Takeuchi S.,National Defense Medical College
Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement | Year: 2013
Hemispheric hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has a high mortality rate. Decompressive craniectomy (DC) has generally been used for the treatment of severe traumatic brain injury, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and hemispheric cerebral infarction. However, the effect of DC on hemispheric hypertensive ICH is not well understood. To investigate the effects of DC for treating hemispheric hypertensive ICH, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiological findings of 21 patients who underwent DC for hemispheric hypertensive ICH. Eleven of the patients were male and 10 were female, with an age range of 22-75 years (mean, 56.6 years). Their preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale scores ranged from 3 to 13 (mean, 6.9). The hematoma volumes ranged from 33.4 to 98.1 mL (mean, 74.2 mL), and the hematoma locations were the basal ganglia in 10 patients and the subcortex in 11 patients. Intraventricular extensions were observed in 11 patients. With regard to the complications after DC, postoperative hydrocephalus developed in ten patients, and meningitis was observed in three patients. Six patients had favorable outcomes and 15 had poor outcomes. The mortality rate was 10 %. A statistical analysis showed that the GCS score at admission was significantly higher in the favorable outcome group than that in the poor outcome group (P = 0.029). Our results suggest that DC with hematoma evacuation might be a useful surgical procedure for selected patients with large hemispheric hypertensive ICH.
Hamada S.,National Defense Medical College
Japanese journal of clinical oncology | Year: 2014
Fatty acid synthase has been shown to be highly expressed in various types of cancers with increased tumour aggressiveness. In this study we examined the level of fatty acid synthase expression in surgically resected upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma specimens and evaluated the relations between fatty acid synthase expression and the patients' pathological features and clinical outcomes. Sections of paraffin-embedded tumour specimens from 113 patients who underwent surgical treatment for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma were immunostained with a polyclonal fatty acid synthase antibody, and a tumour was considered to have high fatty acid synthase expression if >50% of the cancer cells stained with moderate-to-strong intensity. Associations between fatty acid synthase expression and the patients' pathological parameters and survival were analyzed statistically. During the follow-up time (median: 46.8 months), 61 patients (54.0%) had recurrence and 17 (15.0%) died of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. High fatty acid synthase expression was significantly associated with high tumour grade (P = 0.0273). Patients with high fatty acid synthase expression had significantly worse recurrence-free survival and extravesical-recurrence-free survival than those with low fatty acid synthase expression (P = 0.0171, P = 0.0228, respectively). In multivariate analysis, high fatty acid synthase expression was an independent predictor of shortened recurrence-free survival (P = 0.0220, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.970). Fatty acid synthase expression in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma is an independent predictor for tumour recurrence. Patients with high fatty acid synthase expression in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma should be followed carefully and adjuvant therapy for them should be considered.
Kanai T.,National Defense Medical College
Circulation | Year: 2011
Markedly activated neutrophils or higher plasma levels of neutrophil elastase are involved in the poor response to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and the formation of coronary artery lesions (CAL) in patients with acute Kawasaki disease. We hypothesized that ulinastatin (UTI), by both direct and indirect suppression of neutrophils, would reduce the occurrence of CAL. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical records of patients with Kawasaki disease between 1998 and 2009. Three hundred sixty-nine patients were treated with a combination of UTI, aspirin, and IVIG as an initial treatment (UTI group), and 1178 were treated with a conventional initial treatment, and IVIG with aspirin (control group). The baseline characteristics did not demonstrate notable differences between the two groups. The occurrence of CAL was significantly lower in the UTI group than in the control group (3% versus 7%; crude odds ratio [OR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25-0.86; P=0.01). The OR adjusted for sex, Gunma score (the predictive score for IVIG unresponsiveness), and dosage of initial IVIG (1 or 2 g/kg) was 0.32 (95% CI, 0.17-0.60; P<0.001). In addition, most CAL occurred in patients requiring additional rescue treatment and the proportion of those patients was significantly lower in the UTI group than in the control group (13% versus 22%; crude OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.38-0.73; P<0.001). The adjusted OR was 0.30 (95% CI, 0.20-0.44; P<0.001). UTI was associated with fewer patients requiring additional rescue treatment and reduction of CAL in this retrospective study.
Ayaori M.,National Defense Medical College
Journal of the American Heart Association | Year: 2013
Endothelial dysfunction is an independent predictor for cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) reportedly exerts vasodilatory actions, and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), an enzyme-degrading GLP-1, are widely used to treat T2DM. We therefore hypothesized that DPP-4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is) improve endothelial function in T2DM patients and performed 2 prospective, randomized crossover trials to compare the DPP-4I sitagliptin and an α-glucosidase inhibitor, voglibose (in study 1) and the DPP-4Is sitagliptin and alogliptin (in study 2). In study 1, 24 men with T2DM (46±5 years) were randomized to sitagliptin or voglibose for 6 weeks without washout periods. Surprisingly, sitagliptin significantly reduced flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD; -51% compared with baseline, P<0.05) of the brachial artery despite improved diabetic status. In contrast, voglibose did not affect FMD. To confirm this result and determine whether it is a class effect, we conducted another trial (study 2) to compare sitagliptin and alogliptin in 42 T2DM patients (66±8 years) for 6 weeks with 4-week washout periods. Both DPP-4Is improved glycemic control but significantly attenuated FMD (7.2/4.3%, P<0.001, before/after sitagliptin; 7.0/4.8%, P<0.001, before/after alogliptin, respectively). Interestingly, FMD reduction was less evident in subjects who were on statins or whose LDL cholesterol levels were reduced by them, but this was not correlated with parameters including DPP-4 activity and GLP-1 levels or diabetic parameters. Our 2 independent trials demonstrated that DPP-4 inhibition attenuated endothelial function as evaluated by FMD in T2DM patients. This unexpected unfavorable effect may be a class effect of DPP-4Is. URL: http://center.umin.ac.jp, Unique Identifiers: UMIN000005682 (sitagliptin versus voglibose) and UMIN000005681 (sitagliptin versus alogliptin).
Takeuchi S.,National Defense Medical College
Neurosurgical focus | Year: 2013
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is devastating, with high mortality rates, but its optimum management has not been fully established. Decompressive hemicraniectomy is a surgical procedure used to relieve the malignant elevation of intracranial pressure. The application of decompressive hemicraniectomy in patients with hemispheric ICH has been much less common, although several studies have shown the usefulness of this procedure for large hemispheric ICH. In this review, the present knowledge of the safety and efficacy of this procedure are evaluated. The authors conclude that decompressive hemicraniectomy with hematoma evacuation for large ICH might be a safe and effective procedure in patients with severely disturbed consciousness and large hematoma volume.
Kujiraoka T.,National Defense Medical College
Journal of the American Heart Association | Year: 2013
Insulin signaling comprises 2 major cascades: the insulin receptor substrate/phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/protein kinase B and Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase/kinase/ERK pathways. While many studies on the tissue-specific effects of the insulin receptor substrate/phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase/protein kinase B pathway have been conducted, the role of the other cascade in tissue-specific insulin resistance has not been investigated. High glucose/fatty acid toxicity, inflammation, and oxidative stress, all of which are associated with insulin resistance, can activate ERK. The liver plays a central role in metabolism, and hepatosteatosis is associated with vascular diseases. The aim of study was to elucidate the role of hepatic ERK2 in hepatosteatosis, metabolic remodeling, and endothelial dysfunction. We created liver-specific ERK2 knockout mice and fed them with a high-fat/high-sucrose diet for 20 weeks. The high-fat/high-sucrose diet-fed liver-specific ERK2 knockout mice exhibited a marked deterioration in hepatosteatosis and metabolic remodeling represented by impairment of glucose tolerance and decreased insulin sensitivity without changes in body weight, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol/triglyceride levels. In the mice, endoplasmic reticulum stress was induced together with decreased mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2. In a hepatoma cell line, inhibition of ERK activation- induced endoplasmic reticulum stress only in the presence of palmitate. Vascular reactive oxygen species were elevated with upregulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase1 (Nox1) and Nox4 and decreased phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, which resulted in the remarkable endothelial dysfunction in high-fat/high-sucrose diet-fed liver-specific ERK2 knockout mice. Hepatic ERK2 suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress and hepatosteatosis in vivo, which results in protection from vascular oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. These findings demonstrate a novel role of hepatic ERK2 in obese-induced insulin resistance in the protection from hepatovascular metabolic remodeling and vascular diseases.
Kobayashi T.,National Defense Medical College
Apoptosis | Year: 2011
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, an enzyme that degrades the extracellular matrix, has been implicated as a key enzyme in the process of tissue remodeling. This study demonstrates the regulation of MMP-9 transcription through a gene regulatory element in its promoter (the KRE-M9 element). The KRE-M9-binding protein was purified and identified as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), which inhibits the transcription of MMP-9 similar to involucrin. This regulation occurs in non-apoptotic keratinocytes using the distinctive culture conditions of high and low Ca 2+ levels. PARP cleavage, which occurs during apoptosis, results in de-repression of MMP-9 promoter activity. These data clarify a new role of PARP-1 and suggest a physiologically relevant connection between caspase activation and MMP-9 expression. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Adachi T.,National Defense Medical College
Advances in Pharmacology | Year: 2010
Endothelial dysfunction associated with decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity is a major feature of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis or diabetes. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced relaxation is entirely dependent on cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and preserved in atherosclerosis, suggesting that smooth muscle response to NO donor is intact. However, NO gas activates both cGMP-dependent and -independent signal pathways in vascular smooth muscle cells, and oxidative stress associated with vascular diseases selectively impairs cGMP-independent relaxation to NO. Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA), which regulates intracellular Ca2+ levels by pumping Ca2+ into store, is a major cGMP-independent target for NO. Physiological levels of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) S-glutathiolate SERCA at Cys674 to increase its activity, and the augmentation of RNS in vascular diseases irreversibly oxidizes Cys674 or nitrates tyrosine residues at Tyr296-Tyr297, which are associated with loss of function. S-glutathiolation of various proteins by NO can explain redox-sensitive cGMP-independent actions, and oxidative inactivation of target proteins for NO can be associated with the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative inactivation of SERCA is also implicated with dysregulation of smooth muscle migration, promotion of platelet aggregation, and impairment of cardiac function, which can be implicated with restenosis, pathological angiogenesis, thrombosis, as well as heart failure. Analysis of posttranslational oxidative modifications of SERCA and the preservation of SERCA function can be novel strategies against cardiovascular diseases associated with oxidative stress. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Mori K.,National Defense Medical College
Translational Stroke Research | Year: 2014
Several animal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) models have been proposed to study the etiology and treatment for cerebral vasospasm. We describe the experimental procedures of a canine double-hemorrhage model of SAH and discuss the pathophysiological parameters and occurrence of angiographic delayed cerebral vasospasm using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and digital subtraction angiography. Autologous blood was injected twice on days 1 and 3 into the cerebellomedullary cistern of 36 female beagles. All animals showed delayed angiographic vasospasm in the vertebrobasilar arteries on day 7. The degree of vasospasm was 29–42 % of the arterial diameter. However, this model showed no symptomatic vasospasm or ischemic changes detected by MR imaging. This animal model can produce reproducible delayed vasospasm without detectable cerebral infarction on MR imaging. This model allows evaluation of the effect of treatment on delayed vasospasm in the same animals. The canine double-hemorrhage model of SAH is suitable for the quantitative and chronological study of delayed angiographic vasospasm, but not for investigating early brain injury and delayed cerebral ischemia. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Tsuda H.,National Defense Medical College
Breast Cancer | Year: 2015
Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been started in 1990 s and has become one of the standard diagnostic procedures used to treat patients with early breast cancer in this century. In Japan, for the microscopic diagnosis of metastasis to sentinel lymph nodes, intraoperative frozen section diagnosis is widely used in combination with subsequent permanent section diagnosis of the residual specimens. Metastatic foci to sentinel lymph nodes have been classified into macrometastasis, micrometastasis, and isolated tumor cells in 2002, and the definition of isolated tumor cells was modified in 2010. Clinical significance of occult sentinel lymph node metastases, being mostly composed of micrometastasis and isolated tumor cells, has been clarified in terms of predictive factors for non-sentinel lymph node metastasis and patient prognosis by large-scale retrospective studies and prospective randomized clinical trials. In the present review, clinical implications of micrometastases and isolated tumor cells in sentinel lymph nodes and the methods for pathological examination of SLN metastases employed in these studies were overviewed. © 2015, The Japanese Breast Cancer Society.