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Priya N.G.,University of Delhi | Ojha A.,International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology | Kajla M.K.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Raj A.,National Dope Testing Laboratory | Rajagopal R.,University of Delhi
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Helicoverpa are important polyphagous agricultural insect pests and they have a worldwide distribution. In this study, we report the bacterial community structure in the midgut of fifth instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera, a species prevalent in the India, China, South Asia, South East Asia, Southern & Eastern Africa and Australia. Using culturable techniques, we isolated and identified members of Bacillus firmus, Bacillus niabense, Paenibacillus jamilae, Cellulomonas variformis, Acinetobacter schindleri, Micrococcus yunnanesis, Enterobacter sp., and Enterococcus cassiliflavus in insect samples collected from host plants grown in different parts of India. Besides these the presence of Sphingomonas, Ralstonia, Delftia, Paracoccus and Bacteriodetes was determined by culture independent molecular analysis. We found that Enterobacter and Enterococcus were universally present in all our Helicoverpa samples collected from different crops and in different parts of India. The bacterial diversity varied greatly among insects that were from different host plants than those from the same host plant of different locations. This result suggested that the type of host plant greatly influences the midgut bacterial diversity of H. armigera, more than the location of the host plant. On further analyzing the leaf from which the larva was collected, it was found that the H. armigera midgut bacterial community was similar to that of the leaf phyllosphere. This finding indicates that the bacterial flora of the larval midgut is influenced by the leaf surface bacterial community of the crop on which it feeds. Additionally, we found that laboratory made media or the artificial diet is a poor bacterial source for these insects compared to a natural diet of crop plant. © 2012 Gayatri Priya et al. Source


Ahi S.,National Dope Testing Laboratory | Beotra A.,National Dope Testing Laboratory | Dubey S.,National Dope Testing Laboratory | Upadhyay A.,National Dope Testing Laboratory | Jain S.,National Dope Testing Laboratory
Drug Testing and Analysis | Year: 2012

The use of prednisolone and prednisone is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) due to their performance-enhancing effect. The purpose of the present work was to explore the possibility of identification and detection of various metabolites of prednisolone by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in excretion study samples. Ten metabolites of prednisolone could be identified namely prednisone (11-oxo metabolite) [M-1], 6-β-OH-prednisolone [M-2], 20-β-OH-prednisolone [M-3], 20-α-OH-prednisolone [M-4], 20-α-OH-prednisone [M-5], 20-β-OH-prednisone [M-6], 2 tetrahydro epimers of 20-β-OH-prednisolone [M-7], 2 tetrahydro epimers of 20-α-OH-prednisolone [M-8], 2 tetrahydro epimers of 20-β-OH-prednisone [M-9], and 2 tetrahydro epimers of 20-α-OH-prednisone [M-10]. Prednisolone was administered in 10-, 20-, and 40-mg dosage to healthy volunteers to study detection of various metabolites. The parent, M-1, M-2, and M-3 could be detected up to 72h while rest of the metabolites were detectable up to 24h after drug administration. The detection of newer metabolites of the drug can further be used for confirmatory purposes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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