Kruger A.C.,South African Weather Service |
Pillay D.L.,National Disaster Management Center |
Van Staden M.,National Disaster Management Center
South African Journal of Science | Year: 2016
While various extreme wind studies have been undertaken for South Africa for the purpose of, amongst others, developing strong wind statistics, disaster models for the built environment and estimations of tornado risk, a general analysis of the strong wind hazard in South Africa according to the requirements of the National Disaster Management Centre is needed. The purpose of the research was to develop a national profile of the wind hazard in the country for eventual input into a national indicative risk and vulnerability profile. An analysis was undertaken with data from the South African Weather Service's long-term weather stations to quantify the wind hazard on a municipal scale, taking into account that there are more than 220 municipalities in South Africa. South Africa is influenced by various strong wind mechanisms occurring at various spatial and temporal scales. This influence is reflected in the results of the analyses which indicated that the wind hazard across South Africa is highly variable, spatially and seasonally. A general result was that the strong wind hazard is highest from the southwestern Cape towards the central and eastern parts of the Northern Cape Province, and the southeastern parts of the coast as well as the eastern interior of the Eastern Cape Province. On a seasonal basis, the southern parts of the country showed similar magnitudes of relative wind hazard throughout the year. However, further north, a strong seasonal component was evident, with lowest risk of strong winds during autumn and winter, and highest risk in spring and summer when convective activity is strongest. © 2016. The Author(s). Published under a Creative Commons Attribution Licence.
Malherbe J.,The Water Council |
Dieppois B.,Coventry University |
Dieppois B.,University of Cape Town |
Maluleke P.,The Water Council |
And 2 more authors.
Natural Hazards | Year: 2016
We explore the historical occurrence of extensive droughts over South Africa within the context of decadal climate variability. A Standardized Precipitation Index dataset is developed and used to assess the spatial extent of droughts in South Africa for the period 1920–2014. The most extensive droughts over the period at various time scales are identified and discussed. Results of a wavelet analysis are also presented towards identifying statistically significant regional climate variation with which the occurrence of droughts is associated. The occurrence of drought with respect to the El Niño Southern Oscillation and decadal climate variability is also considered. Significant associations between short-term droughts and decadal variability are pointed out. An overview of global sea surface temperature and Southern Hemisphere sea-level pressure associations with three prominent scales of multi-year climate variability is given. Dry epochs at the most prominent time scales are shown to be significantly negatively related to the Southern Annular Mode and associated sea surface temperature anomalies in the mid-to-high southern latitudes. Relations with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Inter-Decadal Pacific Oscillation and ENSO, which are all associated with a Southern Annular Mode of opposite sign, are also highlighted. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.