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Lu J.,South China Agricultural University | Wang W.,South China Agricultural University | Wang W.,National Engineering Research Center for Breeding Swine Industry | Hu Z.,South China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2016

Using real-time video to capture farmland digitization regulation is an important step in the protection of essential farmland, but problems exist such as a large area of bright sky background and extreme weather i.e. image degradation caused by rain or fog. Generally, we run the defogging process which is used for image processing to clarify the hazy image in the service. However, the cost is high and the process is in unreal time so that it is not suitable for the storage of video data and real-time alarm. With the innovation of computer hardware, it is possible now to defog in real-time under the haze weather. The Langley research center of the national aeronautics and space administration transplanted the algorithm which is based on Retinex algorithm to DSP(Digital signal process) enhancement system that meets the real-time requirements to deal with 256×256 gray-scale image. ClaireVue's team from Tsinghua University developed a real-time system on the iPhone 4 to defog 192×144 video image. Cai Zixing's team from Central South University put forwarded an algorithm based on the mist theory to achieve theoretical efficiency of real-time processing. In this paper, we aim at defogging the basic farmland video surveillance images in real-time. We achieved the MDCP (modified dark channel prior) algorithm which was improved on the basis of dark channel prior defogging algorithm with the combination of the dividing and merging of human visual perception to hazing. We built up a system which can clarify the basic farmland video surveillance image by using the subsample of transmittance, adjacent pixels completion, application processing block and the front-end hardware layered method to defog. In order to objectively demonstrate the effectiveness of MDCP algorithm, we used no reference evaluation model to evaluate MDCP algorithm, dark channel prior algorithm and multi-scale Rentinex algorithm and we gained the objective assessment of clarifying the hazy image. The data showed that MDCP algorithm was more prominent in intensity, tone reproduction and information of structural aspects than the other two algorithms in clarification. MDCP algorithm had the highest comprehensive evaluation indicators following by DCP (dark channel prior), and Retinex was the lowest among the three. The defogging system which was used for basic farmland video surveillance included video input device (camera), real-time image processing device(DSP hardware system) and monitor. We adopted SONY SSC-G103 CCD (Charge-couple Device) camera as video input device. DSP hardware system which is made up by the TMS320DM642 platform helped to complete the acquisition of video codec, to format conversion, and to clarify processing. Our test which was based on video image processing and algorithm complexity showed that the system improved the strength of hazy image, tone reproduction and structural information indicator and it kept the good real-time and fluency. In summary, the basic farmland video monitoring front-end of defogging system had some advantages of low cost, low power consumption and processing in real-time while comparing to traditional system which enhanced image in services. It achieved the goal that defogging the video surveillance image in front-end and real-time. © 2016, Editorial Department of the Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All right reserved.

Liao Zh.-Ch.,South China Agricultural University | Guan W.-T.,South China Agricultural University | Guan W.-T.,National Engineering Research Center for Breeding Swine Industry | Chen F.,South China Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences | Year: 2014

To study the different mechanisms of absorption of diverse iron sources, pig intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC) were incubated with various concentrations of ferrous sulphate and ferrous bisglycinate for different times to determine the expression of divalent metal transporter (DMT1), peptide transporter (PepT1), ferritin, transferrin receptor (TfR), and neutral amino acid transporter (ASCT1 and ASCT2) using RT-PCR and Western blotting. In the ferrous bisglycinate groups, the expression of DMT1 protein was higher at 24 h and a concentration of 1 mmol · l-1 (P < 0.05) and expression of PepT1 protein was higher in all treatments (P < 0.05); expression of TfR and ferritin mRNA was higher at 36 h, 0.5 mmol · l -1 and 1 mmol · l-1; and 24 h, 1 mmol · l-1; 36 h, 0.5 mmol · l-1 (P < 0.05), respectively; ASCT1 and ASCT2 mRNA expression was higher at 36 h, 0.5 mmol · l-1 (P < 0.05). We conclude that the more effective absorption of ferrous bisglycinate is associated with higher expression of iron-related transporters in IPEC cells.

Shu G.,South China Agricultural University | Lu N.-S.,South China Agricultural University | Lu N.-S.,Shanghai Academy of Agricultural science | Zhu X.-T.,South China Agricultural University | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Adipocyte dysfunction is associated with many metabolic diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Previous studies found that phloretin promotes 3T3-L1 cells differentiation, but the underlying mechanisms for phloretin's effects on adipogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that phloretin enhanced the lipid accumulation in porcine primary adipocytes in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, phloretin increased the utilization of glucose and nonesterified fatty acid, while it decreased the lactate output. Microarray analysis revealed that genes associated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), mitogen-activated protein kinase and insulin signaling pathways were altered in response to phloretin. We further confirmed that phloretin enhanced expression of PPARγ, CAAT enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα) and adipose-related genes, such as fatty acids translocase and fatty acid synthase. In addition, phloretin activated the Akt (Thr308) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and therefore, inactivated Akt targets protein. Wortmannin effectively blocked the effect of phloretin on Akt activity and the protein levels of PPARγ, C/EBPα and fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4/aP2). Oral administration of 5 or 10 mg/kg phloretin to C57BL BKS-DB mice significantly decreased the serum glucose level and improved glucose tolerance. In conclusion, phloretin promotes the adipogenesis of porcine primary preadipocytes through Akt-associated signaling pathway. These findings suggested that phloretin might be able to increase insulin sensitivity and alleviate the metabolic diseases. © 2014ss.

Chen Y.,South China Agricultural University | Zhang T.,South China Agricultural University | Zhang T.,National Engineering Research Center for Breeding Swine Industry | Sun D.,South China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2015

Some problems of facility agriculture machinery locating system still exist now, such as poor stability, low positioning accuracy and high cost. In addition, agricultural machinery navigation and positioning system based on Global Position System (GPS) is widely used at home and abroad. But it is not applicable to the agricultural facilities and the scenes of more buildings. In order to resolve these problems, a wireless sensor network (WSN) locating system based on NanoPAN5375 module was designed. NanoPAN5375 module is based on the technology of chirp spread spectrum (CSS); it not only has advantages of reliable communication, good stability, long transmission distance, low system power consumption, and so on, but also adopts the principle of the time difference of arrival (TDOA) to calculate the distance between nodes, so that its ranging accuracy is high. Therefore, NanoPAN5375 module was chosen as positioning node of facility agriculture vehicle. In the locating system, the 3 beacon nodes were responsible for the wireless ranging, and the car installed with location node was responsible for the wireless ranging and location coordinates calculation. WD5032N module based on NanoPAN5375 was used as WSN node. And microprocessor STM32F103CB and NanoPAN5375 module were integrated on WD5032N module. NanoPAN5375 communicated with the microprocessor through the serial peripheral interface (SPI), so it could realize the function of wireless communication and wireless ranging. A power supply backplane circuit of WD5032N module was designed to meet the power supply requirement of its microprocessor and NanoPAN5375 module, and location coordinates X and Y were displayed in real time through the serial port communicating with liquid crystal display (LCD). The node software, which was compiled by C Language taking the Keil MDK as development environment, could complete data acquisition and processing, wireless transmission, serial communication and other functions. The distances between unknown nodes and each beacon node were calculated by using Symmetrical double-sided two way ranging (SDSTWR) algorithm which was based on CSS technology in location node. And then the coordinate information of the unknown node was calculated by the triangle centroid localization algorithm. Finally in order to resolve the effects of measurement noise on positioning accuracy, the iterating based on Kalman filter algorithm was applied to observed values of target state. The antennas of 3 and 5 DB were respectively used on WD5032N to do ranging and positioning experiments in the indoor and outdoor. On one hand, the results of ranging experiments have shown that the ranging accuracy of the nodes based on NanoPAN5375 module is high. Within the scope of the appropriate distance, point-to-point ranging accuracy between the nodes can reach 1.02 m or less. On the other hand, the results of positioning experiments indicate that the stability of WSN positioning system based on NanoPAN5375 is good and the positioning accuracy is high. And the positioning precision could reach about less than 1 m within the scope of 3 edges of equilateral triangle formed by 3 beacon nodes. And the positioning accuracy was about 1-2 m close to the outside of the triangle edges. So it can satisfy the requirement of positioning accuracy of general facility agriculture vehicle, and can be applied to other agricultural machines' positioning. ©, 2015, Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All right reserved.

Lv Y.,South China Agricultural University | Guan W.,South China Agricultural University | Guan W.,National Engineering Research Center for Breeding Swine Industry | Qiao H.,South China Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
OMICS A Journal of Integrative Biology | Year: 2015

Mammalian milk is a key source of lipids, providing not only important calories but also essential fatty acids. Veterinary medicine and omics systems sciences intersection, termed as "veterinomics" here, has received little attention to date but stands to offer much promise for building bridges between human and animal health. We determined the changes in porcine mammary genes and proteomics expression associated with milk triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and secretion from late pregnancy to lactation. TAG content and fatty acid (FA) composition were determined in porcine colostrum (the 1st day of lactation) and milk (the 17th day of lactation). The mammary transcriptome for 70 genes and 13 proteins involved in TAG synthesis and secretion from six sows, each at d -17(late pregnancy), d 1(early lactation), and d 17 (peak lactation) relative to parturition were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. The TAG content and the concentrations of de novo synthesized FAs, saturated FAs, and monounsaturated FAs were higher in milk than in colostrum (p<0.05). Robust upregulation with high relative mRNA abundance was evident during lactation for genes associated with FA uptake (VLDLR, LPL, CD36), FA activation (ACSS2, ACSL3), and intracellar transport (FABP3), de novo FA synthesis (ACACA, FASN), FA elongation (ELOVL1), FA desaturation (SCD, FADS1), TAG synthesis (GPAM, AGPAT1, LPIN1, DGAT1), lipid droplet formation (BTN2A1, XDH, PLIN2), and transcription factors and nuclear receptors (SREBP1, SCAP, INSIG1/2). In conclusion, a wide variety of lipogenic genes and proteins regulate the channeling of FAs towards milk TAG synthesis and secretion in porcine mammary gland tissue. These findings inform future omics strategies to increase milk fat production and lipid profile and attest to the rise of both veterinomics and lipidomics in postgenomics life sciences. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2015.

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