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Robardet E.,French Agency for Food | Robardet E.,European Union | Ilieva D.,National Diagnostic Research Veterinary Medical Institute | Iliev E.,Bulgarian Food Safety Agency | And 3 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2014

A health emergency situation occurred in Bulgaria in 2007 when positive rabies cases were notified in Sofia district in the central-western part of the country, suggesting a southward spread of the disease for the first time in the last 10 years. Phylogenetic analysis on 49 isolates sampled between 2009 and 2011 showed, for the first time, evidence of the existence of NEE and D clustered lineages in Bulgaria. Their geographical distribution clearly reveals the permeability of natural barriers, as already suggested by the disease spread that occurred across the Balkan mountain range in 2007. The monitoring and passive surveillance programmes conducted since the first 2009 oral vaccination campaign, the spatio-temporal evolution of the disease in the country since 2007, and the need for further investigation of the role of jackals in virus dispersion are discussed. © 2013 Cambridge University Press.

Meixner M.D.,Bee Institute | Francis R.M.,University of Aarhus | Gajda A.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Kryger P.,University of Aarhus | And 20 more authors.
Journal of Apicultural Research | Year: 2014

Diseases are known to be one of the major contributors to colony losses. Within a Europe-wide experiment on genotype - environment interactions, an initial 621 colonies were set up and maintained from 2009 to 2012. The colonies were monitored to investigate the occurrence and levels of key pathogens. These included the mite Varroa destructor (mites per 10 g bees), Nosema spp. (spore loads and species determination), and viruses (presence/absence of acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and deformed wing virus (DWV)). Data from 2010 to the spring of 2011 are analysed in relation to the parameters: genotype, environment, and origin (local vs. non-local) of the colonies in the experiment. The relative importance of different pathogens as indicators of colony death within the experiment is compared. In addition, pathogen occurrence rates across the geographic locations are described. © IBRA 2014.

Goujgoulova G.,National Diagnostic Research Veterinary Medical Institute | Marinova Petkova A.,National Diagnostic Research Veterinary Medical Institute | Georgiev G.,National Diagnostic Research Veterinary Medical Institute
Avian Diseases | Year: 2010

Bulgaria has a unique geographic position in Europe, with two migratory wild bird routes, Via Pontica and Via Aristotelis, passing through the country. Via Pontica is the second-largest migration route in Europe, with hundreds of thousands of birds, representing more than 110 species, wintering in lakes by the Black Sea and the wetlands near the Danube River. Via Aristotelis is situated in West Bulgaria along the Strouma and Mesta river valleys, and it is of regional importance for the Balkan Peninsula. In this study, we examined more than 2000 samples from wild birds from the orders Anseriformes, Ciconiiformes, Gruiformes, and Charadriformes in the period 2006-2008. We isolated three influenza viruses, subtypes H4N6, H7N7, and H10N7, all from mallards, Anas platyrhynchos. The H7N7 was isolated from a hunter-killed mallard at the river bank of Kamchia (Via Pontica). The cleavage site sequence of the hemagglutinin gene in the H7N7 isolate was PEIPKGR*GLF, which is characteristic of a low-pathogenic virus. The H4N6 isolates belonged to a mallard wintering along the Maritza River (Via Aristotelis). We detected the H10N7 virus in samples from mallards that inhabit the Ogosta River, one of the feeders of the Danube (Via Pontica). All these viruses were detected during the active migration of the birds, February-March. © 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

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