National Defence University of Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia or the National Defence University of Malaysia is a military university located in Sungai Besi Camp, Kuala Lumpur. The university is Malaysia's first catering to the needs and development of the Malaysian Armed Forces. There are around 2,700 undergraduate students, with over 1,300 of them Officer Cadets that undergoe four to six years of training. Wikipedia.

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Noor S.A.M.,Monash University | Noor S.A.M.,National Defence University of Malaysia | Bayley P.M.,Deakin University | Forsyth M.,Deakin University | MacFarlane D.R.,Monash University
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2013

The preparation and properties of ionogels as potential highly conductive solid state electrolytes has been investigated. The ionogels have been prepared by a one-pot sol-gel synthesis using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMIm][BF4]. The effect of silica content in the ionogels was characterized and analyzed in terms of chemical interactions, thermal stability and ionic conductivity. Immobilization of the IL in the silica network was observed even at high loading of IL (97 wt.%). Hydrogen bond networks between BF4 - and the hydroxyl group in the silica was suggested as the mechanism of this immobilization, which was characterized by FTIR and solid-state NMR. TGA analysis shows that the prepared ionogels were stable up to around 450 °C, where a-final one-step degradation occurs. The ionic conductivity was found to decrease as the amount of silica increased. However, with high loading of IL (97 wt.%) the ionic conductivity was close to that of the pure IL. From the results obtained, these ionogels can be considered potential candidates for electrochemical devices where high ionic conductivity in solid state materials is desirable. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chieng B.W.,University Putra Malaysia | Ibrahim N.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Yunus W.M.Z.W.,National Defence University of Malaysia | Hussein M.Z.,University Putra Malaysia
Polymers | Year: 2014

Graphene nanoplatelets (xGnP) were investigated as a novel nano-reinforcement filler in poly(lactic acid)(PLA)/poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG) blends by the melt blending method. PLA was first plasticized by PEG in order to improve its flexibility and thereby overcome its problem of brittleness. Then, xGnP was incorporated into the PLA/PEG blend. The prepared nanocomposites exhibited a significant improvement in tensile properties at a low xGnP loading. The tensile properties demonstrated the addition of 0.3 wt% of xGnP led to an increase of up to 32.7%, 69.5% and 21.9% in tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation at break of the nanocomposites respectively, compared to PLA/PEG blend. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed the presence of a peak around 26.5° in PLA/PEG/xGnP nanocomposites which corresponds to the characteristic peak of xGnP. The nanocomposites also shows enhanced thermal stability compared with PLA/PEG blend in thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The enhancement to some extent of the tensile properties of the PLA/PEG/xGnP nanocomposites can be ascribed to the homogeneous dispersion and orientation of the xGnP nanoplatelets in the polymer matrix and strong interfacial interaction between both components. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of PLA/PEG/0.3 wt% xGnP displays good uniformity and more homogenous morphology. Good uniformity of composites indicates a good degree of dispersion of the xGnp and therefore results in good tensile and thermal properties. © 2013 by the authors.

Chieng B.W.,University Putra Malaysia | Ibrahim N.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Yunus W.M.Z.W.,National Defence University of Malaysia
Polymer - Plastics Technology and Engineering | Year: 2012

Response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the tensile strength of poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/graphene nanocomposites. The interaction between four variables was studied and modeled. The statistical analysis of the results showed that graphene loading and temperature had a significant effect on tensile strength. Quadratic model was obtained and developed to correlate the process parameter to the tensile strength. The optimum combination predicted via RSM was confirmed through experiment and in good agreement with experimental values. The model was able to accurately predict the response of tensile strength with less than 2% error. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Alyautdin R.,University Technology of MARA | Khalin I.,National Defence University of Malaysia | Nafeeza M.I.,University Technology of MARA | Haron M.H.,University Technology of MARA | Kuznetsov D.,Moscow State University
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2014

The protective properties of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are conferred by the intricate architecture of its endothelium coupled with multiple specific transport systems expressed on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs) in the brain's vasculature. When the stringent control of the BBB is disrupted, such as following EC damage, substances that are safe for peripheral tissues but toxic to neurons have easier access to the central nervous system (CNS). As a consequence, CNS disorders, including degenerative diseases, can occur independently of an individual's age. Although the BBB is crucial in regulating the biochemical environment that is essential for maintaining neuronal integrity, it limits drug delivery to the CNS. This makes it difficult to deliver beneficial drugs across the BBB while preventing the passage of potential neurotoxins. Available options include transport of drugs across the ECs through traversing occludins and claudins in the tight junctions or by attaching drugs to one of the existing transport systems. Either way, access must specifically allow only the passage of a particular drug. In general, the BBB allows small molecules to enter the CNS; however, most drugs with the potential to treat neurological disorders other than infections have large structures. Several mechanisms, such as modifications of the built-in pumping-out system of drugs and utilization of nanocarriers and liposomes, are among the drug-delivery systems that have been tested; however, each has its limitations and constraints. This review comprehensively discusses the functional morphology of the BBB and the challenges that must be overcome by drug-delivery systems and elaborates on the potential targets, mechanisms, and formulations to improve drug delivery to the CNS. © 2014 Alyautdin et al.

Wong L.S.,University of Tenaga Nasional | Wong L.S.,University of Malaya | Hashim R.,University of Malaya | Ali F.,National Defence University of Malaysia
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

The aim of this work is to demonstrate the application of kaolin as a pozzolanic additive of stabilized peat. In addition to kaolin, Portland composite cement, calcium chloride and silica sand were used as the materials to stabilize the peat. To achieve such aim, test specimens of both untreated and stabilized peats were tested in laboratory in order to evaluate its unconfined compressive strength and rate of permeability. Each test specimen was prepared in such a way that it has to simulate the in situ condition of deep peat stabilization by deep mixing method. It was found that test specimen with 10% partial replacement with kaolin has the highest unconfined compressive strength that exceeds the minimal required unconfined compressive strength of 345 kPa. The test specimen was subjected to 100 kPa initial pressure and cured in water for 7 days. The unconfined compressive strength of the test specimen was discovered to be 33.7 times greater than that of untreated peat specimen. In laboratory permeability tests, the rate of permeability of untreated peat was found to be 6.43 × 106 times higher than that of stabilized peat. Samples of the test specimens were examined using Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). High peaks of calcium element from the EDX results of stabilized peat specimens imply that the specimens have high calcium composition as a result of cement hydrolysis, and addition of kaolin is believed to induce secondary pozzolanic reaction in which the cementation crystals of mainly calcium silicate hydrate were formed to bind the soil. Based on the observation of SEM of the stabilized peat specimens, it was found that there was a significant pore refinement in the test specimens as a result of the filler effect of silica sand and pozzolanic activity of kaolin. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Leong K.Y.,National Defence University of Malaysia | Ong H.C.,University of Malaya
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2014

The selection of flow passage's cross section shape is important in thermal system design such as compact heat exchanger. A variety of duct's shapes can be used to enhance the thermal performance. However, it must be noted that different thermal and friction characteristics can be initiated due to this approach. Therefore this paper investigates the entropy generation characteristics of three types of duct's cross section subjected to constant heat flux. The considered shapes are circular, square and triangle (equilateral). Al2O3 and MWCNT based nanofluids are used as working fluids in the analysis. The study found that the total entropy generation of Al2O3 based nanofluids decreases with the increase of particle volume fractions. However, this parameter increases when working fluid's mass flow rate and heat flux applied to the duct increase. On the aspect of cross section's shape, circular duct exhibits lowest total entropy generation compared to other considered shapes. Moreover, it was also found that MWCNT based water nanofluids exhibit lower total entropy generation compared to Al2O3 based nanofluids due to its high thermal conductivity value. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Alsagoff S.N.,National Defence University of Malaysia
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2011

Military section will communicate verbally or visually in the battlefield. Before engaging the enemy, section leader will give commands visually as not to alert the enemy. Once the enemy is engaged, all commands will be verbal. Shooting might cause for some of these commands to be lost due to the noise and confusion. In addition to that, upon engagement by the enemy, soldiers will try to go behind cover to avoid getting shot at. Hiding behind cover will cause the soldier to loose situational awareness. The section leaders might also not be able to give commands effectively to the soldiers. The Small Unit Tactical Silent Communication System (SUTACSICS), a module to be integrated into the Malaysian Army Small Unit Tactical Management System (SUTaMS), was developed using Network Centric Technologies to ensure that section leaders in the battlefield are able to communicate with their soldiers silently and effectively without using either the visual or verbal method of communication. Commands to be sent are selected from a preset list and vibration to alert the soldiers on arrival of the command. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Juhary J.,National Defence University of Malaysia
International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning | Year: 2016

Twitter is one of the free micro bloggings available today. Created in 2006, Twitter has about 500 million registered users worldwide. Many scholars have been debating over the use of Twitter in teaching and learning. This brief research paper aims to look at Twitter as a source of revision for a course offered at the Defence University in Kuala Lumpur. The assumption is that the students are able to score a higher grade when Twitter is used as a revision tool. 32 students participated in this study and tweets were used to support students during their revision period before the second test. Data were analysed based on the results of Test 1 (without Twitter as a revision tool) and Test 2, where comparisons were made to see whether there is a change in the students' results. Further, the tweets sent to/shared with students and the retweets shared by students were also examined. A survey was also conducted to explore the respondents' thoughts on using Twitter as a revision tool. Preliminary findings suggest that the students had greatly benefitted when Twitter is used as a revision tool. This is because the results of Test 2 show that all students scored higher. The results of the survey also indicate that students were positive about using Twitter as a revision tool. Although it cannot be conclusively determined whether Twitter is the only factor that contributes to the increase of students' results in Test 2, this paper will highlight how Twitter can be used as an effective revision tool.

Rassiah K.,National Defence University of Malaysia | Ahmad M.M.H.M.,National Defence University of Malaysia
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

This paper reviews the topic of bamboo mechanical properties in thermoplastic and thermosets polymer composite. It highlights previous work done in bamboo fiber in terms of the reinforcement composite material. Mechanical testing with experimental has been studied. This literature study will be a good source for those who are interested in doing research for this topic. An overall 62 references have been cited for the further investigation. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

This paper presents a mathematical-based evaluation technique as a new method in assessing the readiness of handheld application usage. This research considers specifically the quantification of readiness parameters useful to express and estimate the overall readiness of handheld application usage. As a result, a new and simple mathematical-based evaluation model for assessing the readiness of handheld application usage, namely Readiness Measurement Model (RMM), was established. The proposed model integrates three dimensions for evaluating handheld application usage readiness including knowledge acquisition, individual understanding, and interface acceptance. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

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