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Liu H.,Institute of Chemical Industry of Forestry Products | Liu H.,National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Chemical Utilization | Song J.,University of Michigan-Flint | Shang S.,Institute of Chemical Industry of Forestry Products | And 5 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2012

Developing bionanocomposites from renewable biomass is a viable supplement for materials produced from mineral and fossil fuel resources. In this study, nanocomposites composed of carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals (CCNs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared and used as bifunctional nanofillers to improve the mechanical and antimicrobial properties of waterborne polyurethane (WPU). Morphology, structure and performance of the CCNs/AgNPs nanocomposites and WPU-based films were investigated. WPU-based composite films were homogeneous and reinforced. The WPU/CCNs/AgNPs composite showed excellent antimicrobial properties in killing both Gram-negative E. coli and Gram-positive S. aureus. The CCNs/AgNPs nanocomposites could be applied as bifunctional nanofillers within WPU. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Zhang W.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Zhang W.,Key Laboratory of Biomass Energy and Material | Zhang W.,National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Chemical Utilization | Zhang W.,Key Laboratory on Forest Chemical Engineering | And 13 more authors.
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives | Year: 2013

Phenol-formaldehyde (PF) adhesive is usually used to bond exterior grade plywood for high bonding strength and water resistance. However, all components are based on petrochemicals, nonrenewable materials from fossil fuel. Lignocellulosic ethanol residue (ER), as the by-product of lignocellulosic ethanol production, is rich in activated lignin and usually treated as waste. In this work, the ER was used as a renewable and valuable resource to partially replace phenol in the range of 10-70% to prepare lignin-phenol-formaldehyde (LPF) adhesive. The composition, functional groups and molecular weight of the ER were characterized. The result revealed that ER, with rich hydroxyl group and less methoxyl group as well as lower molecular weight, was suitable for the synthesis of LPF adhesive. The synthesis process parameters of ER-modified PF (ERPF) adhesives were optimized. It was found that the phenol could be replaced by ER for 50% at most, without much free formaldehyde and free phenol in the ERPF adhesives and the performance of plywood bonded by ERPF adhesives met the requirement of exterior grade according to the Chinese National Standard (GB/T 9846.3-2004). FT-IR, solid state 13C-NMR and TGA were used to characterize the PF and ERPF adhesives. FT-IR and solid state 13C-NMR spectra of the adhesives showed structural similarity between them. With the increase of substitution rate, the content of aliphatic OH group in the ERPF adhesive increased. Thermal stability of ERPF adhesives was better than that of PF adhesive in the initial thermal degradation. After scale up production, the industrial feasibility of preparing ERPF adhesives had been confirmed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Zhang W.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Zhang W.,National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Chemical Utilization | Ma Y.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Ma Y.,National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Chemical Utilization | And 7 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

Four kinds of biorefinery residues (the ethanol, the butanol, the xylitol and the lactic acid biorefinery residue) were utilized to modify the phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin, respectively by copolymerization. Prior to the reaction, the composition and functional group of each biorefinery residue were characterized and used to evaluate their suitability as replacement for the preparation of PF resins. It was found that ER (bio-ethanol biorefinery residue) exhibited high reactivity due to high content of hydroxyl group. The influence of each biorefinery residue for the replacement of phenol on the properties of residue-modified phenol formaldehyde (RPF) resins was also investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), solid state 13C NMR and thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA). ER was found to be the best biorefinery residue for the modification of PF resin. 50% phenol could be replaced by ER without influencing the properties of adhesives and plywoods. In industrial production, the plywoods bonded by ER-derived PF resins met the requirement of both first grade and E 0 grade (GB/T 9846.3-2004). © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Xu J.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Xu J.,National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Chemical Utilization | Xu J.,West Virginia University | Xie X.,West Virginia University | And 3 more authors.
Green Chemistry | Year: 2016

Conventional thermochemical liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass produces an unpredictable complex mixture of oxygenated products, which creates techno-economic barriers during subsequent upgrading processes. The improvement of the quality of liquefied products is a critical step before the valorization of liquefied lignocellulosic biomass. We are introducing a novel "directional liquefaction" process which harnesses stepwise precipitation of hydrophobic compounds from the liquefied products to form two groups of chemicals: monosaccharides (sugar derivatives) and aromatic platforms. As evidenced in the results of the GC-MS analysis, the sugar platform chemicals, which were generated from carbohydrates, contained five-carbon and six-carbon sugar derivatives, with a total purity higher than 93%. The aromatic platform chemicals with different molecular distributions, mainly from the cleavage of the dominant β-O-4, 4-O-5 linkages in lignin, were fractionated stepwise by gradual removal of the solvent. The platform chemicals make it possible to design the final products due to their similar physiochemical properties within each fraction, and have great potential for commercial production of value added liquid fuels and fine chemicals using mild processing conditions. Additionally, we propose the mechanisms based on our investigation on the decomposition pathways during "directional liquefaction" using GC-MS and 2-dimensional NMR analyses. Overall, the potential of a catalytic refining process for integrated valorization of both carbohydrates and lignin parts in lignocellulosic biomass is the basis of our report. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016. Source

Wang K.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Wang K.,National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Chemical Utilization | Jiang J.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Jiang J.,National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Chemical Utilization | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy | Year: 2013

A solid acid catalyst SO4 2-/TiO2/La 3+ was prepared via sol-gel method using tetrabutyl titanate as TiO2 precursor. The catalyst simultaneously catalyzed esterification and transesterification resulting in the synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil with high content of free fatty acids as feedstock. The optimization of reaction conditions was also performed. The maximum yield of more than 90% could be obtained under the optimized conditions that catalyst amount 5 wt. % of oil, 10:1 molar ratio (methanol to oil), temperature 110 °C, and esterification of 1 h. The catalyst can be reused for five times by activation without observing the decrease of its catalytic performance. The final products were purified by molecular distillation and detected by GC-MS. The content of fatty acid methyl esters was 96.16%. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC. Source

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