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Golub A.,National Development and Research Institutes Inc. NDRI | Golub A.,University of Vermont
The Cultural/Subcultural Contexts of Marijuana Use at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century | Year: 2012

Learn why marijuana use has increased in the new millennium. According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. The Cultural/Subcultural Contexts of Marijuana Use at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century takes a close look at present cannabis use trends in the new millennium by providing the latest research findings and most current case studies. Age and ethnographic data are presented in detail always with a constant focus on the unique subcultural contexts in today's society. This examination explores the most pressing issues in marijuana use, including the increased popularity of blunt smoking, the social ramifications of marijuana use in gangs and Southeast Asian youth, and alternative delivery systems for medical marijuana. The Cultural/Subcultural Contexts of Marijuana Use at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century discusses various aspects of marijuana being the drug of choice in today's culture, including the different subgroups of age, economic status, and ethnic background. The book provides a comprehensive view of the people, reasons for use, varied ways of ingesting the drug, and marijuana use "rituals." Extensive references, charts, tables, and figures are included to enhance clarification of research findings. The Cultural/Subcultural Contexts of Marijuana Use at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century discusses the latest research findings on: • the growth of marijuana use in different social groups during the 1990s. • medical marijuana. • blunt smoking and marijuana use rituals as settings for informal social controls. • marijuana use among minorities. • marijuana use in youths and young adults. • marijuana use among gang members. • adult use. • production, distribution, and administration of non-smokable marijuana. The Cultural/Subcultural Contexts of Marijuana Use at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century is insightful, valuable, and is certain to become a reference source for researchers, educators, students, and policy advocates. © 2005 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Fong C.,National Development and Research Institutes Inc. NDRI | Matusow H.,National Development and Research Institutes Inc. NDRI | Cleland C.M.,New York University | Rosenblum A.,National Development and Research Institutes Inc. NDRI
Journal of Addictive Diseases | Year: 2015

Using latent class analysis, this study examined the pattern of non-opioid substance misuse among 19,101 enrollees into 85 opioid treatment programs. The most frequent non-opioid drugs were cannabis, anti-anxiety medications, and cocaine. Four non-opioid drug use latent classes were identified: low-use (73%), prescription drug use (16%), marijuana and cocaine use (8.5%), and poly-drug use (2.5%). Compared to the low-use class, participants in the other classes were more likely to be female, Caucasian, use tobacco, have chronic pain, and use prescription opioids either with or without heroin. Recognition of characteristics derived from these classes can improve opioid treatment program services. © 2015 Copyright © 2015 NDRI. Source

Rosenblum A.,National Development and Research Institutes Inc. NDRI | Cleland C.M.,National Development and Research Institutes Inc. NDRI | Cleland C.M.,New York University | Fong C.,National Development and Research Institutes Inc. NDRI | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Environmental and Public Health | Year: 2011

This study examined commuting patterns among 23,141 methadone patients enrolling in 84 opioid treatment programs (OTPs) in the United States. Patients completed an anonymous one-page survey. A linear mixed model analysis was used to predict distance traveled to the OTP. More than half (60%) the patients traveled <10 miles and 6 travelled between 50 and 200 miles to attend an OTP; 8 travelled across a state border to attend an OTP. In the multivariate model (n = 17,792), factors significantly (P <.05) associated with distance were, residing in the Southeast or Midwest, low urbanicity, area of the patient's ZIP code, younger age, non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, prescription opioid abuse, and no heroin use. A significant number of OTP patients travel considerable distances to access treatment. To reduce obstacles to OTP access, policy makers and treatment providers should be alert to patients' commuting patterns and to factors associated with them. Copyright © 2011 Andrew Rosenblum et al. Source

Nikolopoulos G.K.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Nikolopoulos G.K.,National Development and Research Institutes Inc. NDRI | Nikolopoulos G.K.,U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse | Sypsa V.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | And 6 more authors.
Substance Use and Misuse | Year: 2015

Big Events are processes like macroeconomic transitions that have lowered social well-being in various settings in the past. Greece has been hit by the global crisis and experienced an HIV outbreak among people who inject drugs. Since the crisis began (2008), Greece has seen population displacement, inter-communal violence, cuts in governmental expenditures, and social movements. These may have affected normative regulation, networks, and behaviors. However, most pathways to risk remain unknown or unmeasured. We use what is known and unknown about the Greek HIV outbreak to suggest modifications in Big Events models and the need for additional research. © 2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Rossi D.,Intercambios Civil Association | Zunino Singh D.,Intercambios Civil Association | Pawlowicz M.P.,Intercambios Civil Association | Touze G.,Intercambios Civil Association | And 4 more authors.
Harm Reduction Journal | Year: 2011

Background: In some countries, "Big Events" like crises and transitions have been followed by large increases in drug use, drug injection and HIV/AIDS. Argentina experienced an economic crisis and political transition in 2001/2002 that affected how people use their time. This paper studies how time use changes between years 2001 and 2004, subsequent to these events, were associated with drug consumption in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires.Methods: In 2003-2004, 68 current injecting drug users (IDUs) and 235 young non-IDUs, aged 21-35, who lived in impoverished drug-impacted neighbourhoods in Greater Buenos Aires, were asked about time use then and in 2001. Data on weekly hours spent working or looking for work, doing housework/childcare, consuming drugs, being with friends, and hanging out in the neighbourhood, were studied in relation to time spent using drugs. Field observations and focus groups were also conducted.Results: After 2001, among both IDUs and non-IDUs, mean weekly time spent working declined significantly (especially among IDUs); time spent looking for work increased, and time spent with friends and hanging out in the neighbourhood decreased.We found no increase in injecting or non-injecting drug consumption after 2001. Subjects most affected by the way the crises led to decreased work time and/or to increased time looking for work--and by the associated increase in time spent in one's neighbourhood--were most likely to increase their time using drugs.Conclusions: Time use methods are useful to study changes in drug use and their relationships to every day life activities. In these previously-drug-impacted neighbourhoods, the Argentinean crisis did not lead to an increase in drug use, which somewhat contradicts our initial expectations. Nevertheless, those for whom the crises led to decreased work time, increased time looking for work, and increased time spent in indoor or outdoor neighbourhood environments, were likely to spend more time using drugs. These data suggest that young adults in traditionally less-impoverished neighbourhoods may be more vulnerable to Big Events than those in previously drug-impacted impoverished neighbourhoods. Since Big Events will continue to occur, research on the pathways that determine their sequelae is needed. © 2011 Rossi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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