National Engineering Laboratory for Applied Technology of Forestry and Ecology in South China

Changsha, China

National Engineering Laboratory for Applied Technology of Forestry and Ecology in South China

Changsha, China

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Wei H.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Deng X.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Deng X.,National Engineering Laboratory for Applied Technology of Forestry and Ecology in South China | Ouyang S.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | And 3 more authors.
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science | Year: 2017

Schima superba is an important fire-resistant, high-quality timber species in southern China. Growth in height, diameter at breast height (DBH), and volume of the three different classes (overtopped, average and dominant) of S. superba were examined in a natural subtropical forest. Four growth models (Richards, edited Weibull, Logistic and Gompertz) were selected to fit the growth of the three different classes of trees. The results showed that there was a fluctuation phenomenon in height and DBH current annual growth process of all three classes. Multiple intersections were found between current annual increment (CAI) and mean annual increment (MAI) curves of both height and DBH, but there was no intersection between volume CAI and MAI curves. All selected models could be used to fit the growth of the three classes of S. superba, with determinant coefficients above 0.9637. However, the edited Weibull model performed best with the highest R2 and the lowest root of mean square error (RMSE). S. superba is a fast-growing tree with a higher growth rate during youth. The height and DBH CAIs of overtopped, average and dominant trees reached growth peaks at ages 5-10, 10-15 and 15-20 years, respectively. According to model simulation, the volume CAIs of overtopped, average and dominant trees reached growth peaks at ages 17, 55 and 76 years, respectively. The biological rotation ages of the overtopped, average and dominant trees of S. superba were 29, 85 and 128 years, respectively. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.


Wang X.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Tian D.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Tian D.,National Engineering Laboratory for Applied Technology of Forestry and Ecology in South China | Yan W.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2011

Nutrients cycling is one of the fundamental and functional processes that maintain the structure and services produced by forest ecosystems. Many micronutrient elements can be essential to forested ecosystem biomass production. A lack of any of the essential elements can be limiting to biological production and ecological processes, This may be particularly important in karst areas, such as karst regions in southwestern China, where the high permeability of the bedrock and the strong anthropogenic disturbance result in nutrients deficiency and poor soil fertility. In order to understand the effect of urban forest development on microelements cycling in karst areas, we have studied poplar plantations located in Guiyang city, Guizhou Province of China, where the karst area accounts for 85% of the total urban area of the city. The concentration, accumulation, spatial distribution, decomposition and bioloigcal cycling of eight micronutrient elements (Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni, Pb, Co and Cd) in 25-year old poplar (Populus tremula) plantations were investigated. The results showed that the concentration of Fe was the highest among the eight microelements, following by Mn and Cd had the lowest concentration in the soils. The concentration of the eight micronutrient elements decreased with increasing of the soil depth. Microelements of Pb, Ni, Mn, Cd, Cu, Co and Zn had a higher rate of decomposition than Fe element in litter layer on the stand floor. The concentration of microelements in different organs of poplar trees was in an order of fine root > leaf > coarse root > bark > branch > large root > stake > wood. The concentrations of Cu in leaf were higher than those in other organs. The total storage of microelements in the plantations was 14. 086 kg/ hm 2, and the content of eight micronutrient elements in different organs of poplar trees was in the order of Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe>Cd>Co>Pb>Ni. The wood and bark had the highest amount of microelements than other organs, and they accounted for 43. 4% of the total microelements in poplar trees. The patterns of biological cycle of micronutrient elements showed that annual uptake amount of microelements was 3.079 kg/ hm 2, annual return 2. 663 kg/ hm 2, and annual retention 0. 417 kg/ hm 2 in the studied plantations. The utilization coefficient (ratio of the annual uptake amount to the total microelement storage in plantations) and cycling coefficient (ratio of annual return amount to annual uptake amount) of micronutrient elements were 0. 219 and 0. 865, respectively. The turnover period of the microelements (ratio of the total microelement storage in plantations to the annual return amount) was estimated to be 5. 29 year. The poplar plantations had strong ability to absorb Cd from the soils, and the biological decomposition rates of all microelements were higher than their migration rates in the studied forests. Our results indicated that there was a relative high cycling rate and a relative short turnover period of the micronutrient elements in the poplar plantations. The study suggested that the urban poplar forests had a strong ability to keep nutrients stability, to make stand self-adjustment and to improve soil fertility, which might be beneficial to the maintenance of forest productivity.


Tian D.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Tian D.,National Engineering Laboratory for Applied Technology of Forestry and Ecology in South China | Shen Y.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Shen Y.,National Engineering Laboratory for Applied Technology of Forestry and Ecology in South China | And 6 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2011

Nutrient cycling is one of the most important functional processes in forest ecosystems. Nutrient contents and its biogeochemistry cycle directly affect forest productivity and soil fertility. It has been widely reported that timber yield was apparently declined and soil fertility was greatly degraded on the successive rotations of Chinese fir plantations. Therefore, it is a significance to examine the relationships between the characteristics of nutrient cycling and the decline of site productivity in the successive rotations of Chinese fir plantations. The pattern of nutrient biogeochemical cycle and nutrient utilizations efficiency were investigated and compared in the first and second rotations of Chinese fir plantations using the data collected from long term projects over past 30 years. The results showed that about 1. 58-3. 29kg and 4. 23-5. 92kg more nutrients were required to produce every one tons dry matter in the fast-growing stage and timbering stage, respectively, in the second rotations than in the first rotations. Nutrient utilizations coefficient and nutrient cycling coefficient reduced 19. 7%-22. 8%, 12. 8%-15. 6% and 35. 3%-36. 2%, 23. 2%-27. 0%, respectively in the second rotations when comparing with those in the first rotations. When the stands reached in the mature stage, the ability of nutrient accumulation declined in the second rotations. The nutrient loss rate through runoff in the second rotations was about two times high as in the first rotations. The nutrient accumulation rate decreased about 40% in the second rotations than in the first rotations. The results suggest that the changes in nutrient biogeochemical cycling in the second rotations had negative effects on tree growth and site productivity. The research provides scientific references in making reasonable management practices and policies on the plantations in Southern China.


He J.N.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Kang W.X.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Kang W.X.,National Engineering Laboratory for Applied Technology of Forestry and Ecology in South China | Wang D.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Yao L.H.,Central South University of forestry and Technology
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2015

Based on the small watershed technique and the located observation method, the hydrology data collected of the precipitation, penetrate the canopy water, surface and underground runoff, and determine its nutrient content, which were used for analyzing the nutrient dynamic in hydrologic process on the successive rotations of Chinese fir plantations at near mature forest. The replanting its purpose to reveal functional differences in the two generations of Chinese fir in biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, and study the problem of declining productivity even planted fir plantations provide ideas and evidence. The results showed that the nutrient concentrations in precipitation of the second generation forest was 20.30%-39.64% higher than that in first-generation forest, which accounted in total for 38.52% more input of nutrients in second generation than that in the first generation forest. The nutrient concentrations in the through fall in the forest of the first and the second generation was relatively 4.149-4.895 g/kg and 4.271-5.605 g/kg higher than that in the corresponding atmospheric precipitation, respectively. Rain canopy leaching of nutrients,which the nutrient content was 2.94% to 21.37% higher in the second generation forest than that in the first generation forest after leaching through the canopy. There was not significantly different between the nutrient concentrations in surface runoff of the first and that in the second generation forest. The nutrient concentrations subsurface runoff of second generation forest, however, was 48.06% -78.87% higher than that in the first generation forest, which induced the runoff output in the runoff, the second generation forest was 1.58 to 2.61 times more than that in the first generation forest. The nutrient geochemical rate was 26.75% to 29.95% in the first generation forest, while in the second generation forest the nutrient geochemical cycle was 37.24% to 47.43%, and The nutrient geochemical cycle was 3.3 to 3.7 years in the first generation forest, while was 2.1 to 2.7 years in the second generation forest. The nutrient loss rate of the second generation forest was from 1.30 to 1.72 times higher than that in the first generation forest, and the nutrient accumulation rate in the second generation forest was from 73.57% to 87.14% of that in the first generation forest. As to the retention and utilization in the input of nutrients from the outside, the nutrient retention and utilization efficiency of the second generation forest was lower than that of the first generation forest. © 2015, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved.


Yao L.H.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Kang W.X.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Kang W.X.,National Engineering Laboratory for Applied Technology of Forestry and Ecology in South China | Zhao Z.H.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | He J.N.,Central South University of forestry and Technology
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2015

Based on located observations biomass and carbon content carbon of plants from a national key field scientific experimental station in Huitong, carbon storage, carbon allocation characteristics of each component in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations, the ability to stand fixed carbon dynamics in Cinese fir plantation at different ages were studied. The results showed that the carbon content of the Stand components increased with the age, which in the ranked as follow: needle> bark > root > trunk > twig at the same age. Forest carbon storage ranged from 22.93 to 86.98 t/ hm2,the carbon storage is greater in tree layer than the understory vegetation layer, and the understory vegetation layer is greater than the layer of dead matter. Tree layer of carbon on the relative distribution of organs ranked as trunk> root> leaf> bark> branch. Trunk carbon allocation to increase with age, branches, leaves decrease with age, although the roots and bark fluctuated, the change is relatively stable. The needle, twig,trunk, bark, roots carbon accumulation, the average annual change showed a single peak-shaped curve, but the crest of a different time. The fixed carbon dynamic characteristics can be divided into five stages of the fir forest, i.e. the establishment of the function of the fixed carbon, carbon fixation ability to rapidly increase, the ability to achieve maximum fixed carbon, the ability of the fixed carbon is relatively stable, decreased ability of the fixed carbon. The Carbon sequestration in Chinese fir plantations is affected not only by the constraints of the biological characteristics of the different growth stages of growth and development rhythm, but also by the stand canopy structure and soil fertility conditions. © 2015, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved.


He J.N.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Kang W.X.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Kang W.X.,National Engineering Laboratory for Applied Technology of Forestry and Ecology in South China | Wang D.,Central South University of forestry and Technology
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2015

As a principal timber species, Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) is widely planted throughout southern China and it covers approximately 9.21 million hectares, almost one third of total plantation in China and it contributes greatly to meeting the expanding timber demand. The heat value of the tree represents, to some degree, the capacity of the physiological function and productivity of the plant. In this study, the calorific values of plants in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation at different ages were studied, based on located observations from a national key field scientific experimental station in Huitong, Hunan Province, China. The biomass, carbon concentration of different component of the tree, understory vegetation and dead litter layer were investigated at 11-year, 14-year, 18-year, 20-year old Chinese fir plantation. By using the six standard tree method, the allometric equations for biomass were established for the Chinese fir plantations at different stand ages, including the trunk, leaves, barks, twigs and roots. The dry matters were ground and the calorific value of different component of the plant and ecosystem were measured with automatic calorimeter (WZR-1TCII). We analyzed the data with one-way ANOVA, two-way ANOVA and Duncan by using SPSS 13.0 and the results showed that at the same age, the different organs of Chinese fir had different calorific values, they shared a similar pattern and in a small range, between 17.3 to 20.6 J/ g and ranked as needle>bark > twig > trunk > root. As to the different organs of Chinese fir, the calorific values increased with the age. At the same age,The calorific values of shrubs was in the order needle > twig > root. For The calorific values in aboveground organs of herb was higher than that of root. Over time, calorific values in shrubs and herb decreased with the age. At the same age,the calorific values of litter was in the order needle > litter twig > detritus >dead roots. The calorific values of the litter components increased with the age. As to Chinese fir plantation ecosystem, the calorific values of the components was in the order of tree layer > shrub layer > herb layer > litter layer. There was no robust relationship between ash content and calorific values in the different organs of Cunninghamia lanceolata,but that of the Shrubs and herb organs has a significantly negative correlation with its ash content (P<0.05). The Calorific value of organs of Cunninghamia lanceolata changed with the age, which might affect the organs of Chinese fir with stand age, the increased lignifications for instance. Furthermore, the environmental factors could also contribute to the calorific values over time, such as the rainfall, solar radiation, temperature, and so on, in that the calorific values of plants in Chinese fir plantations, the components beneath the system will be affected by the receiving resources for solar energy for different plants located in the different layer, which could also be true even in the different layers of leaves for Chinese fir itself. © 2015, Science Press. All rights reserved.


Zhu F.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Zhu F.,National Engineering Laboratory for Applied Technology of Forestry and Ecology in South China | Wang G.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Wang G.,National Engineering Laboratory for Applied Technology of Forestry and Ecology in South China | And 6 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2010

Soil respiration (Rs), the emission of CO2 from the soil surface, is one of major carbon fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere, and is therefore an important component of the global carbon balance. Total respiration from soils is mainly comprised of both the heterotrophic respiration of microorganisms (soil bacteria, fungi, and fauna) and autotrophic respiration from roots and their associated mycorrhizae. While Rs has received considerable attention in recent decades, much less is known about the contribution of heterotrophic or autotrophic component to the total Rs. A large part of gross primary production is consumed in heterotrophic respiration, and published estimates of the contribution of heterotrophic respiration to total Rs vary greatly and ranged from 10% to 90%. As a result, precise assessment of the contribution of autotrophic respiration to the total Rs is important to understand the effects of global climate change and human management practices on carbon sequestration and cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. This study aimed to reveal seasonal changes of Rs and the contribution of root respiration to total Rs in a Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in the Tianjiling Forestry Park (113°01′-113°02′ E, 28 °06′-28°O7′ N) of Changsha, Hunan Province, China. A trenching method, in which the roots existing in a given area are severed at the plot boundary but not removed, was used to determine the contribution of root respiration to total soil CO2 efflux. The Rs rates were measured from January 2007 to December 2008 by using infrared gas exchange analyzer of Li-Cor 6400-09. The results showed that the soil temperature at 5cm depth between trenched plots (without living roots) and control plots (with living roots) was not significant difference(P =0.987), but soil moisture at 5cm depth between these two types of plots was significant difference (P =0.035). The Rs rates in control plots increased from May to August and then decreased during autumn. A similar seasonal pattern of Rs process was found in the trenched plots, but the Rs rates in the trenched plots were lower than the controls, and the difference was significant in 2008 (P =0.021). The rates of soil CO2 efflux within the trenched and control plots ranged 0.19-2.01 and 0.26-2. 61μ mol • m-2s-1 respectively. The annual Rs in the trenched and control plots averaged 0.90 and l.30μ mol • m-2s-1, respectively. The Rs rates were decreased 9.4%-59.7% with an annual value of 30.4% in trenched plots when compared with the control plots. There was a significant exponential relationship (R2 =0.882, P =0.000) between Rs within the trenched plots and soil temperature. The Q10 value, representing the sensitivity of Rs to soil temperature was higher in the trenched plots (2.56) than the control plots (2.01). It was worth mentioning that great decreases of Rs within the trenched plots was suppressed in September 2008 due to natural distribution of precipitation and the variation of soil moisture in the study area.


Kang W.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Kang W.,National Engineering Laboratory for Applied Technology of Forestry and Ecology in South China | Xiong Z.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | He J.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Li J.,Central South University of forestry and Technology
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2012

The energy storage and distribution were studied in the 11-year-old Chinese fir plantations in Huitong, the central production area and Zhuting, the expanded cultivation area based on the biomass and thermal value of try matter. The result showed that the the amount of existing energy in Chinese fir plantation of Huitong area (12406×108-14733×108J/hm2) was significantly higher than that in Zhuting (9294×108-10894×108J/hm2), suggesting the stand condition and climate play a critical role on the energy accumulation in Chinese fir plantations. Besides, the amount of existing energy in both Chinese fir plantation areas decreased with increasing density in a certain range of stand density, mainly due to the reduced existing energy of the trunk capacity, whereas the amount of existing energy of branches and leaves maintains at a stable state. The allocation of the energy to the different componentsof the tree was different, ranked with decreasing order: stem, roots, leaves, and branches. The energy distribution ratio in Huitong is different from that in Zhuting, e.g. the for both planations, for energy allocated into stem was 56.8%-61.2% in Huitong plantation, which was higher than that of 47.0%-53.5% in Zhuting, while in leaves, the allocation ratio is much lower in Huitong (22.2%-25.9%) than that in Zhuting (28.3%-34.2%). For the spatial distribution of the amount of existing energy at the stand level, most of existing energy was distributed at the soil surface and 2/3 height of the canopy above the ground, where was regarded the most important places for the exchange of substances and energy including water, light, gas and heat in the surrounding environment in forest. Results indicated that: (1) where there is the most urgency in supply of water and nutrients, there is the largest gathering of energy flows at the ecosystem level, and (2) for the 11a stand, there were some factors not suited to the growth of Chinese fir plantation in Zhuting area, in terms of micrometeorologic factors and stand conditions compared with Huitong area, the central area of China fir plantation.


Kang W.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Kang W.,National Engineering Laboratory for Applied Technology of Forestry and Ecology in South China | Yao L.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | He J.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2012

In order to provide the scientific basis for saving energy, reducing CO2emissions and promoting the rapid development of economy of Liaoning Province, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and CO2emissions were surveyed and the relationship between economic growth and energy utilization efficiency, energy consumption intensity was analyzed in this study. The results showed that total energy consumption in second industry was extremely high, which was 5.67-8.41 times higher than that of the third industry, and 7.2-9.0 times higher than that of the first industry. The energy consumption per unit capita of GDP was 52%-70% higher than the national average level, mainly due to concentrated high energy demanding industries, such as coat mining, dressing, electricity and supply, etc. Besides, the energy utilization efficiency of second industry was quite low, equivalent to 11.89% of the first the industry, 12.60% of the third industry. Although annual GDP growth rate was faster than the growth rate of energy consumption, which might indicate the increased energy input promoted the improvement of gross domestic product, economic growth is not completely dependent on energy consumption growth. Instead, the adjustment of industrial structure and technical innovation played a critical role on the development of economy in Liaoning. CO2 emissions and annual change of per capita GDP presented turning point in 2001 and 2005, with the increase of per capita GDP, emissions of CO2 appeared to fluctuate repeatedly, suggesting the relationship between environment and the economy in Liaoning is still not in the balanced and collaborative developing stage. To solve these issues, structure adjustments, technology innovation and reform were needed to improve energy utilization efficiency and improve economy.


Xu W.M.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Yan W.D.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Yan W.D.,National Engineering Laboratory for Applied Technology of Forestry and Ecology in South China | Yan W.D.,Key Laboratory of Urban Forest Ecology of Hunan Province | And 6 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2013

By the method of litterfall trap, and from October 2009 to October 2010, an investigation was made on the amount, composition and dynamic charcteristics of the litterfalls in four typical forests(Liquidambar formosana, Cinnamomum camphora, Pinus massoniana, and Camphor-Pine mixed forest) of Hunan Province, subtropical China.The results showed that the annual litterfall amount and the litter composition differed obviously among the four forest types.The Camphora-Pinus mixed forest had the largest annual litterfall amount(about 4.30 t/hm2), followed by Liquidambar forest, Pinus forest and Cinnamomum camphora forest.In different plant components,the leaf litter had the largest annual litterfall amount (above 70%),Such as Camphora-Pinus mixed forest (3.09 t/hm2) > Liquidambar (2.78 t/hm2) > Pinus (2.46 t/hm2) > Camphora (2.32 t/hm2). Branch litter showed that Camphora-Pinus mixed forest (0.73 t/hm2) > Camphora (0.53 t/hm2) > Pinus (0.30 t/hm2) > Liquidambar (0.22 t/hm2). The Pinus forest had the largest annual fruit litter amount(about 10.95%). The Liquidambar forest had the largest annual miscellany amount(about 14.91%).In October, Liquidambar forest had the largest annual litterfall amount (1.22 t/hm2) and in August, Camphora had the largest annual litterfall amount (0.58 t/hm2), the Pinus and Camphora-Pinus mixed forest had the largest annual litterfall amount in November (0.77 t/hm2 and 1.23 t/hm2).The research showed that the amount of branch litter was less than the amount miscellany. The litter production of the dominant species greatly influenced the dynamics of total litter production.

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