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Choi S.H.,University of Ulsan | Kim K.W.,University of Ulsan | Lee J.Y.,National Evidence based Healthcare Collaborating Agency | Kim K.-J.,University of Ulsan | Park S.H.,University of Ulsan
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases | Year: 2015

To systematically determine the performance of diffusion-weighted imaging magnetic resonance enterography (DWI-MRE) for evaluating bowel inflammation in Crohn's disease and sources of heterogeneity between reported results. Methods: We identified research studies that investigated DWI-MRE to diagnose bowel inflammation (present versus absent) or to assess bowel inflammatory severity in Crohn's disease by performing a systematic search of PubMed MEDLINE and EMBASE (until March 31, 2015). Study quality was assessed using QUADAS-2. For studies reporting dichotomous diagnosis of bowel inflammation, study heterogeneity and threshold effect were analyzed, summary sensitivity and specificity were estimated, and meta-regression analysis was performed to further explore study heterogeneity. For studies reporting assessment of inflammatory severity, a qualitative summary was performed. Results: Of 159 articles screened, we found 12 studies (1515 bowel segments) reporting a diagnosis of bowel inflammation and 6 studies (1066 bowel segments) reporting assessment of inflammatory severity. The summary sensitivity and specificity were 92.9% (95% CI, 85.8%-96.6%; I2 = 87.9%) and 91% (95% CI, 79.7%-96.3%; I2 = 95.1%), respectively. Sensitivity and false-positive rate were inversely correlated (r =-0.650; P = 0.022). Lack of blinding to contrast-enhanced MRE when interpreting DWI-MRE (P = 0.01) and use of contrast-enhanced MRE as a reference standard (P < 0.01) in some studies were significant factors for study heterogeneity and likely caused overestimation of DWI-MRE accuracy. There was rather clear correlation between diffusion-related parameters and bowel inflammation severity, although the strengths were heterogeneous (correlation coefficient, 0.39-0.98). Conclusions: DWI-MRE accuracy was very heterogeneous between studies and was likely overestimated in some studies. Despite rather clear correlation between diffusion-related parameters and bowel inflammatory severity, its strength was variable. © 2015 Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America, Inc. Source

Lee S.,National Evidence based Healthcare Collaborating Agency
Global Public Health | Year: 2015

The aims of this study are to identify what hinders implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 5.3 in Korea, and to provide suggestions for the implementation of Article 5.3. Official governmental documents on tobacco control were reviewed. We also searched news articles for data triangulation. There were three factors that hindered the implementation of Article 5.3 in Korea. Firstly, there has been legal conflict between two tobacco-related laws, one of which is designed to promote the tobacco industry. The other is designed to promote public health. Secondly, the government has had economic interests in the tobacco industry, and its lack of action to effectively regulate the tobacco industry's corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices has hindered the implementation of Article 5.3. Thirdly, the tobacco industry's lobby and active interference in the policy-making process has been a barrier. To fully implement Article 5.3, this study suggests: defusing legal conflict between tobacco-related laws; not considering tobacco industry as a stakeholder; regulating tobacco industry's CSR activities; raising awareness of tobacco industry interference; securing transparency between the government and tobacco industry; and establishing a core group or a committee under the government to implement Article 5.3. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Source

Ko R.,National Evidence based Healthcare Collaborating Agency
Journal of the Korean Medical Association | Year: 2016

The objective of this review is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the amniopatch procedure for the treatment ofpreterm premature rupture of the membranes. The searches were conducted via electronic databases including Ovid-MEDLINE, Ovid-Embase, the Cochrane Library, and eight Korean databases. In the study design, in addition to randomized controlled trials, case report studies in which patients underwent the amniopatch procedure were included. Two reviewers independently selected data in standardized form and assessed the methodological quality. Quality evaluation was performed by the SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network) method. A total of 11 studies (2 cohort studies, 1 case series, and 8 case reports) were included. There were no serious maternal or fetal complications. It was reported that there were lower rates of maternal chorioamnionitis after the amniopatch relative to conservative treatment (control). The mean gestational age at delivery was 27.7 weeks (a total of 70 cases in 10 studies; spontaneous group, 27.6 weeks; iatrogenic group, 27.8 weeks). The amniopatch was successful in 46.6% of cases (33/71 cases in 11 studies). The overall neonatal survival rate was 55.3% (52/94 cases in 11 studies). Neonatal morbidity was 23.4% (11/47 cases in 7 studies). Although this systematic review, did not find clear evidence of the safety and effectiveness, the amniopatch procedure is a viable treatment option to prolong a pregnancy with previable premature rupture of membranes. © Korean Medical Association. Source

Choi E.Y.,Wonkwang University | Park D.-A.,National Evidence based Healthcare Collaborating Agency | Park J.,Wonkwang University
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background: The appropriate calorie intake to be provided to critically ill patients via enteral nutrition (EN) remains unclear. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to compare the effect of initial underfeeding and full feeding in acutely critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: We searched the Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases to identify randomized controlled trials that compared underfeeding with full feeding in critically ill patients. The primary outcome was overall mortality. The secondary outcomes included length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, incidence of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile colitis, other infectious complications, and gastrointestinal intolerance. Results: In total, 4 studies were included in this meta-analysis. There was no significant difference in overall mortality between the underfeeding and full-feeding groups (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-1.19; I2 = 26.6%; P =.61). Subgroup analysis of the underfeeding subgroup that was fed ≥33.3% of the standard caloric requirement indicated that overall mortality was significantly lower in this underfeeding subgroup than in the full-feeding group (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.40-1.00; I2 = 0%; P =.05). In contrast, no difference in overall mortality was noted between the underfeeding subgroup that was fed <33.3% of the standard caloric requirement and the full-feeding group. The length of hospital stay and length of ICU stay did not differ between the 2 groups. Moreover, no differences in other secondary clinical outcomes were noted. Conclusions: None of the analyzed clinical outcomes for the acutely critically ill patients were significantly influenced by the calorie intake of the initial EN. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. Source

Lee S.,National Evidence based Healthcare Collaborating Agency
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health | Year: 2016

South Korea's state health insurer, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), is in the process of a compensation suit against tobacco industry. The tobacco companies have habitually endeavored to ensure favorable outcomes in litigation by misusing scientific evidence or recruiting scientists to support its interests. This study analyzed strategies that tobacco companies have used during the NHIS litigation, which has been receiving world-wide attention. To understand the litigation strategies of tobacco companies, the present study reviewed the existing literature and carried out content analysis of petitions, preparatory documents, and supporting evidence submitted to the court by the NHIS and the tobacco companies during the suit. Tobacco companies misrepresented the World Health Organization (WHO) report's argument and misused scientific evidence, and removed the word "deadly" from the title of the citation. Tobacco companies submitted the research results of scientists who had worked as a consultant for the tobacco industry as evidence. Such litigation strategies employed by the tobacco companies internationally were applied similarly in Korean lawsuits. Results of tobacco litigation have a huge influence on tobacco control policies. For desirable outcomes of the suits, healthcare professionals need to pay a great deal of attention to the enormous volume of written opinions and supporting evidence that tobacco companies submit. They also need to face the fact that the companies engage in recruitment of scientists. Healthcare professionals should refuse to partner with tobacco industry, as recommended by Article 5.3 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. © Copyright 2016 The Korean Society for Preventive Medicine. Source

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