National Engineering and Technology Research Center for Red Soil Improvement

Nanchang, China

National Engineering and Technology Research Center for Red Soil Improvement

Nanchang, China
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Cui J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Cui J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhou J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Zhou J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2014

Biological processes in agroecosystems have been affected by atmospheric nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposition, but there is uncertainty about their deposition characteristics in the monsoon season. We collected rain samples using an ASP-2 sampler, recorded rainfall and rain frequency by an auto-meteorological experiment sub-station, and determined total N, NO3--N and NH4+-N levels in precipitation with an AutoAnalyzer 3 and SO42--S with a chromatography, in order to characterize the wet deposition of N and S to a typical red soil agroecosystem by a ten-year monitoring experiment in Southeast China. The results indicated that N and S wet deposition had an increased trend with the flux of total N (3.34-65.17kgha-1 N) and total S (SO42--S) (7.17-23.44kgha-1 S) during the monsoon seasons. The additional applications of pig mature in 2006 and 2007 led to the peaks of DON (dissolved organic nitrogen) and total N wet deposition. On average, NH4+-N was the major N form, accounting for 48.5% of total N wet deposition and DON was not a negligible N form, accounting for 20.8% during the ten-year monsoon seasons (except 2006 and 2007). Wet deposition of N and S has been intensively influenced by human activities in the monsoon season, and would increase the potential ecological risk in the red soil agricultural ecosystem. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Peng X.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Peng X.,National Engineering and Technology Research Center for Red Soil Improvement | Yan X.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Yan X.,Hunan Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2015

In tropical and subtropical soils, sesquioxides and soil organic matter (SOM) are major binding agents for aggregates. However, the biotic and abiotic contributions to aggregation are often difficult to distinguish. In this study, we attempted to assess their contributions to aggregation separately, as indicated by aggregate size distribution and specific surface area (SSA). Our objectives were (i) to determine aggregate size distribution and SSA before and after removal of sesquioxides and SOM, and (ii) to assess the contributions of sesquioxides and SOM to soil aggregation. An oxide-rich Ultisol under long-term fertilization was extracted by water as a control, oxalate, dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB), or by H2O2 in the absence of any physical disturbance. The aggregate size distribution, Fe/Al oxides, soil organic C (SOC), and SSA of the soil before and after extraction were determined. Our results showed that the DCB and oxalate solutions broke down the sand-sized aggregates most intensively, whereas the H2O2 treatment disrupted 0.25-2.0mm aggregates intensively, indicating that SOM is the major binding agent for aggregates of this size. A slight change either in SOC stock after removal of Fe/Al oxides by DCB and oxalate or in Fe/Al oxides after removal of SOC by H2O2 indicated that organo-mineral complexes are a minor binding mechanism of aggregation in the soil studied. The SSA was reduced by 72-84% in the soil extracted by DCB, followed by 32.0-35.9% after the oxalate extraction, whereas the removal of SOM increased SSA by 3.8-12.6%. Our results showed that Fe/Al oxides played a major role in aggregation in the Ultisols studied. The difference in the major binding agent for different aggregate size classes is another reason to explain why the hierarchy aggregate concept is not applicable to oxide-rich soils. This study, however, could not assess their contributions to soil aggregation precisely, because of the difficulty in tracing aggregate dynamics. To better understand the mechanisms of soil aggregation we need more works in the future. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Wang S.,Jiangxi Academy of Agricultural science Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer | Wang S.,Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming Sys for the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River | Wang S.,National Engineering and Technology Research Center for Red Soil Improvement | Liang X.-Q.,Zhejiang University | And 22 more authors.
Plant, Soil and Environment | Year: 2013

The effects of phosphorus (P) fertilizer on P loss potential, soil Olsen-P and neutral phosphatase activities in paddy soils fertilized with superphosphate or pig manure (PM) were evaluated in this paper. Data were collected from a field experiment in the Tai Lake Basin, China. Superphosphate rates were 0, 17.5, 26.7, and 35.0 kg P/ha, and PM rates were 0, 1.4, 2.1, and 2.8 t/ha for each crop, respectively. Soil Olsen-P in the plow layer increased to a greater extent with PM than with superphosphate. Pig manure increased neutral phosphatase activities in the plow layer compared with PM-free treatment. In contrast, superphosphate inhibited neutral phosphatase activities compared with superphosphate-free treatment. Spring application of P fertilizer markedly increased the total P of surface water in November (< 0.01 vs. 0.10 mg/L) compared with P-free treatment. The total P of shallow groundwater at a 75 cm depth was ~0.01 mg/L. Phosphorus fertilizer did not influence Olsen-P or neutral phosphatase activities under the plow layer. Downward movement of P did not occur. Appropriate rate of P application of 26.2 kg P/ha for each crop in this soil reduced the risk of P loss in the paddy wetland ecosystem.


Zhang W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang W.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Liu M.-Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | He Y.-Q.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2014

Soil biota plays a key role in ecosystem functioning of red soil. Based on the long-term inorganic fertilization field experiment (25-year) in an upland red soil, the impacts of different inorganic fertilization managements, including NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), NPKCaS (NPK plus gypsum fertilizers), NP (nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers), NK (nitrogen and potassium fertilizers) and PK (phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), on the assemblage of soil nematodes during the growing period of peanut were investigated. Significant differences among the treatments were observed for total nematode abundance, trophic groups and ecological indices (P< 0.01). The total nematode abundance decreased in the order of PK > NPKCaS > NPK > NP > NK. The total number of nematodes was significantly higher in NPKCaS and PK than in NPK, NP and NK except in May. Plant parasitic nematodes were the dominant trophic group in all treatments excepted in NPKCaS, and their proportion ranged between 38% and 65%. The dominant trophic group in NPKCaS was bacterivores and represented 42.1%. Furthermore, the higher values of maturity index, Wasilewska index and structure index in NPKCaS indicated that the combined application of NPK and gypsum could remarkably relieve soil acidification, resulting in a more mature and stable soil food web structure. While, that of the NK had the opposite effect. In conclusion, our study suggested that the application of both gypsum and phosphate is an effective practice to improve soil quality. Moreover, the analysis of nematode assemblage is relevant to reflect the impact of different inorganic fertilizer on the red soil ecosystem.


Tan B.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Tan B.,National Engineering and Technology Research Center for Red Soil Improvement | Tan B.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Fan J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | And 5 more authors.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Soil carbon (C) sequestration plays an important role in mitigating climate change; therefore, it is essential to understand the mechanisms underlying soil organic carbon (SOC) turnover and dynamics. The humification coefficient of input organic materials (h) and the SOC decomposition rate (k) together control the SOC turnover, and they have been well known to be affected by factors including climatic factors, organic material qualities, soil characteristics, and anthropogenic activities. However, the SOC content changes over time, and thus far, whether the SOC content is an inherent factor has not been understood clearly. By using a new mathematical method, we found that SOC is possibly able to regulate its own turnover through a negative feedback: h decreases and k increases simultaneously with an increase in the SOC content. This feedback is caused by a series of chemical, biological, and physical mechanisms. We suggest that the response of the SOC pool to climate change is a function of the C input level to soil, temperature, and negative feedback of the SOC turnover; in addition, organic materials should be applied in priority to soils with low SOC content to enhance the soil C sequestration. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Wang H.-W.,Nanjing Normal University | Wang X.-X.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wang X.-X.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Wang X.-X.,National Engineering and Technology Research Center for Red Soil Improvement | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2012

A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of applying endophytic fungi Phomopsis liquidambari strain B3, Phomopsis sp. strain NJ4.1, and Ceratobasidum stevensii strain B6 on the soil biological characteristics and enzyme activities under continuously cropped peanut at its different growth stages.compared with the control, applying B3 increased the peanut yield significantly by 19.8%, and applying NJ4.1, B3 and B6 increased the peanut nodule number significantly by 20.4%, 29.3% and 27.6%, respectively. In the three treatments of applying endophytic fungi, the average population of soil bacteria and actinomycetes in the whole growth period of peanut was higher than that of the control, and the soil microbial biomass carbon was significantly greater at germination and seedling stages. The soil microbial biomass nitrogen increased at germination stage, but decreased at flowering stage. The DGGE analysis indicated that at flowering stage, the soil bacteria and fungi in treatment B3 had the largest band number and diversity. From germination stage to maturing stage, the three treatments of applying endophytic fungi had higher activities of soil invertase and catalase than the control, but less difference in soil urease activity. It was suggested that applying endophytic fungi could improve the peanut continuous cropping soil environment, and applying B3 had the best effect.


Wang Y.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Wang Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Fan J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Fan J.,National Engineering and Technology Research Center for Red Soil Improvement | And 2 more authors.
Land Degradation and Development | Year: 2016

Soil and surface water runoff are the major causes of cropland degradation in the hilly red soil region of China. Appropriate tillage practices are urgently needed to reduce erosion and protect the soil surface. In this study, five tillage systems [manure fertiliser (PM), straw mulch cover (PC), peanut-orange intercropping (PO), peanut-radish rotation (PR) and traditional farrow peanut (PF)] were compared in terms of soil infiltration and the capacity to generate runoff. Based on field-plot monitoring and simulated experiments, this study revealed that the organic content of the soil in the PO (19.43 gkg-1), PC (18·63 gkg-1) and PM (18·18gkg-1) treatments increased compared with those of the PF (15·64 gkg-1) and PR (17.17 gkg-1) treatments. Moreover, the three tillage practices also enhanced the soil's aggregate stability and infiltration capacity. The average annual runoff generation rates of the treatments were as follows: PR (3,141m3ha-1a-1)>PF (2,189m3ha-1a-1)>PC (755m3ha-1a-1)>PM (514m3ha-1a-1)>PO (388 m3ha-1a-1). The PO treatment reduced the runoff generation rate by approximately 82·3% compared with that of the PF treatment. Among the treatments, the PO treatment had the highest threshold rainfall depth (22 mm) for runoff generation. Regression analysis revealed that the threshold rainfall depths linearly increased with the infiltration rates. The results of this study could benefit local soil management and cropland conservation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Cui J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Cui J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Zhou J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhou J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | And 5 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2012

Aims: Biological processes in agro-ecosystems have been affected by atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, but there is uncertain of the N deposition fluxes and associated variations. This study aimed to characterize the atmospheric inorganic N (AIN) in wet deposition to a typical red soil farmland at the Red Soil Ecological Experiment Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Southeast China. Methods: We collected rain samples using an ASP-2 sampler at a 4-week interval, recorded rainfall and rain frequency by an auto-meteorological experiment sub-station and determined NO 3 -- and NH 4 +-N levels in precipitation with an AutoAnalyzer 3 for five continuous years (2005-2009). Results: Precipitation-weighted concentrations of NO 3 -- and NH 4 +-N ranged from 0. 02 to 0. 17 mg L -1 month -1 N and 0. 05 to 0. 42 mg L -1 month -1 N, respectively. Wet AIN deposition fluxes substantially varied with season. The highest AIN level was found in spring (March to May) with the average of 11. 3 kg ha -1 season -1 N, which was significantly higher than that in autumn and winter (p < 0. 01). Annual AIN fluxes ranged from 26. 4 to 39. 0 kg ha -1 a -1 N, which approached to the critical loads. The NH 4 +-N deposition fluxes varied from 17. 4 to 27. 0 kg ha -1 a -1 N, accounting for 65. 8-71. 5% of annual AIN deposition fluxes, whereas the AIN fluxes in the rainy season (April to June) ranged from 5. 0 to 20. 2 kg ha -1 a -1 N, accounting for 17. 6-51. 9% of annual AIN deposition fluxes. Conclusions: Wet inorganic N deposition has intensively been influenced by human activities, particularly agricultural activities, and would increase potential ecological risk in the red soil agricultural ecosystem. Our results suggest that wet N deposition to red soil farmlands, particularly in the rainy season should not be neglected. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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