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Shoji T.,Yukisada Hospital | Shoji T.,National Defense Medical College | Nagaoka Y.,Sensho kai Eye Institute | Sato H.,National Defense Medical College Hospital | Chihara E.,Sensho kai Eye Institute
Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology | Year: 2012

Background: The aim was to evaluate the effects of high myopia on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) parameters, as well as on their ability to detect glaucoma. Methods: Ninety-three glaucoma and 86 non-glaucoma patients were divided into highly myopic group (HMG; 90 subjects, ≤-5 diopters [D]) and emmetropic (EG; 89 subjects, spherical equivalent ≤1 D and ≥-1D) groups in this cross-sectional comparative study. Macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) and circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) measurements obtained from the algorithms of the SD-OCT system were compared. The effects of refractive errors and glaucoma were assessed using a generalized linear model, after adjusting for age. A receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed for each parameter, and the areas under the curves (AUCs) were compared. Results: The all cpRNFL measurements were significantly related to both refractive errors and glaucoma, while all GCC parameters were not significantly related to the refractive errors. The AUC for average GCC thickness was similar between the HMG (AUC, 0.935) and EG (AUC, 0.933), while the AUC for average cpRNFL thickness differed significantly (p=0.028) between the HMG (AUC, 0.827) and EG (AUC, 0.939). Conclusions: Macular GCC parameters showed good ability to detect glaucoma in both groups, whereas the ability of cpRNFL measurement in HMG subjects was inferior to that in EG subjects. Assessment of GCC parameters is a useful technique complementary to cpRNFL thickness assessment, for clinically evaluating patients with concomitant glaucoma and high myopia. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Miyazaki H.,Pathology and Laboratory Medicine | Hiroi S.,National Defense Medical College | Shinomiya N.,National Defense Medical College Research Institute | Nakanishi K.,National Defense Medical College Hospital
Journal of Leukocyte Biology | Year: 2012

Although B cells in vertebrates have been thought to lack phagocytic activity, there has been a recent report of such ability by the B cells of early vertebrates such as fish and frogs. Here, we show for the first time that mouse liver IgM+ B cells actively phagocytose microsphere beads and Escherichia coli and that they effectively kill bacterial cells. Such phagocytic activity is not observed in other liver MNCs, except for F4/80+ Kupffer cells. In the presence of fresh mouse serum (but not heat-inactivated serum), the heat-killed E. coli phagocytic activity of liver B cells increased significantly but was inhibited significantly by anticomplement component C3 antibody, suggesting E. coli opsonization by serum factors, including complement components. Upon i.v. injection of FITC-labeled E. coli into mice, a substantial proportion of liver B cells phagocy-tosed the bacteria, as compared with spleen B cells. Functional phagolysosome formation in liver B cells was supported by several reagents showing an acidic change and lysosomes in the phagocytosed vacuoles. Indeed, mouse liver B cells killed viable E. coli more efficiently than did spleen B cells in vitro. Further, E. coli-phagocytic liver B cells produced a substantial amount of IL-12. These results indicate that liver B cells have phagocytic and bactericidal activities similar to those of dedicated phagocytes and may contribute to bacterial clearance. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

Wakisaka H.,National Defense Medical College Hospital
Transactions of Japanese Society for Medical and Biological Engineering | Year: 2014

The present report suggests that Apple iPod touch is one of the best devices at bedside for the hospital nurse so far. Validation of the patient at each medication or treatment at bedside is required in these days. The notebook PC, the dedicated handheld terminal, Wi Fi tablet and smartphone-like device were weighed in usability, cost and security. Multiple functions and space-saving design of the smartphone is most favorable in usability. The iPod touch is most inexpensive among smartphone-type devices in spite of approximately two-year battery replacement cycle. The popular operability of iOS, whose market share was dominant in Japan, will reduce time to master its operation. Through this device the nurse also can read patient barcode ID constantly and take bedside clinical pictures with intrinsic camera. The larger tablet devices, which are comparable in cost, were pointed out that bedside action to the patient might break it between the bed frame and nurse body. © 2014, Japan Soc. of Med. Electronics and Biol. Engineering. All rights reserved.

Yamamoto S.,National Defense Medical College | Tsuda H.,National Cancer Center Hospital | Miyai K.,National Defense Medical College | Takano M.,National Defense Medical College | And 2 more authors.
Modern Pathology | Year: 2012

Our previous study demonstrated that, among ovarian carcinomas, amplification of the MET gene and overexpression of MET specifically and commonly occur in clear-cell adenocarcinoma histology. This study was conducted to address how these alterations contribute to development and progression of this highly chemoresistant form of ovarian cancer. We histologically reviewed 21 previously described MET amplification-positive clear-cell adenocarcinoma cases, and selected 11 tumors with synchronous endometriosis and 2 tumors with adjacent clear-cell adenofibroma (CCAF) components. Using double in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, copy number alterations of the MET gene and levels of MET protein expression were analyzed in these putative precursor lesions and the corresponding invasive carcinoma components in this selected cohort. All of the non-atypical precursor lesions analyzed (ie, non-atypical endometrioses and the benign CCAFs) were negative for MET gain. However, low-level (≥3 MET copies in ≥10% and ≥4 MET copies in 10-40% of tumor cells) gain of MET was detected in 4 (40%) of the 10 atypical endometrioses and 1 of the 2 borderline CCAFs. Moreover, high-level (≥4 MET copies in ≥40% of tumor cells) gain of MET were detected in five (50%) of the atypical endometrioses. In 4 (31%) of the 13 cases enrolled, intratumoral heterogeneity for MET gain was documented in invasive carcinoma components, wherein all the relatively differentiated carcinoma components showed low-level gain of MET and all the corresponding poorly differentiated carcinomas showed high-level gain. The overall incidence of MET overexpression gradually increased from the precursors of non-atypical form (0%), through those of atypical form (67%) and the relatively differentiated carcinoma components (92%), to the poorly differentiated carcinoma components (100%). These results suggest that accumulative MET gene copy number alterations causing MET overexpression are associated with higher tumor grade and might drive the development and progression of the MET amplification-positive ovarian clear-cell adenocarcinoma. © 2012 USCAP, Inc. All rights reserved.

Yamamoto S.,National Defense Medical College | Tsuda H.,Clinical Pathology Laboratories | Takano M.,National Defense Medical College | Tamai S.,National Defense Medical College Hospital | Matsubara O.,National Defense Medical College
Virchows Archiv | Year: 2012

Somatic mutations of PIK3CA and ARID1A are the most common genetic alterations observed in ovarian clear cell adenocarcinomas (CCA). In a previous report, we showed that PIK3CA gene mutations and loss of ARID1A expression occur early during the development of CCA. In the present study, using direct genomic DNA sequencing for exons 9 and 20 of PIK3CA and immunohistochemistry for ARID1A protein expression, we analyzed the association of these molecular alterations with various clinicopathological parameters in a total of 90 cases of primary ovarian CCA, including 42 previously examined cases. The presence of PIK3CA mutations, identified in 34 (39%) of the 88 informative cases, was significantly associated with a grossly cystic tumor, the presence of adjacent endometriosis, prominent papillary architecture of tumor growth, the presence of hyalinized and mucoid stroma, and the absence of clear cell adenofibroma components (P<0.05, each). There was no significant association of PIK3CA mutations with other clinical variables, such as age, clinical stage, or clinical outcome of the patients. The intensity of immunoreactivity for ARID1A was assigned as negative, weakly positive, and strongly positive in 44%, 22%, and 33% of tumors, respectively. Compared to tumors immunoreactive for ARID1A, ARID1A-negative tumors were significantly associated with the presence of adjacent endometriosis (P=0.025), but there was no statistically supported association with other examined clinicopathological parameters. Compared with CCAs strongly positive for ARID1A, CCAs negative for ARID1A more frequently harbor PIK3CA mutations (P=0.013). PIK3CA gene mutations and ARID1A immunohistochemistry lacked prognostic significance. These data further support the idea that these molecular alterations occur as very early events during tumor development of ovarian CCA. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

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