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Hu C.H.,National Engineering Laboratory of Biological Feed Safety and Pollution Prevention and Control | Xiao K.,National Engineering Laboratory of Biological Feed Safety and Pollution Prevention and Control | Song J.,National Engineering Laboratory of Biological Feed Safety and Pollution Prevention and Control | Luan Z.S.,National Engineering Laboratory of Biological Feed Safety and Pollution Prevention and Control
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Effects of zinc oxide supported on zeolite (Z-ZnO) on growth performance, intestinal microflora and permeability, and cytokines expression of weaned pigs were investigated. A total of 210 piglets, with an average weight of 6.12±0.22 kg weaned at 21±1 d age, were randomly allotted to five groups for two weeks. The five treatments were the control (basal diet), and the basal diet supplemented with 300, 600 or 900. mg Zn/kg from Z-ZnO or 2250. mg Zn/kg from ZnO. The results showed that incremental levels of Z-ZnO increased average daily gain (linear P=0.001; quadratic P=0.004), daily feed intake (linear P=0.006; quadratic P=0.019) and jejunal transepithelial electrical resistance (linear P=0.007; quadratic P=0.021), and decreased the postweaning scour scores (linear P<0.001; quadratic P<0.001), mucosal-to-serosal flux of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran 4. kDa (linear P<0.001; quadratic P<0.001), the viable counts of Clostridium and Escherichia coli in small intestinal contents (linear P<0.001; quadratic P<0.001). At 7 days after weaning, on d 7 postweaning, as Z-ZnO inclusion increased, the mRNA levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ in jejunal mucosa were decreased linearly (P<0.001 and P=0.001) and quadratically (P<0.001 and P=0.001), and those of TGF-β1 and IL-10 were increased linearly (P=0.002 and P=0.010) and quadratically (P=0.009 and P=0.028). Supplementation with 600 or 900. mg Zn/kg from Z-ZnO was as efficacious as 2250. mg Zn/kg from ZnO in enhancing growth performance, alleviating postweaning diarrhea, improving intestinal microflora and barrier function of weaned pigs. The results indicated that Z-ZnO could be used as a substitute for pharmacological addition of ZnO in weanling pigs. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Liu Y.,National Engineering Laboratory of Biological Feed Safety and Pollution Prevention and Control | Luan C.,National Engineering Laboratory of Biological Feed Safety and Pollution Prevention and Control | Xia X.,National Engineering Laboratory of Biological Feed Safety and Pollution Prevention and Control | An S.,National Engineering Laboratory of Biological Feed Safety and Pollution Prevention and Control | Wang Y.,National Engineering Laboratory of Biological Feed Safety and Pollution Prevention and Control
International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2011

In the last few decades, long-term and highdose usage of antibiotics in livestock diets has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, antibiotic residues in animal products and environmental pollution, adversely affecting animal health. Because of these concerns, a study screening cathelicidin peptides from different animal origins (i.e. protegrin-1 [PG-1], PMAP-23, LL-37, indolicidin and cathelicidin-BF [C-BF]) as antibiotic replacements with higher antimicrobial activity and lower cytotoxicity was designed to study their mechanisms towards enteric pathogens in weaning piglets. PG-1 and C-BF proved to be the most effective bacteriocids with the widest spectra of activity, with the MIC values equal to or lower than commonly used antibiotics towards several Escherichia and Salmonella strains, and showed a synergistic effect with aureomycin. Mechanism studies suggested the C-BF killing mechanism is based on membrane permeability, while multiple targets maybe exist for PG-1, including membrane and intracellular biomacromolecules. Cytotoxicity tests showed PMAP-23 and C-BF exhibited the lowest cytotoxic effects, while PG-1, LL-37 and indolicidin displayed cytotoxicity by dose. This study demonstrated that among the peptides tested, C-BF has the capacity to inactivate enteric pathogens with lower cytotoxicity and is potentially a novel anti-bacterial agent. The activity of PG-1 is highly efficient, with the potential to reduce cytotoxicity using molecular design. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

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