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Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, an enzyme that degrades the extracellular matrix, has been implicated as a key enzyme in the process of tissue remodeling. This study demonstrates the regulation of MMP-9 transcription through a gene regulatory element in its promoter (the KRE-M9 element). The KRE-M9-binding protein was purified and identified as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), which inhibits the transcription of MMP-9 similar to involucrin. This regulation occurs in non-apoptotic keratinocytes using the distinctive culture conditions of high and low Ca 2+ levels. PARP cleavage, which occurs during apoptosis, results in de-repression of MMP-9 promoter activity. These data clarify a new role of PARP-1 and suggest a physiologically relevant connection between caspase activation and MMP-9 expression. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Hamada S.,National Defense Medical College
Japanese journal of clinical oncology | Year: 2014

Fatty acid synthase has been shown to be highly expressed in various types of cancers with increased tumour aggressiveness. In this study we examined the level of fatty acid synthase expression in surgically resected upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma specimens and evaluated the relations between fatty acid synthase expression and the patients' pathological features and clinical outcomes. Sections of paraffin-embedded tumour specimens from 113 patients who underwent surgical treatment for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma were immunostained with a polyclonal fatty acid synthase antibody, and a tumour was considered to have high fatty acid synthase expression if >50% of the cancer cells stained with moderate-to-strong intensity. Associations between fatty acid synthase expression and the patients' pathological parameters and survival were analyzed statistically. During the follow-up time (median: 46.8 months), 61 patients (54.0%) had recurrence and 17 (15.0%) died of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. High fatty acid synthase expression was significantly associated with high tumour grade (P = 0.0273). Patients with high fatty acid synthase expression had significantly worse recurrence-free survival and extravesical-recurrence-free survival than those with low fatty acid synthase expression (P = 0.0171, P = 0.0228, respectively). In multivariate analysis, high fatty acid synthase expression was an independent predictor of shortened recurrence-free survival (P = 0.0220, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.970). Fatty acid synthase expression in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma is an independent predictor for tumour recurrence. Patients with high fatty acid synthase expression in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma should be followed carefully and adjuvant therapy for them should be considered. Source

Takeuchi S.,National Defense Medical College
Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement | Year: 2013

Hemispheric hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has a high mortality rate. Decompressive craniectomy (DC) has generally been used for the treatment of severe traumatic brain injury, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and hemispheric cerebral infarction. However, the effect of DC on hemispheric hypertensive ICH is not well understood. To investigate the effects of DC for treating hemispheric hypertensive ICH, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiological findings of 21 patients who underwent DC for hemispheric hypertensive ICH. Eleven of the patients were male and 10 were female, with an age range of 22-75 years (mean, 56.6 years). Their preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale scores ranged from 3 to 13 (mean, 6.9). The hematoma volumes ranged from 33.4 to 98.1 mL (mean, 74.2 mL), and the hematoma locations were the basal ganglia in 10 patients and the subcortex in 11 patients. Intraventricular extensions were observed in 11 patients. With regard to the complications after DC, postoperative hydrocephalus developed in ten patients, and meningitis was observed in three patients. Six patients had favorable outcomes and 15 had poor outcomes. The mortality rate was 10 %. A statistical analysis showed that the GCS score at admission was significantly higher in the favorable outcome group than that in the poor outcome group (P = 0.029). Our results suggest that DC with hematoma evacuation might be a useful surgical procedure for selected patients with large hemispheric hypertensive ICH. Source

Markedly activated neutrophils or higher plasma levels of neutrophil elastase are involved in the poor response to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and the formation of coronary artery lesions (CAL) in patients with acute Kawasaki disease. We hypothesized that ulinastatin (UTI), by both direct and indirect suppression of neutrophils, would reduce the occurrence of CAL. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical records of patients with Kawasaki disease between 1998 and 2009. Three hundred sixty-nine patients were treated with a combination of UTI, aspirin, and IVIG as an initial treatment (UTI group), and 1178 were treated with a conventional initial treatment, and IVIG with aspirin (control group). The baseline characteristics did not demonstrate notable differences between the two groups. The occurrence of CAL was significantly lower in the UTI group than in the control group (3% versus 7%; crude odds ratio [OR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25-0.86; P=0.01). The OR adjusted for sex, Gunma score (the predictive score for IVIG unresponsiveness), and dosage of initial IVIG (1 or 2 g/kg) was 0.32 (95% CI, 0.17-0.60; P<0.001). In addition, most CAL occurred in patients requiring additional rescue treatment and the proportion of those patients was significantly lower in the UTI group than in the control group (13% versus 22%; crude OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.38-0.73; P<0.001). The adjusted OR was 0.30 (95% CI, 0.20-0.44; P<0.001). UTI was associated with fewer patients requiring additional rescue treatment and reduction of CAL in this retrospective study. Source

Ayaori M.,National Defense Medical College
Journal of the American Heart Association | Year: 2013

Endothelial dysfunction is an independent predictor for cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) reportedly exerts vasodilatory actions, and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), an enzyme-degrading GLP-1, are widely used to treat T2DM. We therefore hypothesized that DPP-4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is) improve endothelial function in T2DM patients and performed 2 prospective, randomized crossover trials to compare the DPP-4I sitagliptin and an α-glucosidase inhibitor, voglibose (in study 1) and the DPP-4Is sitagliptin and alogliptin (in study 2). In study 1, 24 men with T2DM (46±5 years) were randomized to sitagliptin or voglibose for 6 weeks without washout periods. Surprisingly, sitagliptin significantly reduced flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD; -51% compared with baseline, P<0.05) of the brachial artery despite improved diabetic status. In contrast, voglibose did not affect FMD. To confirm this result and determine whether it is a class effect, we conducted another trial (study 2) to compare sitagliptin and alogliptin in 42 T2DM patients (66±8 years) for 6 weeks with 4-week washout periods. Both DPP-4Is improved glycemic control but significantly attenuated FMD (7.2/4.3%, P<0.001, before/after sitagliptin; 7.0/4.8%, P<0.001, before/after alogliptin, respectively). Interestingly, FMD reduction was less evident in subjects who were on statins or whose LDL cholesterol levels were reduced by them, but this was not correlated with parameters including DPP-4 activity and GLP-1 levels or diabetic parameters. Our 2 independent trials demonstrated that DPP-4 inhibition attenuated endothelial function as evaluated by FMD in T2DM patients. This unexpected unfavorable effect may be a class effect of DPP-4Is. URL: http://center.umin.ac.jp, Unique Identifiers: UMIN000005682 (sitagliptin versus voglibose) and UMIN000005681 (sitagliptin versus alogliptin). Source

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