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Cao H.,National Engineering Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Sasaki Y.,Hoshi University | Fushimi H.,University of Toyama | Komatsu K.,University of Toyama
Yaoxue Xuebao | Year: 2010

Curcuma drugs have been used discriminatingly for invigorating blood circulation, promoting digestion, and as a cholagogic in China. However, there is confusion about the drug's botanical origins and clinical uses because of morphological similarity of Curcuma plants and drugs. Comparative sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene in nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and trnK gene in chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) was carried out in order to examine interspecies phylogeny and to identify ultimately Curcuma species. A total of a hundred of accessions of eighteen species were analyzed. This resulted in an aligned matrix of 1 810 bp for 18S rDNA and 2 800 bp for trnK. 18S rDNA sequence divergence within the ingroup ranged from 0-0.05%, trnK ranged from 0-0.19%. One base transversion-substituted site (from cytosine to thymine) was observed from the upstream of 18S rDNA at nucleotide position 234 in C. kwangsiensis and Japanese population of C. zedoaria which have separated genetic distance to other Curcuma taxa. Two noncoding regions embedded in trnK intron showed higher variability, including nucleotide substitutions, repeat insertion and deletions. Based on consensus of relationship, eighteen major lineages within Curcuma are recognized at the species level. The results suggest that Curcuma is monophyletic with 100% bootstrap support and sister to the genera Hedychium and Zingiber. The trnK sequences showed considerable variations between Curcuma species and thus were revealed as a promising candidate for barcoding of Curcuma species, which provide valuable characters for inferring relationship within species but are insufficient to resolve relationships among closely related taxa.

Li M.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Wong K.-L.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Chan W.-H.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Li J.-X.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | And 3 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2012

The Chinese 'cooling' beverage (Liangcha) consumed in China and Asian countries is made from a single or a mixture of wild plants. It has been designed as an Intangible Cultural Heritage in China by Ministry of Culture of P. R. China in 2006, which further increasing its popularity. To ensure safety and efficacy, we have systematically collected a total of 177 samples of 44 botanical species of representative raw materials according to the criteria of the DNA barcoding initiative for establishing four DNA barcodes for molecular identification of these herbal materials. Altogether, a total of 608 sequences of four DNA barcodes were generated, including 173 rbcL, 150 matK, 160 trnH-psbA and 125 ITS sequences, which could be used to identify the Chinese 'cooling' beverage. This study also demonstrated the application of these DNA barcodes to differentiate the genuine materials from adulterants or substitutes, and to identify dried commodity samples. This is the first study using DNA barcoding techniques to identify the Chinese 'cooling' beverage materials and the gathered DNA barcodes are useful asset for standardization and quality control purposes. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Ma X.-Q.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Li S.-M.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Chan C.L.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Su T.,Hong Kong Baptist University | And 4 more authors.
Chinese Medicine (United Kingdom) | Year: 2016

Background: Over recent decades, sulfur fumigation is becoming abused in processing some freshly harvested herbs used as both medicine and food, although it has been questioned whether sulfur fumigation will change the efficacy and safety of the herbs. One of the herbs commonly processed by sulfur fumigation is Platycodonis Radix (Jiegeng in Chinese). Glycosides are the main bioactive components of Jiegeng. Up to the present, no study has been carried out to evaluate the impact of sulfur fumigation on glycoside profile of Jiegeng. Methods: A rapid and versatile ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC UHD Q-TOF MS/MS) method was developed for comprehensive analysis of the glycoside profiles of sulfur-fumigated and air-dried Jiegeng samples. Results: Twenty-three glycosides were detected in air-dried and sulfur-fumigated Jiegeng samples. After sulfur fumigation, the peak heights of eight glycosides, namely platycogenin A, platycodin D, platycodin D2, platycodin D3, polygalacin D, polygalacin D2, deapio-platycodin D and 3"-O-acetylplatycodin D2, remarkably decreased; while peak heights of five glycosides, namely syringin, lobetyolin, platycoside E, deapio-platycodin D2 and deapio-platycoside E, slightly increased; in addition, peaks of ten glycosides, platycodin A, platycodin C, platycodin V, platycoside C, 16-oxoplatycodin D, 2"-O-acetylpolygalacin D, 2"-O-acetylpolygalacin D2, 3"-O-acetylpolygalacin D, 3"-O-acetylpolygalacin D2, and platycogenic acid B, disappeared. Conclusion: Sulfur fumigation caused significant changes of glycoside components of Jiegeng. Further investigations are warranted to explore how these chemical changes occurred and whether these changes would affect the efficacy and safety of Jiegeng. © 2016 The Author(s).

Liu M.-H.,Sun Yat Sen University | Tong X.,Sun Yat Sen University | Wang J.-X.,Sun Yat Sen University | Zou W.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2013

Shenqi Fuzheng Injection (SFI) a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been extensively used as an adjuvant to chemotherapy for cancer treatment in clinic. However, the chemical constituents in SFI, especially water-soluble ingredients, had not been investigated so far. In this study, an ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) method was established for rapid separation and structural identification of the constituents in SFI. Separation was performed on a C18 reversed-phase column (2.1. mm. ×. 100. mm, 1.8 μm) by gradient elution mode, using methanol-water containing 0.1% formic acid as mobile phase at the flow-rate of 0.2. mL/min. Accurate mass measurement for molecular ions and characteristic fragment ions could represent reliable identification criteria for these compounds. As a result, eighty-one major constituents including organic acids, amino acids, oligosaccharides, alkaloids, nucleosides, phenylpropanoids, polyacetylenes, flavonoids, isoflavonoids and saponins were identified or tentatively characterized by comparing their retention times and MS spectra with those of authentic standards or literature data. All compounds were further assigned in the individual raw material. In conclusion, the UFLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS is a highly efficient technique to separate and identify constituents in complex matrices of traditional Chinese medicines. These results obtained in this research will provide a basis for quality control and further study in vivo of SFI. © 2012.

Su T.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Cheng B.C.-Y.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Fu X.-Q.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Li T.,Hong Kong Baptist University | And 8 more authors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2016

Background: Although toxic, the Chinese medicinal herb Xanthii Fructus (XF) is commonly used to treat traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) symptoms that resemble cold, sinusitis and arthritis. According to TCM theory, stir-baking (a processing method) can reduce the toxicity and enhance the efficacy of XF. Methods: Cytotoxicities of raw XF and processed XF (stir-baked XF, SBXF) were determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay in normal liver derived MIHA cells. Nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression were measured by the Griess reagent and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. The chemical profiles of XF and SBXF were compared using an established ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) method. Results: SBXF was less toxic than XF in MIHA cells. Both XF and SBXF had anti-inflammatory effects as demonstrated by their abilities to reduce nitric oxide production as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Interestingly, the anti-inflammatory effects of SBXF were more potent than that of XF. By comparing the chemical profiles, we found that seven peaks were lower, while nine other peaks were higher in SBXF than in XF. Eleven compounds including carboxyatractyloside, atractyloside and chlorogenic acid corresponding to eleven individual changed peaks were tentatively identified by matching with empirical molecular formulae and mass fragments, as well as literature data. Conclusion: Our study showed that stir-baking significantly reduced the cytotoxicity and enhanced the anti-inflammatory effects of XF; moreover, with a developed ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry method we differentiated XF and SBXF by their chemical profiles. Further studies are warranted to establish the relationship between the alteration of chemical profiles and the changes of medicinal properties caused by stir-baking. © 2016 Su et al.

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