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Charlotte, NC, United States

Chistiakov D.A.,National Diagnostics
Viral Immunology | Year: 2010

In addition to genetic factors, environmental triggers, including viruses and other pathogens, are thought to play a major role in the development of autoimmune disease. Recent findings have shown that viral-induced autoimmunity is likely to be genetically determined. In large-scale genetic analyses, an association of interferon induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1) gene variants encoding a viral RNA-sensing helicase with susceptibility to several autoimmune diseases was found. To date, the precise role of IFIH1 in pathogenic mechanisms of viral-induced autoimmunity has yet to be fully elucidated. However, recent reports suggest that IFIH1 may play a role in the etiology of type 1 diabetes. Rare IFIH1 alleles have been shown to be protective against diabetes, and their carriage correlates with lower production of this helicase and its functional disruption. In contrast, upregulation of IFIH1 expression by viruses is associated with more severe disease, and could exacerbate the autoimmune process in susceptible individuals. © 2010 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Chistiakov D.A.,Moscow State University | Chistiakov P.A.,National Diagnostics
Hepatology Research | Year: 2012

Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a potent source for unlimited production of hepatocytes and hepatocyte-like cells that may replace primary human hepatocytes in a variety of fields including liver cell therapy, liver tissue engineering, manufacturing bioartificial liver, modeling inherited and chronic liver diseases, drug screening and toxicity testing. Human ESCs are able to spontaneously form embryoid bodies, which then spontaneously differentiate to various tissue-specific cell lineages containing a total of 10-30% albumin-producing hepatocytes and hepatocyte-like cells. Enrichment of embryoid bodies with the definitive endoderm, from which hepatocytes arise, yields increasing the final ratio of hepatocyte population up by 50-65%. Current strategies of the directed differentiation of human ESCs (and iPSCs) to hepatocytes that reproduce liver embryogenesis by sequential stimulation of culturing ESCs with tissue-specific growth factors result in achieving the differentiation rate up to 60-80%. In the future, directed differentiation of human ESCs and iPSCs to hepatocytes should be further optimized towards generating homogeneous cultures of hepatocytes in order to avoid expensive procedures of separation and isolation of hepatocytes and hepatocyte-like cells. © 2011 The Japan Society of Hepatology. Source

Chistiakov D.A.,National Diagnostics
Journal of Biomedical Science | Year: 2010

Rapid repair of the denuded alveolar surface after injury is a key to survival. The respiratory tract contains several sources of endogenous adult stem cells residing within the basal layer of the upper airways, within or near pulmonary neuroendocrine cell rests, at the bronchoalveolar junction, and within the alveolar epithelial surface, which contribute to the repair of the airway wall. Bone marrow-derived adult mesenchymal stem cells circulating in blood are also involved in tracheal regeneration. However, an organism is frequently incapable of repairing serious damage and defects of the respiratory tract resulting from acute trauma, lung cancers, and chronic pulmonary and airway diseases. Therefore, replacement of the tracheal tissue should be urgently considered. The shortage of donor trachea remains a major obstacle in tracheal transplantation. However, implementation of tissue engineering and stem cell therapy-based approaches helps to successfully solve this problem. To date, huge progress has been achieved in tracheal bioengineering. Several sources of stem cells have been used for transplantation and airway reconstitution in animal models with experimentally induced tracheal defects. Most tracheal tissue engineering approaches use biodegradable three-dimensional scaffolds, which are important for neotracheal formation by promoting cell attachment, cell redifferentiation, and production of the extracellular matrix. The advances in tracheal bioengineering recently resulted in successful transplantation of the world's first bioengineered trachea. Current trends in tracheal transplantation include the use of autologous cells, development of bioactive cell-free scaffolds capable of supporting activation and differentiation of host stem cells on the site of injury, with a future perspective of using human native sites as micro-niche for potentiation of the human body's site-specific response by sequential adding, boosting, permissive, and recruitment impulses. © 2010 Chistiakov; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Chistiakov D.A.,National Diagnostics
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2010

Abstract Ligase IV (LIG4) syndrome belongs to the group of hereditary disorders associated with impaired DNA damage response mechanisms. Clinically and morphologically, patients affected with this syndrome are characterized by microcephaly, unusual facial features, growth retardation, developmental delay, skin anomalies and are typically pancytopenic. The disease leads to acute radiosensitivity, immunodeficiency and bone marrow abnormalities. LIG4 syndrome arises from hypomorphic mutations in the LIG4 gene encoding DNA ligase IV; a component of the nonhomologous end-joining machinery, which represents a major mechanism of repair of double strand DNA breaks in mammals. The hypomorphic mutations do not completely abolish but significantly reduce enzyme function. This results in impaired V(D)J recombination, the essential rejoining process in T- and B-cell development, in whose ligase IV plays the key role. As a consequence, patients with LIG4 syndrome frequently develop multiple immune abnormalities, clinically overlapping with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome. © 2010 Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media. Source

Byron S.K.,National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) | Crabb N.,National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) | George E.,National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) | Marlow M.,National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) | Newland A.,National Diagnostics
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Companion diagnostics are used to aid clinical decision making to identify patients who aremost likely to respond to treatment. They are becoming increasingly important as more new pharmaceuticals receive licensed indications that require the use of a companion diagnostic to identify the appropriate patient subgroupfor treatment.Thesepharmaceuticalshave proven benefit inthe treatment of some cancers andother diseases, and also have potential to precisely tailor treatments to the individual in the future. However, the increasing use of companion diagnostics could place a substantial burden on health system resources to provide potentially high volumes of testing. This situation, in part, has led policy makers and Health Technology Assessment (HTA) bodies to review the policies and methods used to make reimbursement decisions for pharmaceuticals requiring companion diagnostics. The assessment of a pharmaceutical alongside the companion diagnostic used in the clinical trialsmay be relatively straightforward, although there are a number of challenges associated with assessing pharmaceuticals where a range of alternative companion diagnostics are available for use inroutine clinical practice.TheUKHTAbody, theNational Institute forHealth and Care Excellence (NICE), has developed policy for considering companion diagnostics using its Technology Appraisal and Diagnostics Assessment Programs. Some HTA bodies in other countries have also adapted their policies and methods to accommodate the assessment of companion diagnostics. Here, we provide insight into the HTA of companion diagnostics for reimbursement decisions and how the associated challenges are being addressed, in particular by NICE.© 2014 American Association for Cancer Research. Source

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