National Environmental Research Institute of Denmark

Roskilde, Denmark

National Environmental Research Institute of Denmark

Roskilde, Denmark

NERI, the National Environmental Research Institute of Denmark was an independent research institute under the Aarhus University. NERI undertook scientific consultancy work and monitoring of nature and the environment as well as applied and strategic research. NERI’s primary task was to establish a scientific foundation for environmental policy decisions.NERI participated in a large number of national and international research programmes, and also in scientific working groups, commissions, and organizations under such bodies as the European Union and the United Nations.In 2011, NERI closed. The consultancy side was reorganised into The DCE - Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, while the research departments of the old NERI are now divided between the Department of Bioscience and the Department of Environmental Science. Wikipedia.

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Borja A.,Tecnalia | Elliott M.,University of Hull | Carstensen J.,National Environmental Research Institute of Denmark | Heiskanen A.-S.,Finnish Environment Institute | van de Bund W.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2010

Through implementing environmental Directives, Europe has moved towards coordinated and integrated catchment-to-coast management, following the most novel legislation on ecosystem-based approaches worldwide. The novel joint synthesis of this direction reviewed here allows us to regard the Water Framework Directive (WFD) as a '. deconstructing structural approach' whereas the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is a '. holistic functional approach', i.e. the WFD has split the ecosystem into several biological quality elements, then it compares the structure of these (such as species complement) individually before combining them and attempting to determine the overall condition. In contrast the MSFD concentrates on the set of 11 descriptors which together summarize the way in which the whole system functions. We emphasize that both Directives are frameworks on which many other directives are linked but that they need to be fully and seamlessly integrated to give a land to open sea system of assessment and management. Hence, by taking account of the experience gained in the WFD implementation, together with that from regional sea conventions, such as OSPAR (North East Atlantic) or HELCOM (Baltic Sea), we propose in this contribution an integrative approach for the environmental status assessment, within the MSFD. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Hoffle H.,University of Southern Denmark | Thomsen M.S.,National Environmental Research Institute of Denmark | Thomsen M.S.,Australian Institute of Marine Science | Holmer M.,University of Southern Denmark
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science | Year: 2011

The present study tested for density-dependent effects of the invasive drift macroalgae Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss on growth and survival of the native eelgrass, Zostera marina L., under different temperature levels. Three weeks laboratory experiments were conducted in Odense, Denmark, combining three algae densities (control, low 1.9 kg WW m-2, high 4.5 kg WW m-2) with typical Danish summer temperatures (18 °C) and elevated temperatures (21 °C and 27 °C). There was a significant effect of temperature on shoot survival with on average 68% mortality in the high temperature treatment but almost no mortality at the two lower temperatures. The higher mortality was probably caused by high sulphide levels in the sediment pore water (0.6 mmol l-1 at 18 °C compared to 3.7 mmol l-1 at 27 °C). Above-ground growth of the surviving shoots was also significantly affected by temperature, with leaf elongation rates being negatively affected, while the leaf plastochrone interval increased. Relative growth rate was significantly higher at 21 °C than at 18 °C or 27 °C, whereas rhizome elongation was significantly lowest at 27 °C. Elemental sulphur content in the plant tissues increased significantly with temperature and was up to 34 times higher (S0 in rhizomes) at 27 °C compared to the lower temperatures. In contrast to the temperature effects, cover by G. vermiculophylla did not cause significant effects on any seagrass responses. However, there was a (non-significant) negative effect of algal cover at the highest temperature, where the seagrass is already stressed. The latter results suggest that more studies should test for interaction effects between temperature and other anthropogenic stressors given that temperature is predicted to increase in the near future. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

de Wit C.A.,University of Stockholm | Herzke D.,Norwegian Institute For Air Research | Vorkamp K.,National Environmental Research Institute of Denmark
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2010

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) containing two to 10 bromines are ubiquitous in the Arctic, in both abiotic and biotic samples. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is also ubiquitous in the Arctic, with the γ-HBCD isomer predominating in air, the α-HBCD isomer predominating in biota and similar concentrations of α-, β- and γ-HBCD found in marine sediments. Other brominated flame retardants (BFRs) found in some Arctic samples are polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), hexabromobenzene (HxBBz), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), pentabromotoluene (PBT), and 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH). Temporal trends of tetra- to heptaBDEs and HBCD show increasing concentrations or a tendency to levelling off depending on the matrix (air, sediment, biota) and location, but no uniform picture for the Arctic emerges. BDE-209 concentrations are increasing in air. PBDEs and HBCD spatial trends in seabirds and marine mammals are similar to those seen previously for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with highest concentrations found in organisms from East Greenland and Svalbard. These trends indicate western Europe and eastern North America as important source regions of these compounds via long range atmospheric transport and ocean currents. Latitudinal trends showed lower concentrations and fluxes of PBDEs at higher latitudes. The tetra-hexaBDEs and α-HBCD biomagnify in Arctic food webs. Results for BDE-209 are more conflicting, showing either only low or no biomagnification potential. PBDE and HBCD concentrations are lower in terrestrial organisms and higher in marine top predators such as some killer whale populations in Alaska and glaucous gulls from the Barents Sea area. Higher concentrations are seen near populated areas indicating local sources. Findings of BTBPE, HxBBz, PBEB, PBT and TBECH in seabirds and/or marine mammals indicate that these compounds reach the Arctic, most probably by long range atmospheric transport and accumulate in higher trophic level organisms and that increasing use as PBDE replacements will lead to increasing concentrations. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Zhang J.,National Environmental Research Institute of Denmark | Gurkan Z.,Technical University of Denmark | Jorgensen S.E.,Copenhagen University
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2010

Eco-exergy has been widely used in the assessment of ecosystem health, parameter estimations, calibrations, validations and prognoses. It offers insights into the understanding of ecosystem dynamics and disturbance-driven changes. Particularly, structurally dynamic models (SDMs), which are developed using eco-exergy as the goal function, have been applied in explaining and exploring ecosystem properties and changes in community structure driven by biotic and abiotic factors. In this paper, we review the application of eco-exergy for the assessment of ecosystem health and development of structurally dynamic models (SDMs). The limitations and possible future applications of the approach are also addressed. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Jensen T.C.,Technical University of Denmark | Moller F.,National Environmental Research Institute of Denmark
Energy Policy | Year: 2010

This paper contains a tentative suggestion of how to take into account the value of changes in price volatility in real world cost-benefit analyses. Price volatility is an important aspect of security of supply which first of all concerns physical availability, but assuming that consumers are risk averse, security of supply can also be viewed as a matter of avoiding oscillations in consumption originating from volatile prices of for instance oil. When the government makes transport-related choices on behalf of the consumers, the effect on oscillations in general consumption should be included in the policy assessment taking into account the most significant correlations between prices of alternative fuels and between fuel prices and consumption in general. In the present paper, a method of valuing changes in price volatility based on portfolio theory is applied to some very simple transport-related examples. They indicate that including the value of changes in price volatility often makes very little difference to the results of cost-benefit analyses, but more work has to be done on quantifying, among other things, consumers' risk aversion and the background standard deviation in total consumption before firm conclusions can be drawn. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Korsgaarda L.,Technical University of Denmark | Schoub J.S.,National Environmental Research Institute of Denmark
Water Policy | Year: 2010

An important challenge of integrated water resources management (IWRM) is to balance water allocation between different users. While economically and/or politically powerful users have well developed methods for quantifying and justifying their water needs, this is not the case for ecosystems-the silent water user. A promising way of placing aquatic ecosystems on the water agenda is by economic valuation of services sustained by ecosystems. In developing countries, the livelihoods of rural people often depend directly on the provision of aquatic ecosystem services. In such situations, economic valuation of ecosystem services becomes particularly challenging. This paper reviews recent literature on economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries. "Market price" is the most widespread method used for valuating marketed ecosystem services in developing countries. "Cost based" and "revealed preference" methods are frequently used when ecosystem services are non-marketed. A review of 27 existing valuation studies reveals a considerable range of estimated total economic value of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries, that is from US$30 to 3,000/ha/year. The paper concludes that economic valuation is vital for bringing ecosystems to decision-making agendas in developing countries and that great effort must be made to bridge the gap between scientists and decision makers. © IWA Publishing 2010.

Jorgensen H.B.,National Environmental Research Institute of Denmark | Hedlund K.,Lund University
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Organic material of different origin is commonly used as fertiliser in agricultural practices. Clover and wheat straw are here used to determine the importance of organic amendment for population development of fungal feeding collembolans. Two fungal species, Alternaria infectoria and Mucor hiemalis, were inoculated in three growth substrates, clover amended soil, straw amended soil and non-amended soil, where both amendments and the soil originated from agricultural fields. Food choice as well as growth rate, survival and fecundity of the collembolan, Folsomia fimetaria, were measured when fed fungi grown in the three substrates. The type of amendment altered food quality of the two fungi, which was reflected in the collembolan food preference. Growth and fecundity of F. fimetaria were enhanced when fed M. hiemalis grown in both types of plant amended soils. F. fimetaria had a slightly higher fitness when fed A. infectoria grown in the straw amended soil, whereas it's fitness decreased when fed with A. infectoria grown in clover amended soil. We also examined how the predatory mite, Hypoaspis aculeifer, was attracted towards the two fungi as it uses the fungal odour as a potential cue of a prey habitat. H. aculeifer was attracted to both fungi when they were grown in clover amended soil where fungal growth also was observed to be massive. Thus, we conclude that amendment applications can cause effects that cascade through several trophic levels. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Nojgaard J.K.,National Environmental Research Institute of Denmark
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

There is a need for indoor measurements of nitrate radicals (NO3) and nitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) to better understand removal and transformation of volatile organic compounds in indoor environments, and to evaluate the possible health effects from exposure to nitrated reaction products. NO3 and NO2 react to form N2O5 in the presence of a third molecule, and the fast equilibrium necessitates measurements of both NO3 and N2O5 in the evaluation of indoor NO3 chemistry. The sum of these two species, NO3*, was quantified in an office building in Denmark by measuring an oxidation product of the cyclohexene/NO3 reaction in a flow-tube set-up. NO3* concentrations ranged from 1 to 58ppt, where N2O5 was estimated to account for more than 68%. The concentrations of the precursors, NO2 and O3, and the photolysis of NO3 were parameters, which clearly influenced NO3* apparent from the different precursor concentrations, lighting and daylight versus dark samples in this study. Also indoor air pollutants, in particular alkenes such as limonene and α-pinene, can significantly reduce NO3*. These first indoor measurements of NO3*, warrant further high time resolution measurements of NO3, N2O5, and organic nitrates indoors. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Holmer M.,University of Southern Denmark | Wirachwong P.,University of Southern Denmark | Thomsen M.S.,National Environmental Research Institute of Denmark
Marine Biology | Year: 2011

Seagrasses are threatened by multiple anthropogenic stressors, such as accumulating drift algae and increasing temperatures (associated with eutrophication and global warming, respectively). However, few seagrass experiments have examined whether exposure to multiple stressors causes antagonistic, additive, or synergistic effects, and this has limited our ability to predict the future health status of seagrass beds. We conducted a laboratory experiment to test whether abundance of Gracilaria comosa (3 levels; 0, 1.2, and 3.4 kg WW m-2), an algae that is resistant to wide environmental fluctuations (e. g. light, temperature, salinity, and oxygen levels), has negative effects on the small ephemeral seagrass, Halophila ovalis and whether the effects are exacerbated by high temperature (3 levels; 20, 25, and 30°C). We found an additive negative effect of the two stressors when tested simultaneously on 14 seagrass performance measures, with most data variability explained by the drift algae. For the individual plant performance measures (above- and below-ground growth and mortality, leaf area, internode distance, and root length and root volume), we found 5 additive effects, 4 synergistic effects, and 5 effects that were significant only for drift algae. We also documented a significant additive effect of drift algae and temperature on dissolved porewater sulphide (DS). A follow-up correlation analysis between DS and the 14 plant performance measures revealed significant or near-significant linear correlations on 9 of these responses (above- and below-ground growth, leaf area and weight, leaf mortality, and internode distance). In summary, we showed (a) that a stress-resistant drift algae can have strong negative effects on a small ephemeral seagrass, (b) this negative effect can increase both additively and synergistically with increasing temperature depending on performance measure, and (c) the negative effects may be mediated by a build-up of porewater DS. An implication of our findings is that resource managers aiming to preserve healthy seagrass beds in an almost certain future warmer world should increase efforts to keep drift algae populations low. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Hoffmann C.C.,National Environmental Research Institute of Denmark | Kronvang B.,National Environmental Research Institute of Denmark | Audet J.,National Environmental Research Institute of Denmark
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2011

During the last 15-20 years, re-establishment of freshwater riparian wetlands and remeandering of streams and rivers have been used as a tool to mitigate nutrient load in downstream recipients in Denmark. The results obtained on monitoring four different streams and wetland restoration projects are compared with respect to hydrology, i. e. flow pattern and discharge of ground or surface water, retention of phosphorus (P), and removal of nitrogen (N). Furthermore, the monitoring strategies applied for quantifying the post-restoration nutrient retention are evaluated. The four wetland restoration projects are the Brede River restoration (including river valley groundwater flow, remeandering and inundation), Lyngbygaards River restoration (groundwater flow, irrigation with drainage water, inundation with river water and remeandering), Egeskov fen (fen re-establishment and stream remeandering) and Egebjerg Meadows (fen restoration and hydrological reconnection to Store Hansted River). Retention of phosphorus varied between 0.13 and 10 kg P ha-1 year-1, while the removal of nitrogen varied between 52 and 337 kg N ha-1 year-1. The monitoring strategy chosen was not optimal at all sites and would have benefitted from a knowledge on local hydrology and water balances in the area to be restored before planning for the final monitoring design. Furthermore, the outcome concerning P retention would have benefitted from a more frequent sampling strategy. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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