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Park S.,Kyung Hee University | Romer D.,University of Pennsylvania | Lim S.,National Evidence Based Health Care Collaborating Agency
Journal of Addictions Nursing | Year: 2013

The association between smoking and depression has been well stated in the literature. However, themechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still unclear. Recent research using an animal model suggests that even low-level nicotine exposure during adolescence has long-lasting effects on the development of depression. This study aims to examine the association between smoking initiation and depression analyzing secondary data. A sample that is representative of the South Korean adult population was selected from the Fourth KoreaNationalHealth and Nutrition Examination Survey collected from 2007 to 2009 (N = 18,406). Regardless of life stage of smoking initiation, smokers had greater risk for depression in adulthood than nonsmokers after adjusting for demographics and other depression-related covariates. The results indicate that, with regard to risk for depression, it is important to prevent smoking initiation at any life stage. Successful implementation of smoking prevention strategies should lead to enhanced mental (i.e., reduced risk for depression) as well as physical health of adults in the long run. Copyright © 2013 International Nurses Society on Addictions.


Mo J.-A.,National Evidence Based Health Care Collaborating Agency | Mo J.-A.,Inha University | Lim J.-H.,National Evidence Based Health Care Collaborating Agency | Sul A.-R.,National Evidence Based Health Care Collaborating Agency | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to carry out systematic review of the literature and metaanalysis to evaluate the diagnostic utility of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the 42 amino acid form of amyloid-beta (Aβ1-42) as a biomarker for differentiating Alzheimer's disease (AD) from non-AD dementia. Methods: Design. Systematic literature review was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the Aβ for the diagnosis of AD. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) tool was used to evaluate independently the quality of the studies. Data sources. The literature review covered from January 1, 2004, to October 22, 2013, and searched eight domestic databases including Korea Med and international databases including Ovid-MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. Data Extraction and Synthesis. Primary criteria for inclusion were valid studies on (i) patients with mild cognitive impairment with confirmed or suspected AD and non-AD dementia, and (ii) assessment of Aβ1-42 levels using appropriate comparative tests. Results: A total of 17 diagnostic evaluation studies were identified in which levels of CSF Aβ1-42 were assessed. Meta-analysis was performed on 11 robust studies that compared confirmed AD (n = 2211) with healthy individuals (n = 1030), 10 studies that compared AD with non-AD dementias (n = 627), and 5 studies that compared amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 1133) with non-amnestic type subjects (n = 1276). Overall, the CSF Aβ1-42 levels were reduced in AD compared to controls or non-AD dementia. The effectiveness of test was evaluated for diagnostic accuracy (pooled sensitivity, 0.80 (95% CI 0.78-0.82); pooled specificity, 0.76 (95% CI 0.74-0.78). Conclusions: Reduced CSF Aβ1-42 levels are of potential utility in the differential diagnosis of AD versus non-AD dementias and controls. Diagnostic accuracy was high in AD versus healthy controls. However, differential diagnosis for MCI or non-AD might be evaluated by other biomarkers. © 2015 Mo et al.

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