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Laudet A.B.,National Development and Research Institutes
Addiction science & clinical practice | Year: 2011

Substance use disorders are increasingly viewed as chronic conditions, and addiction treatment services are beginning to adopt models that were developed to address other chronic conditions. These models address the impact of disease and services on the patient's overall well-being. From this perspective, treatment for addiction aims for the broad goal of recovery, which is defined as abstinence plus improved quality of life. However, the addiction field has come late to the chronic disease perspective, and the concept of quality of life in addiction is relatively undeveloped. This article reviews the evidence for the relevance of quality of life in substance use disorder treatment and recovery and discusses the importance of incorporating quality-of-life indices into research and services. Source

Edlin B.R.,National Development and Research Institutes | Edlin B.R.,Cornell University
Hepatology | Year: 2013

Hepatitis C is the most prevalent bloodborne viral disease in the United States and the deadliest. This year, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) will update its 2004 hepatitis C guideline, which recommends against screening asymptomatic adults for hepatitis C. This guideline has hampered public health efforts to encourage screening and identify and refer infected persons for care by declaring that such interventions were not supported by the evidence. A draft revision of the guideline, released on November 26, 2012, concludes that testing persons born between 1945 and 1965 probably has at least a small net benefit, but stops short of definitively recommending that this cohort be screened. This article examines the Task Force's process for writing its guidelines. It recommends that the Task Force adopt a balanced approach to evaluating the benefits and harms of screening; use the preponderance of the evidence as a standard for evaluating interventions that target serious public health problems; be transparent about the value judgments that go into its decisions; consider the wide variation in disease prevalence in diverse patient populations; and recommend screening asymptomatic adults for hepatitis C. Conclusion: By taking a broader view of the evidence, the Task Force can write new guidelines that will serve efforts to curb the hepatitis C epidemic, rather than frustrate them. © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Source

Simmons J.,National Development and Research Institutes | McMahon J.M.,University of Rochester
Journal of Addictive Diseases | Year: 2012

This qualitative study examines the interpersonal and structural barriers to drug treatment program entry, retention, and outcomes experienced by injection drug-using couples, and the program policies regarding injection drug-using couples seeking treatment in New York, New York. Our findings reveal a mismatch between the substantial need for concurrent and coordinated treatment for partnered injection-drug users and programmatic policies that are antithetical to such treatment approaches. This discrepancy can be attributed to the lack of viable options for couple-focused treatment approaches that fit within the current drug treatment system. We provide a rationale and a roadmap for the development of innovative approaches for couple-based drug treatment. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Iwelunmor J.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Newsome V.,National Development and Research Institutes | Airhihenbuwa C.O.,Pennsylvania State University
Ethnicity and Health | Year: 2014

ObjectiveThis paper reviews available studies that applied the PEN-3 cultural model to address the impact of culture on health behaviors.MethodsWe search electronic databases and conducted a thematic analysis of empirical studies that applied the PEN-3 cultural model to address the impact of culture on health behaviors. Studies were mapped to describe their methods, target population and the health behaviors or health outcomes studied. Forty-five studies met the inclusion criteria.ResultsThe studies reviewed used the PEN-3 model as a theoretical framework to centralize culture in the study of health behaviors and to integrate culturally relevant factors in the development of interventions. The model was also used as an analysis tool, to sift through text and data in order to separate, define and delineate emerging themes. PEN-3 model was also significant with exploring not only how cultural context shapes health beliefs and practices, but also how family systems play a critical role in enabling or nurturing positive health behaviors and health outcomes. Finally, the studies reviewed highlighted the utility of the model with examining cultural practices that are critical to positive health behaviors, unique practices that have a neutral impact on health and the negative factors that are likely to have an adverse influence on health.DiscussionThe limitations of model and the role for future studies are discussed relative to the importance of using PEN-3 cultural model to explore the influence of culture in promoting positive health behaviors, eliminating health disparities and designing and implementing sustainable public health interventions. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source

Simmons J.,National Development and Research Institutes | Rajan S.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | McMahon J.M.,University of Rochester
International Journal of Drug Policy | Year: 2012

Background: The influence of family members, peers and sexual partners on initiation to injection drug use is well established. Furthermore, research on gender differences in injection initiation has recognized the increased vulnerability of women, in particular, to injection-related health risks, and the gendered nature of the injection initiation experience. Yet more research is needed on the interpersonal and structural dynamics that shape injection initiation within intimate partnerships. Methods: This paper draws on narrative data from semi-structured ethnographic interviews with 25, relatively stable, drug-using couples from two New York City neighbourhoods. The study was conducted between 2007 and 2009. Our analyses focus on retrospective accounts of injection initiation from IDUs who were initiated to injection (or initiated their partners) in current or former intimate partnerships. In particular we analyse narratives of injection initiation events where both partners participated as initiates or initiators. Results: Transition to injection within intimate partnerships was common, especially for women, and occurred in specific contexts. Structural and interpersonal dynamics, including the ubiquity of drugs in poor communities and the gendered nature of drug acquisition and use strategies, as well as the problem of increased drug tolerance, situational impediments to drug access, and the perceived cost-benefit of injecting, all influenced the process of initiation to injection drug use within couples. The data also suggest that, even when risks associated with injection initiation were understood, both pragmatic and emotional considerations within relationships tended to offset concerns about potential dangers. Conclusion: The findings suggest the need for a broad range of interventions (including couples-focussed interventions) to minimize rates of injection initiation within intimate partnerships. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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