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Ying B.,ShenYang Agricultural University | Ying B.,National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources | Lin G.,ShenYang Agricultural University | Lin G.,National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources | And 6 more authors.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science | Year: 2015

This work studies the adsorption and degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2,4-D) in spiked soil with nanoscale Fe0 particles (nFe0) and biochar derived from maize straw. When biochar concentration was high, the adsorption capacity of soil was enhanced. Furthermore, 2,4-D degraded completely at loading rates of 0.33 and 0.17 g/L nFe0 plus biochar (initial 2,4-D concentration of 10 mg/g) within 40 h, according to equilibrium data. Additionally, the theoretical concentration of chloridion was approximately 84%. Further analysis indicated that the effect of nFe0 on 2,4-D degradation was weaker in soil columns than that in soil slurry. By contrast, 2,4-D degradation is positively influenced by biochar application, which prevented the aggregation and corrosion of Fe nanoparticles. Although the enhanced capacity for 2,4-D adsorption on the soil decelerated dechlorination rate, long-term nFe0 activity was generated. After 72 h, the efficiency of 2,4-D degradation was approximately 53.2% in the soil columns with biochar support. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Wang R.-Y.,Shandong Agricultural University | Wang R.-Y.,National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources | Yu Z.-W.,Shandong Agricultural University | Xia Y.-L.,Ludong University | And 3 more authors.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis | Year: 2013

The environmental vulnerability retrieval is important to support continuing data. The spatial distribution of regional environmental vulnerability was got through remote sensing retrieval. In view of soil and vegetation, the environmental vulnerability evaluation index system was built, and the environmental vulnerability of sampling points was calculated by the AHP-fuzzy method, then the correlation between the sampling points environmental vulnerability and ETM + spectral reflectance ratio including some kinds of conversion data was analyzed to determine the sensitive spectral parameters. Based on that, models of correlation analysis, traditional regression, BP neural network and support vector regression were taken to explain the quantitative relationship between the spectral reflectance and the environmental vulnerability. With this model, the environmental vulnerability distribution was retrieved in the Yellow River Mouth Area. The results showed that the correlation between the environmental vulnerability and the spring NDVI, the September NDVI and the spring brightness was better than others, so they were selected as the sensitive spectral parameters. The model precision result showed that in addition to the support vector model, the other model reached the significant level. While all the multi-variable regression was better than all one-variable regression, and the model accuracy of BP neural network was the best. This study will serve as a reliable theoretical reference for the large spatial scale environmental vulnerability estimation based on remote sensing data.

Li C.-L.,Shandong Agricultural University | Li C.-L.,National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources | Xu J.-B.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | He Y.-Q.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | And 3 more authors.
Pedosphere | Year: 2012

Biologically active soil organic carbon (BASOC) is an important fraction of soil organic carbon (SOC), but our understanding of the correlation between BASOC and soil aggregate stability is limited. At an ecological experimental station (28° 04'28° 37' N, 116° 41'117° 09' E) in Yujiang County, Jiangxi Province, China, we analyzed the dynamic relationship between soil aggregate stability and BASOC content over time in the red soil (Udic Ferrosols) fertilized with a nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium chemical fertilizer (NPK) without manure or with NPK plus livestock manure or green manure. The dynamics of BASOC was evaluated using CO2 efflux, and soil aggregates were separated according to size using a wet-sieving technique. The soils fertilized with NPK plus livestock manure had a significantly higher content of BASOC and an improved aggregate stability compared to the soils fertilized with NPK plus green manure or NPK alone. The BASOC contents in all fertilized soils decreased over time. The contents of large aggregates (800 - 2000 μm) dramatically decreased over the first 7 d of incubation, but the contents of small aggregates (< 800 μm) either remained the same or increased, depending on the incubation time and specific aggregate sizes. The aggregate stability did not differ significantly at the beginning and end of incubation, but the lowest stability in all fertilized soils occurred in the middle of the incubation, which implied that the soils had a strong resilience for aggregate stability. The change in BASOC content was only correlated with aggregate stability during the first 27 d of incubation. © 2012 Soil Science Society of China.

Hou J.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dong Y.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dong Y.,National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources | Fan Z.,Shandong Agricultural University
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2014

Four kinds of new developed urea, some of which were amended with biological inhibitors and coated and some of which were only coated with inorganic materials, were prepared by coating conventional granular urea (nitrogen 46.0%). Using a coated urea [resin-coated urea, 90 day, (RCU)] made in China and a conventional granular urea as check, their effects on physiological characteristics, yield, and quality of peanut were examined in a field experiment. The results indicated that four kinds of urea kept greater ammonium nitrogen (NH4 + -N) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) contents at flowering stage (FS) and podding stage (PS) compared to conventional urea, and coated urea + dicyandiamide + hydroquinone treatment (CU + DCD + HQ) had the greatest contents, being similar to RCU treatment. At FS and PS, the chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were significantly increased upon CU + DCD, CU + HQ, and CU + HQ + DCD treatments. In addition, CU + HQ + DCD treatment produced 27.3% more pod yield, 6.7% more total yield, and 9.17% more protein content and decreased NO3--N content by 46.56% as compared to conventional urea treatment. This product has excellent slow-release capacity, is inexpensive and environmentally friendly, and could be especially useful in agricultural application. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Dai D.,National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources | Dai D.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dai D.,Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment in Universities of Shandong | Xu R.,National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources | And 14 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Environmental Engineering | Year: 2014

Ferroelectric was severed as cathode and anode in the electric flocculation system to study the treatment efficiency of the denim dyeing and printing wastewater. The factors of electrode voltage, reaction time and pH were examined to evaluate the removal effect of COD and chromaticity of the flocculation method. According to the experiment results, electrode voltage and reaction time were the main influencing factors compared to pH 24 V of electrode voltage, 35 min of reacting time and 7.4 of pH could deal to the best removal efficiency. Under these conditions, the decolurization rate could arrive at 99% and the removal rate of COD was around 70%. In conclusion, the electrolytic flocculation system can be used as the pretreatment process in the cleaning of denim dyeing and printing wastewater.

Shen T.,Shandong University | Shen T.,University of Vienna | Shen T.,National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources | Stieglmeier M.,University of Vienna | And 3 more authors.
FEMS Microbiology Letters | Year: 2013

Nitrification inhibitors have been used for decades to improve nitrogen fertilizer utilization in farmland. However, their effect on ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) in soil is little explored. Here, we compared the impact of diverse inhibitors on nitrification activity of the soil archaeon Ca. Nitrososphaera viennensis EN76 and compared it to that of the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium (AOB) Nitrosospira multiformis. Allylthiourea, amidinothiourea, and dicyandiamide (DCD) inhibited ammonia oxidation in cultures of both N. multiformis and N. viennensis, but the effect on N. viennensis was markedly lower. In particular, the effective concentration 50 (EC50) of allylthiourea was 1000 times higher for the AOA culture. Among the tested nitrification inhibitors, DCD was the least potent against N. viennensis. Nitrapyrin had at the maximal soluble concentration only a very weak inhibitory effect on the AOB N. multiformis, but showed a moderate effect on the AOA. The antibiotic sulfathiazole inhibited the bacterium, but barely affected the archaeon. Only the NO-scavenger carboxy-PTIO had a strong inhibitory effect on the archaeon, but had little effect on the bacterium in the concentrations tested. Our results reflect the fundamental metabolic and cellular differences of AOA and AOB and will be useful for future applications of inhibitors aimed at distinguishing activities of AOA and AOB in soil environments. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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