Macheyeki A.S.,Geological Survey of Tanzania |
Mdala H.,Geological Survey of Malawi |
Chapola L.S.,The Catholic University of Malawi |
Manhica V.J.,National Directorate of Geology |
And 14 more authors.
Journal of African Earth Sciences | Year: 2015
The East African Rift System (EARS) has natural hazards - earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and landslides along the faulted margins, and in response to ground shaking. Strong damaging earthquakes have been occurring in the region along the EARS throughout historical time, example being the 7.4 (Ms) of December 1910. The most recent damaging earthquake is the Karonga earthquake in Malawi, which occurred on 19th December, 2009 with a magnitude of 6.2 (Ms). The earthquake claimed four lives and destroyed over 5000 houses. In its effort to improve seismic hazard assessment in the region, Eastern and Southern Africa Seismological Working Group (ESARSWG) under the sponsorship of the International Program on Physical Sciences (IPPS) carried out a study on active fault mapping in the region. The fieldwork employed geological and geophysical techniques. The geophysical techniques employed are ground magnetic, seismic refraction and resistivity surveys but are reported elsewhere. This article gives findings from geological techniques. The geological techniques aimed primarily at mapping of active faults in the area in order to delineate presence or absence of fault segments. Results show that the Karonga fault (the Karonga fault here referred to as the fault that ruptured to the surface following the 6th-19th December 2009 earthquake events in the Karonga area) is about 9. km long and dominated by dip slip faulting with dextral and insignificant sinistral components and it is made up of 3-4 segments of length 2-3. km. The segments are characterized by both left and right steps.Although field mapping show only 9. km of surface rupture, maximum vertical offset of about 43. cm imply that the surface rupture was in little excess of 14. km that corresponds with Mw = 6.4. We recommend the use or integration of multidisciplinary techniques in order to better understand the fault history, mechanism and other behavior of the fault/s for better urban planning in the area. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Macey P.H.,Council for Geoscience |
Thomas R.J.,British Geological Survey |
Grantham G.H.,Council for Geoscience |
Ingram B.A.,Council for Geoscience |
And 19 more authors.
Precambrian Research | Year: 2010
The Nampula Block covers over 100,000km2, making it the largest Mesoproterozoic crustal segment in northern Mozambique and an important component of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian (Pan-African) East African Orogen. It is bounded in the north by the WSW-ENE trending Lúrio Belt. The oldest rocks (Mocuba Suite) are a polydeformed sequence of upper amphibolite-grade layered grey gneisses and migmatites associated with intrusive trondhjemite-tonalite-granodiorite and granitic orthogneisses. A banded gneiss, interpreted as a meta-volcanic rock, yielded a U-Pb SIMS zircon date of 1127±9Ma. Metamorphic rims, dated at ca. 1090Ma, probably grew during a later magmatic phase, represented by the tonalitic Rapale Gneiss, two samples of which were dated at 1095±19 and 1091±14Ma, respectively. The earliest (D1) deformation that took place at approximately this time, was associated with high grade metamorphism and migmatisation of the Mocuba Suite. The geochemistry of these rocks suggests that they were generated in a juvenile, island-arc setting. The Mocuba Suite is interlayered with extensive belts of meta-pelitic/psammitic, calc-silicate and felsic to mafic meta-volcanic paragneisses termed the Molócuè Group. U-Pb data from detrital zircons from a calc-silicate paragneiss gave a bimodal age distribution at ca. 1100 and 1800Ma, showing derivation from rocks of the same age as the Mocuba Suite and a Palaeoproterozoic source region. The age of the Molócuè Group has been directly determined by dates of 1092±13 and 1090±22Ma, obtained from two samples of the leucocratic Mamala Gneiss (meta-felsic volcanics?), one of its major constituent components. The final phase of Mesoproterozoic activity is represented by voluminous plutons and sheet-like bodies of foliated megacrystic granite, augen gneiss and granitic orthogneiss of the Culicui Suite, which have A-type granite geochemical characteristics and are interpreted to have been generated in a late tectonic, extensional setting. Three samples from the suite gave identical ages of ca. 1075Ma. The Nampula Block was extensively re-worked during the major (D2: Pan-African) collision orogen in Late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian times, when the major regional fabrics were imposed upon the Mesoproterozoic rocks under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions. In the dated samples, this orogenic event is represented by metamorphic zircon rim ages of ca. 550 to 500Ma. The new data indicate that the Mesoproterozoic rocks of the Nampula Block were originally accreted to a Palaeoproterozic crustal Block and the Nampula Block only reached its current position, separated from the other Mesoproterozoic blocks of NE Mozambique by the Lúrio Belt, during Neoproterozoic collision and plate movements. The geological history of the Nampula Block is comparable with that described from other parts of the Mesoproterozoic orogenic belts of the Kalahari craton and helps to constrain an integrated model of their evolution. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Boyd R.,Geological Survey of Norway |
Nordgulen O.,Geological Survey of Norway |
Thomas R.J.,British Geological Survey |
Bingen B.,Geological Survey of Norway |
And 22 more authors.
South African Journal of Geology | Year: 2010
The geology of northeastern Mozambique has been remapped at 1:250 000 scale. Proterozoic rocks, which make up the bulk of the area, form a number of gneiss complexes defined on the basis of their lithologies, metamorphic grade, structures, tectonic relationships and ages. The gneiss complexes, which contain both ortho- and paragneisses, range from Palaeo- to Neoproterozoic in age, and were juxtaposed along tectonic contacts during the late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian Pan-African Orogeny. In this paper we describe the geological evolution of the terranes north of the Lurio Belt, a major tectonic boundary which separates the complexes described in this paper from the Nampula Complex to the south. The Marrupa, Nairoto and Meluco Complexes are dominated by orthogneisses of felsic to intermediate compositions. Granulitic rocks, including charnockites, are present in the Unango, M'Sawize, Xixano and Ocua Complexes (the last forms the centre of the Lurio Belt). The Neoproterozoic Geci and Txitonga Groups are dominated by metasupracrustal rocks at low metamorphic grades and have been tectonically juxtaposed with the Unango Complex. Geochemical data integrate and support a model of terrain assembly in northeast Mozambique, which is largely published and mainly derived from our new geochronological, lithostratigraphic and structural work. This model shows the contrast between the mainly felsic lower tectonostratigraphic levels (Unango, Marrupa, Nairoto and Meluco Complexes) and the significantly more juvenile overlying complexes (XLxano, Muaquia, M'Sawize, Lalamo and Montepuez Complexes), which were all assembled during the Cambrian Pan-African orogeny. The juxtaposed terranes were stitched by several suites of Cambrian late- to post-tectonic granitoids. © 2010 March Geological Society of South Africa.