National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture

Chengdu, China

National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture

Chengdu, China

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Liu K.,University of Sichuan | Liu K.,Yibin Vocational and Technical College | Zheng J.,University of Sichuan | Zhao J.,University of Sichuan | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology | Year: 2012

In the view of the specificity of microbial communities in pit mud during brewing process, different types of soil samples and common strains in liquor brewing were investigated to assess the fingerprints of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) of microbial communities in Luzhou flavor pit mud. The results suggested the composition and content of PLFA significantly affected by physiological and environmental conditions which resulted in the significant differences (P<0.05) of PLFA fingerprints among the samples (the ratio of fungal/bacterial PLFA in garden and roadside soils were 0.30 and 0.66, respectively, which were both less than 1, the ratio in pit mud however was 1.17). The content of special PLFA changed significantly (P<0.05) when five pure cultured microorganisms were added. The content of al4:0 and al6:0 in pit mud adding SICCl.13 and CICC20633 were 1.44 and 9.92 times higher than those in blank respectively, while 18:2ω6,9 in SICC3398 and SICC31482 were 82.58 and 90.33 times higher than that in the blank. Furthermore, cy17:0 was identified in the pit mud adding DH5a. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to evaluate the changes of special PLFA's composition and content in pit mud after adding the microorganisms. The results of this study demonstrated that PLFA fingerprint method was a fast biochemical culture-independent method, which was beneficial to characterize the fingerprints of microbial communities during liquor process.


Xia Q.,University of Sichuan | Xia Q.,National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture | Wu C.,University of Sichuan | Wu C.,National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Institute of Brewing | Year: 2014

Huangshui is a by-product of Chinese liquor and it has a high annual production owing to the popularity of the liquor in China. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of Huangshui esterification by whole-cell enzymes produced from different microbial strains. Esterification of Huangshui was carried out for 16days via the addition of different preparations produced from Rhizopus chinensis strain 3.1149, Rhizopus chinensis strain 3.1166, Monascus purpureus SICC 3.19 and Rhizopus oryzae SICC 3.623. The results showed that the preparation GP1, produced from M. purpureus, exhibited the highest esterification efficiency compared with the other preparations based on physicochemical analysis in combination with volatile profile analysis. In addition, a characterization of preparation GP1 was performed and the optimal alcohol content and pH for esterification were 10% and pH3.5, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the total ester content increased from 4.86 to 7.31g/L after esterification for 16days. An estimation of the sensory impact of the volatile compounds after esterification was performed by a calculation of the odour active values (OAVs). Radar diagrams of the OAVs demonstrated the differences in the sensory profiles in Huangshui, before and after esterification. Nearly all of the OAVs of the esters were increased by the esterification reaction and were above the human sensory threshold. Results presented in this manuscript provide a potential strategy for the efficient bio-conversion of Huangshui. © 2014 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling.


Zheng J.,University of Sichuan | Zhang L.,Luzhou Laojiao Co Ltd. | Shen C.-H.,Luzhou Laojiao Co Ltd. | Zhang S.-Y.,Luzhou Laojiao Co Ltd. | And 4 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2011

Fermentation pit is a kind of solid bioreactors with unique feature for brewing liquor, especially for Luzhou-flavor, which has significant effects on the quality of produced liquor. There exists a close and complicated correlation between pit age (using time) and microbial community. Taking the characteristic component phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) in microbial cell membrane as an index, this paper studied the characteristics of the microbial community structure in the pit mud, fermented grains, and yellow water of different age (5-year, 100-year, and 300-year) fermentation pits. The results showed that the total PLFA content was the highest in pit mud, followed by in fermented grains, and in yellow water. The composition of PLFA differed with pit age, and the total PLFA content in yellow water decreased with increasing pit age. In pit mud, straight chain saturated fatty acid had the highest content, occupying 50-7-73-3% of total PLFA and being the highest in 300-year pit. As for the microbial community structure, the PLFA content characterizing Grampositive (G+ ) anaerobic bacteria was higher in pit mud, and that characterizing Gram-negative (G-) anaerobic bacteria was higher in fermented grains and yellow water. The PLFA content characterizing G+ and G- bacteria in the pit mud of 100?year pit was higher than that in the pit mud of other ages-pits, while the PLFA content characterizing fungi was higher in the pit mud, fermented grains, and yellow water of 5-year pit, as compared with other ages-pits. Principal component analysis showed that the main varied microbial populations in 5-and 100-year pits were G- bacteria and fungi, and the main varied microbial population in 300-year pit was of bacteria. The indices frequency index, Simpson index, and Shannon index could be chosen for characterizing the diversity of microbial community in fermentation pits.


Liu K.-Y.,University of Sichuan | Chen S.,University of Sichuan | Zheng J.,University of Sichuan | Huang J.,University of Sichuan | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2012

Taking the nine common microbial strains in liquor-making process as test objects, this paper studied the characteristics of phospholipid fatty acid(PLFA), a characteristic component of the strains cell membrane, and the relationships between the detected amount of PLFA and the biomass of the strains. There existed significant differences in the PLFA fingerprints between test bacteria, actinomycetes, molds, and yeasts, and the PLFA fingerprint of each strain could be used as the basis to distinguish species and genus. Within a certain range of the strains biomass, the detected amount of total PLFA or 16:0 was linearly correlated with the biomass. After adding different biomass Gram positive(G+) bacteria, Gram negative(G-) bacteria, and fungi in fermented grains, a significant difference was observed in the relative amount of PLFA between experimental and control samples. It was suggested that the fingerprint of PLFA could quantitatively or semi-quantitatively characterize the microbial community structure and its dynamic variation in fermented grains. By detecting the PLFA profiles of fermented grains in various liquor industries and by analyzing the microbial community structure in the fermented grains, it was substantiated that PLFA fingerprinting was of general applicability.


Zhao J.-S.,University of Sichuan | Zhao J.-S.,National Alcohol and Processing Food Quality Supervision and Inspection Center | Zheng J.,University of Sichuan | Zhou R.-Q.,University of Sichuan | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Institute of Brewing | Year: 2012

Pits are necessary solid bioreactors for the production of Chinese strong aromatic liquor, and the microbial community in these pits significantly affects the quality and yield of the liquor. In this study, the microbial community structures of different aged pit muds were evaluated by phospholipid fatty acid analysis. The results indicated that the microbial community was composed of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, with Gram-positive (G+) bacteria and anaerobic bacteria being dominant. The biomass of the pit mud increased and the microbial community shifted to G+ bacteria as the pit age increased. Principal component analysis showed that PC1 consisted mainly of fatty acids of saturated (15:0, 16:0 and 18:0), methyl-branched (a15:0, i16:0, a16:0, i17:0 and 8Me18:0), polyunsaturated (16:1ω7c, 16:1ω9) and cyclopropane (cy17:0 and cy19:0), and PC2 mainly of 18:1ω9, 18:1ω10 and a14:0, The characteristics of the microbial community structure in the pit mud resulted from the stress effects of low oxygen concentration, low pH and a high alcohol concentration. © 2013 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling.


Wang R.,National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture | Wang R.,University of Sichuan | Zhang Z.,University of Sichuan | Liu H.,University of Sichuan
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

Adsorption behavior disciplinarian of the immobilized tannins to metal ions was studied. Experiments showed that adsorption capacities of metal ions lied in ns grouse in the periodic table of elements were relatively low. For the metal ions lied in np grouse in the periodic table of elements, their adsorption capacity increased with the increasing in the radius of metal ions. Adsorption capacities of metal ions having low values in the first transition series in the periodic table of elements, such as Mn(II), Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(II) and Ni(II), were more lower than that of the metal ions having high values, such as Cr(VI), Mn(VII) and V(V). For the metal ions in the second, the third transition series and the actinide series, adsorption capacities were relatively higher than that of metal ions in lanthanide series.


Hu W.,University of Sichuan | Zhang Z.,University of Sichuan | Liu H.,University of Sichuan | Wang R.,University of Sichuan | Wang R.,National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2012

The adsorption behaviors of V(V) and Mo(VI) on the collagen fiber immobilized bayberry tannin (IBT), a new kind of adsorption, were investigated. It was found that at 323K, pH=2.0, the adsorption capacities of V(V) on 0.100g adsorbent was 1.03mmol/g in 100ml of 1.960mmol/L V(V) solution, and that of Mo(VI) was 0.86mmol/g at 323K, pH=4.0, with 100ml of 1.042 mmol/L Mo(VI) solution. The effect of pH on the adsorption capacity of V(V) and Mo(VI) was conspicuous. The adsorption capacity of Mo(VI) decreased with pH increasing, and the maximal adsorption capacity of V(V) was observed at pH4.0. Langmuir equation was used for the description of adsorption isotherms of V(V), while Freundlich equation could be well described that of Mo(VI). The adsorption kinetics of V(V) and Mo(VI) can be well described by the pseudo-second-order-rate model and the adsorption capacities calculated by this model are very close to those experimentally determined. The adsorbent can be regenerated by using 0.1mol/L HCl and 0.02mol/L EDTA in tune as desorption agent after the adsorption of V(V) and Mo(VI). In the desorption process V(V) and Mo(VI) were utilized respectively. These facts implies that the adsorbent can be used for the separation of V(V) and Mo(VI) in aqueous. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Hu Z.,University of Sichuan | Yi S.,University of Sichuan | Wei H.,University of Sichuan | Tang Y.,University of Sichuan | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Society of Leather Technologies and Chemists | Year: 2015

In order to develop an eco-friendly polymer, a novel superabsorbent polymer was synthesized by grafting the alkaline hydrolysis product of leather waste (LW) to a copolymer of acrylic acid (AA) and acrylamide (AM)(PLW-g-(AA-co-AM)) with microwave method assistance. The morphology of the samples was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Through a single factor experiment, various factors were explored which may affect the water absorption of such a superabsorbent polymer during preparation. The results showed that the optimum technological conditions of synthesizing PLW-g-(AA-co-AM) were: dosage of LW15wt.% of total monomer mass, cross-linking agent 0.06wt.% of monomer mass, neutralization degree 75%, AA: AM= 6:1, initiator 0.6wt.% of monomer mass. According to this procedure, the PLW-g-(AA-co-AM) with a water-absorbency of 1191.5g/g and saltabsorbency of 94.4g/g was obtained. The product was used as adsorbant for urea, the urea load rate reached 87.76% when the concentration of urea was 10g/L. Meanwhile, the release of urea from the loaded PLW-g-(AA-co-AM) in deionized water exhibited specific release properties.


Teng B.,National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture | Zhang W.,Key Laboratory for Leather Chemistry and Engineering of the Education Ministry | Jian X.,National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture | Chen W.,Key Laboratory for Leather Chemistry and Engineering of the Education Ministry
XXXIII IULTCS Congress | Year: 2015

Recycling system has the advantage of reducing chemical consumption and providing an efficient way to decrease the cost of leather manufacture. High chemical oxygen demand, bio-chemical oxygen demand and microbial toxicity are all considered as the characters of vegetable tanning effluent, however, only a few recycling technologies were developed. In this study, larch tanning effluent (LTE) was obtained with a commercial larch tannin (CLT) through a common vegetable tanning process, then the polyphenols in the LTE and CLT were characterized with Fourier translation infrared spectrum, nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatography and an elemental analysis. The collagen reaction ability was also tested through molecular modeling as well as a differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The results indicated polyphenols in the LTE and CLT were procyanidines with cis and trans configuration. However, obvious differences between these polyphenols were presented in the aspect of molecular weight and the quantity of sulfonic acid group. The Average molecular weight of the LTE was 1104 Dalton, in contrast to an obviously higher value in the CLT (3334 Dalton). Compared with the CLT, inactive properties were shown in the molecular modeling of the LTE collagen interaction, less amino acids residues were participated in the binding process and few hydrogen bonds were detected. Meanwhile, the non-bond energy and the denaturation temperature of the LTE-collagen complex also presented a lower value, which means the LTE-collagen binding was not stable compared with the CLT-collagen complex. The results indicated the molecular weight and the binding ability of the polyphenols should be increased before recycling of the LTE. The results will provide valuable references for the recycling technology and pollution control of the vegetable tanning effluent.


Teng B.,National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture | Jian X.,National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture | Zhang J.,National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture | Chen W.,National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture | And 2 more authors.
Leather and Footwear Journal | Year: 2015

Sodium silicate was prepared with a polysilicon byproduct-silicon tetrachloride. The swelling property of the sodium silicate was then investigated including proteoglycan removing ability, silicon absorptivity, relative weight and thickness increase. Meanwhile, a new process for cleaner wet blue preparation was carried out. Properties of the wet blue such as mechanical properties, thermal stability and surface color were tested following the standard method. Chrome distribution of the wet blue was investigated with an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a atomic force microscope (AFM) were also used to illustrate the histological features of the wet blue. Finally, environmental impact of both swelling and tanning process were studied through COD, chrome contention, total solids and turbidity test. The results showed that the swelling ability of these silicate agents was distinctly related with their modulus. The lower the modulus, the better the swelling ability was shown, in terms of a higher relative weight and thickness increase, a better proteoglycan removing and a better silicon absorptivity. The SEM analysis indicated fiber bundles were fully opened with this silicate agent. For the wet blue prepared by new method, an equally quality data was shown compared with control, meanwhile, a lighter surface color, less and equally distributed Cr(III) were detected. More compact fiber bundles were shown on the SEM images. No obvious damage was detected in tropocollagen fiber structures through AFM analysis. Furthermore, compared with the traditional process, COD, total solids and turbidity data of both swelling and tanning effluent provided a lower value. The results could provide a feasible way for silicon tetrachloride recycling, also provide valuable references for clean production of leather industry.

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