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Bai X.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dong Y.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dong Y.,Chinese National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources | Kong J.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2014

To study the exogenous salicylic acid (SA) to alleviate the cadmium (Cd) toxicity in ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), ryegrass plants subjected to 100 μM CdCl2 exposure were treated with different concentrations of SA, and Cd toxicity was evaluated by the decreases in plant growth and chlorophyll content. In Cd-treated plants, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase, decreased dramatically in both shoots and roots, whereas the accumulation of superoxide anion (O 2 ·-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased significantly. Excess Cd also decreased soluble protein and ascorbic acid (AsA) contents, increased accumulation of Cd in both shoots and roots; furthermore, the absorption of micronutrients was inhibited. Addition of 200 μM SA had the most significant alleviating effect against Cd toxicity while the addition of 400 μM SA had no significant effect with Cd treatment. Addition of 100, 200, 300 μM SA considerably increased chlorophyll content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, increased the uptake and translocation of mineral elements, and decreased H2O2 and MDA accumulation in both shoots and roots of Cd-stressed plants. Addition of 200 μM SA not only decreased the Cd uptake in ryegrass, but also decreased the root-to-shoot translocation of Cd and changed its subcellular distribution in plants. Addition of 200 μM SA increased Cd concentrations in soluble fraction and cell wall in both shoots and roots markedly, with the majority of Cd associated with the cell wall and the soluble fraction and a minor part of Cd present in the cell organelle. Based on these results, we conclude that the optimal concentrations of exogenous SA could alleviate Cd-induced stress and promote ryegrass plant growth. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Kong J.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dong Y.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dong Y.,Chinese National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources | Zhang X.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2015

The effects of salicylic acid (SA) on iron (Fe) deficiency in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) were studied by adopting the hydroponic experiment. Iron deficiency caused serious chlorosis, inhibited plant growth and dramatically decreased the concentration of Fe in the roots. Furthermore, it decreased the active Fe content and chlorophyll content, and disturbed ionic homeostasis. In addition, Fe deficiency significantly increased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the superoxide anion (O2 •−) generation rate. Addition of SA increased Fe concentration in the shoots and roots, active Fe content, chlorophyll content, the net photosynthetic rate, and transpiration rate. Moreover, SA supplementation alleviated the excess absorption of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) induced by Fe deficiency. In addition, the chlorosis symptom was alleviated and the plant growth was improved. Meanwhile, addition of SA increased the activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD), \and decreased the content of MDA and the O2 •− generation rate. These results suggest that exogenous SA can alleviate Fe-deficiency induced chlorosis by promoting the plant growth, improving the efficiency of Fe uptake, translocation and utilization, protecting antioxidant enzymes system, and stimulating mineral element maintenance. © 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Zhang X.W.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dong Y.J.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dong Y.J.,Chinese National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources | Kong J.,Shandong Agricultural University | Wang Q.H.,Shandong Agricultural University
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2014

This study examined the effects of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on physiological characteristics of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) growing on calcareous soil. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was added into slow-release fertilizer (SRF) or sprayed on leaves to supply NO for iron-deficient peanut. The results showed that root application of SNP at 5.63 mg/g and foliar spray of SNP at 1.0 mmol L-1 significantly enhanced the peanut growth, pod yield, and quality. The soil pH was reduced, and available iron content and iron (Fe3+) reductase activity in root were increased, indicating NO application improved the availability of iron in the soil. Additionally, NO increased the chlorophyll and active iron content in young leaves, implying NO enhanced the availability of iron within the plant. Nitric oxide also inhibited the malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation in leaves and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, which protected peanut against iron-deficiency-induced oxidative stress. It was concluded that NO might be employed for ameliorating iron-deficient chlorosis of peanut on calcareous soil when added into SRF or sprayed on leaves. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

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