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Liu K.,University of Sichuan | Liu K.,YiBin Vocational and Technical College | Zheng J.,University of Sichuan | Zhao J.,University of Sichuan | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology | Year: 2012

In the view of the specificity of microbial communities in pit mud during brewing process, different types of soil samples and common strains in liquor brewing were investigated to assess the fingerprints of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) of microbial communities in Luzhou flavor pit mud. The results suggested the composition and content of PLFA significantly affected by physiological and environmental conditions which resulted in the significant differences (P<0.05) of PLFA fingerprints among the samples (the ratio of fungal/bacterial PLFA in garden and roadside soils were 0.30 and 0.66, respectively, which were both less than 1, the ratio in pit mud however was 1.17). The content of special PLFA changed significantly (P<0.05) when five pure cultured microorganisms were added. The content of al4:0 and al6:0 in pit mud adding SICCl.13 and CICC20633 were 1.44 and 9.92 times higher than those in blank respectively, while 18:2ω6,9 in SICC3398 and SICC31482 were 82.58 and 90.33 times higher than that in the blank. Furthermore, cy17:0 was identified in the pit mud adding DH5a. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to evaluate the changes of special PLFA's composition and content in pit mud after adding the microorganisms. The results of this study demonstrated that PLFA fingerprint method was a fast biochemical culture-independent method, which was beneficial to characterize the fingerprints of microbial communities during liquor process. Source

Zheng J.,University of Sichuan | Zhang L.,Luzhou Laojiao Co. | Shen C.-H.,Luzhou Laojiao Co. | Zhang S.-Y.,Luzhou Laojiao Co. | And 4 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2011

Fermentation pit is a kind of solid bioreactors with unique feature for brewing liquor, especially for Luzhou-flavor, which has significant effects on the quality of produced liquor. There exists a close and complicated correlation between pit age (using time) and microbial community. Taking the characteristic component phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) in microbial cell membrane as an index, this paper studied the characteristics of the microbial community structure in the pit mud, fermented grains, and yellow water of different age (5-year, 100-year, and 300-year) fermentation pits. The results showed that the total PLFA content was the highest in pit mud, followed by in fermented grains, and in yellow water. The composition of PLFA differed with pit age, and the total PLFA content in yellow water decreased with increasing pit age. In pit mud, straight chain saturated fatty acid had the highest content, occupying 50-7-73-3% of total PLFA and being the highest in 300-year pit. As for the microbial community structure, the PLFA content characterizing Grampositive (G+ ) anaerobic bacteria was higher in pit mud, and that characterizing Gram-negative (G-) anaerobic bacteria was higher in fermented grains and yellow water. The PLFA content characterizing G+ and G- bacteria in the pit mud of 100?year pit was higher than that in the pit mud of other ages-pits, while the PLFA content characterizing fungi was higher in the pit mud, fermented grains, and yellow water of 5-year pit, as compared with other ages-pits. Principal component analysis showed that the main varied microbial populations in 5-and 100-year pits were G- bacteria and fungi, and the main varied microbial population in 300-year pit was of bacteria. The indices frequency index, Simpson index, and Shannon index could be chosen for characterizing the diversity of microbial community in fermentation pits. Source

Wang R.,National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture | Wang R.,University of Sichuan | Zhang Z.,University of Sichuan | Liu H.,University of Sichuan
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

Adsorption behavior disciplinarian of the immobilized tannins to metal ions was studied. Experiments showed that adsorption capacities of metal ions lied in ns grouse in the periodic table of elements were relatively low. For the metal ions lied in np grouse in the periodic table of elements, their adsorption capacity increased with the increasing in the radius of metal ions. Adsorption capacities of metal ions having low values in the first transition series in the periodic table of elements, such as Mn(II), Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(II) and Ni(II), were more lower than that of the metal ions having high values, such as Cr(VI), Mn(VII) and V(V). For the metal ions in the second, the third transition series and the actinide series, adsorption capacities were relatively higher than that of metal ions in lanthanide series. Source

Xia Q.,University of Sichuan | Xia Q.,National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture | Wu C.,University of Sichuan | Wu C.,National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Institute of Brewing | Year: 2014

Huangshui is a by-product of Chinese liquor and it has a high annual production owing to the popularity of the liquor in China. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of Huangshui esterification by whole-cell enzymes produced from different microbial strains. Esterification of Huangshui was carried out for 16days via the addition of different preparations produced from Rhizopus chinensis strain 3.1149, Rhizopus chinensis strain 3.1166, Monascus purpureus SICC 3.19 and Rhizopus oryzae SICC 3.623. The results showed that the preparation GP1, produced from M. purpureus, exhibited the highest esterification efficiency compared with the other preparations based on physicochemical analysis in combination with volatile profile analysis. In addition, a characterization of preparation GP1 was performed and the optimal alcohol content and pH for esterification were 10% and pH3.5, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the total ester content increased from 4.86 to 7.31g/L after esterification for 16days. An estimation of the sensory impact of the volatile compounds after esterification was performed by a calculation of the odour active values (OAVs). Radar diagrams of the OAVs demonstrated the differences in the sensory profiles in Huangshui, before and after esterification. Nearly all of the OAVs of the esters were increased by the esterification reaction and were above the human sensory threshold. Results presented in this manuscript provide a potential strategy for the efficient bio-conversion of Huangshui. © 2014 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling. Source

Han Y.,University of Sichuan | Han Y.,National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture | Dong W.,University of Sichuan | Dong W.,National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture | And 3 more authors.
Gaofenzi Cailiao Kexue Yu Gongcheng/Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2015

Nonionic waterborne polyurethane/fumed SiO2 hybrid (R816) composites (NPU/R) were prepared by in situ polymerization using novel hydrophobic fumed silica with long chain alkyl (R816) as modifier. The structures of NPU/R were characterized by FT-IR. The dispersion properties of SiO2, surface morphology, and micro-phase structure of NPU/R were studied by SEM, AFM, and DMA. The influences of hydrophobic fumed SiO2 content on the water resistance, transmission of UV light, and thermal stability of NPU/R were also investigated. Results show that the incorporation of hydrophobic fumed SiO2 increases the micro-phased separation degree and decreases the transmission of UV light of hybrid films. With increasing the mass fraction of hydrophobic fumed SiO2, the surface roughness and thermal stability of NPU/R hybrids are enhanced. When the mass fraction of SiO2 is 1%, the hybrid film has superior properties, the contact angle of 94.1° and swelling ratio of 26.2%. © 2015, Chengdu University of Science and Technology. All right reserved. Source

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