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Wu H.,Beijing Forestry University | Yu X.,Beijing Forestry University | Yu X.,National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture | Da Silvac J.A.T.,Kagawa University | Lu G.,Beijing Forestry University
New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science | Year: 2011

The underground buds of herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) 'Zhong Sheng Fen' were used to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on culture initiation, benzyladenine (BA) on axillary shoot induction, and three auxins (IAA, indole-3-butyric acid [IBA] and 1-naphthyleneacetic acid [NAA]) on axillary shoot proliferation. In addition, methods to rejuvenate hyperhydric microshoots were established. Our results showed that the best initiation medium for 'Zhong Sheng Fen' was half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented withdouble the concentration of Ca 2+ (880 mg L -1), 1 mg L -1) BA, 0.5 mg L -1) gibberellic acid (GA 3) and 0.1 mg L -1) IAA. Axillary shoots were successfully induced by 2.0 mg L -1) BA. Several methods allowed the successful rejuvenation of hyperhydric microshoots, allowing them to develop normally. These included the addition of 3 g L -1) activated charcoal, the removal of ammonium nitrate from the medium, doubling the concentration of Ca 2+ or eliminating BA from the medium. © 2011 The Royal Society of New Zealand.

Yu X.-N.,Beijing Forestry University | Yu X.-N.,National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture | Wu H.J.,Beijing Forestry University | Cheng F.-Y.,Beijing Forestry University | And 3 more authors.
Propagation of Ornamental Plants | Year: 2011

Underground buds of herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) 'Zhong Sheng Fen' were chosen as material for micropropagation in vitro. The basic process, including culture initiation, shoot induction and axillary shoot proliferation were established. The best initial medium for explant establishment was half-strength MS medium (CaCl2 in double strength) supplemented with 1 mg l-1 BAP plus 0.3 mg l-1 GA3. Resection flower buds and leaves could induce shoots. The best medium for shoot proliferation was half-strength MS medium (CaCl2 in double strength) supplemented with 0.2 mg l-1 BAP.

Ji L.,Beijing Forestry University | Wang Q.,Beijing Forestry University | Teixeira da Silva J.A.,Kagawa University | Yu X.N.,Beijing Forestry University | Yu X.N.,National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2012

With rich germplasm resources, species of the genus Paeonia are exceptionally diverse in their flower color, flower type, plant height and so on. It is also well known that the genus has important ornamental and medicinal values. Hence, many researches especially Chinese take great efforts to study the genetic diversity. Even so, complex genetic backgrounds, vague genetic relationships and mixed cultivars still give rise to severe restrictions in breeding programmes. This review discusses recent literature on genetic diversity of Paeonia sect. Moutan DC and sect. Paeonia, which contain relatively rich germplasm resources from the level of comparative morphology, palynology, cytology, isozyme and molecular markers and DNA sequence analysis. Meantime, the advance research direction of genetic diversity in Paeonia is proposed. Comprehensively utilizing evidence in many levels and balanced development between tree peony and herbaceous peony are highlighted. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Shen M.,Beijing Forestry University | Wang Q.,Beijing Forestry University | Yu X.,Beijing Forestry University | Yu X.,National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture | Teixeira da Silva J.A.,Kagawa University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2012

This review highlights the advances made on various aspects of herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) tissue culture, including the in vitro culture of underground buds, leaves and petioles, the induction of cluster buds, and callus induction. Tissue culture has the ability of speeding up the rate of propagation, reducing breeding time and meeting the needs of mass production. Problems that are currently being faced in herbaceous peony tissue culture are highlighted and possible viable solutions are provided. Since the vast majority of peony literature is published in Chinese, this review provides a unique and valuable resource and spring-board from which to initiate or further studies related to the in vitro culture of herbaceous peony. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Zhang Q.,Beijing Forestry University | Chen W.,BGI Shenzhen | Sun L.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhao F.,Beijing Lin Fu Ke Yuan Flowers Co. | And 27 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2012

Prunus mume (mei), which was domesticated in China more than 3,000 years ago as ornamental plant and fruit, is one of the first genomes among Prunus subfamilies of Rosaceae been sequenced. Here, we assemble a 280M genome by combining 101-fold next-generation sequencing and optical mapping data. We further anchor 83.9% of scaffolds to eight chromosomes with genetic map constructed by restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing. Combining P. mume genome with available data, we succeed in reconstructing nine ancestral chromosomes of Rosaceae family, as well as depicting chromosome fusion, fission and duplication history in three major subfamilies. We sequence the transcriptome of various tissues and perform genome-wide analysis to reveal the characteristics of P. mume, including its regulation of early blooming in endodormancy, immune response against bacterial infection and biosynthesis of flower scent. The P. mume genome sequence adds to our understanding of Rosaceae evolution and provides important data for improvement of fruit trees. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Hao L.,Beijing Forestry University | Ma H.,Beijing Forestry University | Teixeira da Silva J.A.,P.O. Box 7 | Yu X.,Beijing Forestry University | Yu X.,National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture
Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2016

The pollen morphology of 26 cultivars of herbaceous peony (Paeonia L.) was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Pollen grains of the cultivars were mostly subprolate to perprolate, tricolporate, or ellipsoidal in equatorial view, but rounded-trifid in polar view. The poles of pollen grains were mainly flat when viewed in cross-section and only a few appeared to have a circular or arc shape. In addition, the surface of the pollen grains was psilate, and the muri were partly or fully protuberant with a reticulate surface sculpture. However, the shapes and sizes of pollen grains as well as surface ornamentation varied significantly among cultivars with different chromosome numbers. The pollen grains from diploid cultivars were regular and full, and the reticulation holes were evenly distributed, while most of the pollen grains from triploid cultivars were empty flat shells with some heteromorphic pollen whose surface ornamentation was mostly rugulate-reticulate exine. The pollen grains from tetraploid cultivars were the largest although pollen morphology and surface ornamentation differed between Athena and Cream Delight. Six indices [polar axis length (P), equator axis length (E), P/E, pollen perforation diameter (D), ridge width (W), and D/W] were used in Q cluster analysis, which divided the 26 cultivars into three groups. Group I included eight diploid, four triploid, and one tetraploid cultivar. Group II included 12 triploid cultivars with complex genetic backgrounds. Group III included only one tetraploid cultivar Cream Delight. This work may provide an important palynological basis for studying taxonomy and hybrid breeding of herbaceous peony cultivars. © 2016, American Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.

Wang Q.,Beijing Forestry University | Wang Q.,Tianjin Chengjian University | Cheng T.,National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture | Yu X.,Beijing Forestry University | And 3 more authors.
South African Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

Although herbaceous peony cultivars have been introduced and promoted widely, a key limitation to their use is their level of cold hardiness. In this study, the physiological and biochemical responses of six herbaceous peony cultivars to different temperatures and periods of exposure to freezing temperatures were assessed by analyzing changes in six indices. Under our experimental conditions, relative electric conductivity, soluble sugar concentration, soluble protein concentration, and malondialdehyde concentration generally increased as temperature declined, while proline content decreased. Superoxide dismutase activity fluctuated. After the same indicators were used to assess cold resistance over time at - 20 °C, the six cultivars could be ranked, in decreasing levels of cold resistance, as: 'Da Fu Gui', 'Fen Yu Nu', 'Kansas', 'Monsieur Jules Elie', 'Taff', and 'Pink Hawaiian Coral'. © 2014 South African Association of Botanists.

Zhang J.,National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture | Zhang Q.,National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture | Cheng T.,National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture | Yang W.,National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture | And 4 more authors.
DNA Research | Year: 2015

High-density genetic map is a valuable tool for fine mapping locus controlling a specific trait especially for perennial woody plants. In this study, we firstly constructed a high-density genetic map of mei (Prunus mume) using SLAF markers, developed by specific locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq). The linkage map contains 8,007 markers, with a mean marker distance of 0.195 cM, making it the densest genetic map for the genus Prunus. Though weeping trees are used worldwide as landscape plants, little is known about weeping controlling gene(s) (Pl). To test the utility of the high-density genetic map, we did fine-scale mapping of this important ornamental trait. In total, three statistic methods were performed progressively based on the result of inheritance analysis. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis initially revealed that a locus on linkage group 7 was strongly responsible for weeping trait. Mutmap-like strategy and extreme linkage analysis were then applied to fine map this locus within 1.14 cM. Bioinformatics analysis of the locus identified some candidate genes. The successful localization of weeping trait strongly indicates that the high-density map constructed using SLAF markers is a worthy reference for mapping important traits for woody plants. © 2015 The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

Zhang M.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation and Molecular Breeding | Zhang M.,National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture | Zhang M.,Beijing Forestry University | Huang H.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation and Molecular Breeding | And 5 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2014

Proline plays a significant role in plant resistance to abiotic stresses, and its level is determined by a combination of synthesis, catabolism and transport. The primary proteins involved are δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), proline dehydrogenase (PDH) and proline transporter (ProT). To utilise proline metabolism to improve the stress resistance of Chrysanthemum×morifolium, we isolated two P5CS-homologous genes (ClP5CS1 and ClP5CS2), one PDH gene (ClPDH) and four ProT-homologous genes (ClProT1-4) (GenBANK accession numbers: KF743136-KF743142) from Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium, which is closely related to chrysanthemums and exhibits strong resistance to stresses. Expression analysis of these genes in different organs and under various stresses indicated that ClP5CSs showed substantial constitutive expression, while ClPDH was only strongly expressed in the capitulum and was inhibited under most stresses. The expression patterns of four ClProT genes presented characteristics of organ specificity and disparity under stresses. Above all, the expression of ClProT2 was restricted to above-ground organs, especially strong in the capitulum and could be obviously induced by various stress conditions. Promoters of ClPDH and ClProTs contained many cis-acting regulatory elements involved in stress responses and plant growth and development. High levels of free proline were found in flower buds, the capitulum under the non-stress condition and later periods of stress conditions except cold treatment. Interestingly, organ specificity and disparity also exist in the level of free proline under different stress conditions. Our study indicates that ClProTs play significant roles in proline accumulation and stress responses, and that ClProT2 could be used to genetically modify the stress resistance of chrysanthemums. In addition, proline metabolism might be closely related to plant flowering and floral development. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Zhang Z.,Beijing Forestry University | Lv Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Lv Y.,National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture | Pan H.,Beijing Forestry University | Pan H.,National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening | Year: 2013

Urban vegetation has been proved to play an important role in mitigating the heat island effect. However, it is not clear how independent small-scale plant communities affected the microclimate. In this paper, the effects of fifteen plant communities on temperature and relative humidity were investigated from November 2010 to October 2011 in urban parks in subtropical Shenzhen City, China. The canopy density, canopy area, tree height and the background climate conditions under plant communities were measured. The effects of small-scale plant communities on temperature and relative humidity were the most significant at 1400-1500. h during the day. The temperature reduction and relative humidity increase due to small-scale plant communities were higher in summer, followed by autumn, spring and winter. As compared to the control open sites, the temperature reduction due to plant communities ranged from 2.14. °C to 5.15. °C, and the relative humidity increase ranged from 6.21% to 8.30%. We found that multilayer plant communities were the most effective in terms of their cooling and humidifying effect, while bamboo groves were the least effective. Regression results revealed that four factors, namely canopy density, canopy area, tree height and solar radiation, had significant influence on temperature reduction and relative humidity increase. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.

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