy watersheds while simultaneously allowing for compatible human uses. We identified potential NFCAs in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Wyoming-focusing on Colorado River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus), flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis), bluehead sucker (Catostomus discobolus), and roundtail chub (Gila robusta)-through a process that combined known and modeled species distributions, spatial prioritization analysis, and stakeholder discussions. The network of potential NFCAs is intended to serve as a funding framework for a National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) Keystone Initiative focused on Colorado River Basin native fishes. We discuss current opportunities for and impediments to implementing the potential NFCAs we identified for the NFWF Initiative over the long term. NFCAs represent a promising approach to fisheries management that complements existing approaches by focusing on persistent native fish communities.

Brooks T.M.,International Union for Conservation of Nature | Lamoreux J.F.,National Fish and Wildlife Foundation | Soberon J.,Lawrence University
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2014

The characteristics of the physical science basis and mitigation of climate change lend themselves well to a science-policy interface focused on global assessment-the function of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). By contrast, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) needs three additional functions of knowledge generation, capacity-building, and policy support, in addition to traditional assessment, and the same is true for climate change adaptation. These functions are included in the work program for IPBES, but their total share of the budget, currently less than a third, is inadequate. For climate change adaptation they are delivered by mechanisms like the Nairobi Work Programme and the Adaptation Committee, which should similarly receive greater attention. © 2014.

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