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Li J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wu H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Guo T.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 13 more authors.
Breeding Science | Year: 2011

Amylose content (AC) and viscosity profile are primary indices for evaluating eating and cooking qualities of rice grain. Using chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs), previous studies identified a QTL cluster of genes for rice eating and cooking quality in the interval R727-G1149 on chromosome 8. In this study we report two QTLs for viscosity parameters, respectively controlling setback viscosity (SBV) and consistency viscosity (CSV), located in the same interval using rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA) profile as an indicator of eating quality. Previously reported QTL for AC was dissected into two components with opposite genetic effects. Of four QTLs, qCSV-8 and qAC-8-2 had stable genetic effects across three and four environments, respectively. qSBV-8, qCSV-8 and qAC-8-1 partly overlapped, but were separated from qAC-8-2. Based on data from an Affymetrix rice GeneChip, two genes related to starch biosynthesis at the qAC-8-2 locus were chosen for further quantitative expression analysis. Both genes showed enhanced expression in sub-CSSLs carrying the target qAC-8-2 allele, but not in sub-CSSLs without the target qAC-8-2 allele, indicating their possible role in rice quality determination. Molecular markers closely linked to the two stable QTL provide the opportunity for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding high quality rice. Source


Dai M.,Yale University | Terzaghi W.,Yale University | Terzaghi W.,Wilkes University | Wang H.,Yale University | And 3 more authors.
Plant Signaling and Behavior | Year: 2013

Reversible protein phosphorylation catalyzed by kinases and phosphatases is a major form of posttranslational regulation that plays a central role in regulating many signaling pathways. While large families of both protein kinases and protein phosphatases have been identified in plants, kinases outnumber phosphatases. This raises the question of how a relatively limited number of protein phosphatases can maintain protein phosphorylation homeostasis in a cell. Recent studies have shown that Arabidopsis FyPP1 (Phytochrome-associated serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1) and FyPP3 encode the catalytic subunits of protein phosphatase 6 (PP6), and that they directly binds to the A subunits of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2AA proteins), and SAL (SAPS domain-like) proteins to form the heterotrimeric PP6 holoenzyme complex. Emerging evidence is suggesting that PP6, acts in opposition with multiple classes of kinases, to regulate the phosphorylation status of diverse substrates and subsequently numerous developmental processes and responses to environmental stimuli. © 2013 Landes Bioscience. Source


Dai M.,Yale University | Xue Q.,Yale University | Mccray T.,Yale University | Margavage K.,Yale University | And 16 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2013

The basic Leucine zipper transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5) is a key regulator of abscisic acid (ABA)- mediated seed germination and postgermination seedling growth. While a family of SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-related protein kinase2s (SnRK2s) is responsible for ABA-induced phosphorylation and stabilization of ABI5, the phosphatase(s) responsible for dephosphorylating ABI5 is still unknown. Here, we demonstrate that mutations in FyPP1 (for Phytochromeassociated serine/threonine protein phosphatase1) and FyPP3, two homologous genes encoding the catalytic subunits of Ser/ Thr PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE6 (PP6), cause an ABA hypersensitive phenotype in Arabidopsis thaliana, including ABA-mediated inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth. Conversely, overexpression of FyPP causes reduced sensitivity to ABA. The ABA hypersensitive phenotype of FyPP loss-of-function mutants is ABI5 dependent, and the amount of phosphorylated and total ABI5 proteins inversely correlates with the levels of FyPP proteins. Moreover, FyPP proteins physically interact with ABI5 in vitro and in vivo, and the strength of the interaction depends on the ABI5 phosphorylation status. In vitro phosphorylation assays show that FyPP proteins directly dephosphorylate ABI5. Furthermore, genetic and biochemical assays show that FyPP proteins act antagonistically with SnRK2 kinases to regulate ABI5 phosphorylation and ABA responses. Thus, Arabidopsis PP6 phosphatase regulates ABA signaling through dephosphorylation and destabilization of ABI5. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved. Source


Li G.,Yale University | Siddiqui H.,Royal Holloway, University of London | Teng Y.,Hangzhou Normal University | Lin R.,CAS Institute of Botany | And 13 more authors.
Nature Cell Biology | Year: 2011

The circadian clock controls many metabolic, developmental and physiological processes in a time-of-day-specific manner in both plants and animals. The photoreceptors involved in the perception of light and entrainment of the circadian clock have been well characterized in plants. However, how light signals are transduced from the photoreceptors to the central circadian oscillator, and how the rhythmic expression pattern of a clock gene is generated and maintained by diurnal light signals remain unclear. Here, we show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, FHY3, FAR1 and HY5, three positive regulators of the phytochrome A signalling pathway, directly bind to the promoter of ELF4, a proposed component of the central oscillator, and activate its expression during the day, whereas the circadian-controlled CCA1 and LHY proteins directly suppress ELF4 expression periodically at dawn through physical interactions with these transcription-promoting factors. Our findings provide evidence that a set of light- and circadian-regulated transcription factors act directly and coordinately at the ELF4 promoter to regulate its cyclic expression, and establish a potential molecular link connecting the environmental light-dark cycle to the central oscillator. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Li G.,Yale University | Siddiqui H.,Royal Holloway, University of London | Teng Y.,Hangzhou Normal University | Lin R.,CAS Institute of Botany | And 11 more authors.
Nature Cell Biology | Year: 2011

The circadian clock controls many metabolic, developmental and physiological processes in a time-of-day-specific manner in both plants and animals. The photoreceptors involved in the perception of light and entrainment of the circadian clock have been well characterized in plants. However, how light signals are transduced from the photoreceptors to the central circadian oscillator, and how the rhythmic expression pattern of a clock gene is generated and maintained by diurnal light signals remain unclear. Here, we show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, FHY3, FAR1 and HY5, three positive regulators of the phytochrome A signalling pathway, directly bind to the promoter of ELF4, a proposed component of the central oscillator, and activate its expression during the day, whereas the circadian-controlled CCA1 and LHY proteins directly suppress ELF4 expression periodically at dawn through physical interactions with these transcription-promoting factors. Our findings provide evidence that a set of light- and circadian-regulated transcription factors act directly and coordinately at the ELF4 promoter to regulate its cyclic expression, and establish a potential molecular link connecting the environmental light-dark cycle to the central oscillator. Source

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