Singh D.,National Dairy Research Institute
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2017
BACKGROUND:: Natural killer T (NKT) cells act as a bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses. Limited information is available regarding the role of NKT cells in the HIV disease progression especially HIV-1 C infection. METHODOLOGY:: NKT cells were characterized for their frequency and the activation, aging, exhaustion status and their proliferation ability in 32 long term non progressors (LTNPs), 40 progressors, 18 patients before and after suppressive cART along with 35 HIV-1 negative subjects using multicolor flowcytometry. RESULTS:: The frequencies of total NKT cells and their subpopulation were significantly higher in LTNPs as compared with those obtained in progressors (p<0.0001) and was significantly associated with higher CD4 counts, and with lower plasma viral loads (pVL). The percentage of activated, aged and exhausted NKT cells were significantly lower in LTNPs as compared to the progressors and inversely correlated with CD4 count and positively with pVL. The NKT cells from the LTNPs showed higher proliferation ability. The frequency and proliferation ability of the NKT cells were partially restored after 12 months of suppressive cART but still lower than the levels in LTNPs. The degree of restoration after cART was similar in both CD4+ and CD4- NKT cells. CONCLUSION:: The findings demonstrate significant association of preserved NKT cells with the non-progressive HIV infection and also showed that exhausted NKT cells are associated with disease progression. Further characterization of their functionality and assessment of sustenance in HIV infection will help to understand the HIV pathogenesis and to develop immune therapies. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Bhat M.I.,National Dairy Research Institute |
Kapila R.,National Dairy Research Institute
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2017
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors trillions of commensal microorganisms, collectively known as the microbiota. The microbiota is a critical source of environmental stimuli and, thus, has a tremendous impact on the health of the host. The microbes within the microbiota regulate homeostasis within the gut, and any alteration in their composition can lead to disorders that include inflammatory bowel disease, allergy, autoimmune disease, diabetes, mental disorders, and cancer. Hence, restoration of the gut flora following changes or imbalance is imperative for the host. The low-molecular-weight compounds and nutrients such as short-chain fatty acids, polyamines, polyphenols, and vitamins produced by microbial metabolism of nondigestible food components in the gut actively participate in various epigenomic mechanisms that reprogram the genome by altering the transcriptional machinery of a cell in response to environmental stimuli. These epigenetic modifications are caused by a set of highly dynamic enzymes, notably histone acetylases, deacetylases, DNA methylases, and demethylases, that are influenced by microbial metabolites and other environmental cues. Recent studies have shown that host expression of histone acetylases and histone deacetylases is important for regulating communication between the intestinal microbiota and the host cells. Histone acetylases and deacetylases influence the molecular expression of genes that affect not only physiological functions but also behavioral shifts that occur via neuroepigenetic modifications of genes. The underlying molecular mechanisms, however, have yet to be fully elucidated and thus provide a new area of research. The present review provides insights into the current understanding of the microbiota and its association with mammalian epigenomics as well as the interaction of pathogens and probiotics with host epigenetic machinery. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.
Singh B.P.,National Dairy Research Institute |
Vij S.,National Dairy Research Institute |
Hati S.,Anand Agricultural University
Peptides | Year: 2014
Biologically active peptides play an important role in metabolic regulation and modulation. Several studies have shown that during gastrointestinal digestion, food processing and microbial proteolysis of various animals and plant proteins, small peptides can be released which possess biofunctional properties. These peptides are to prove potential health-enhancing nutraceutical for food and pharmaceutical applications. The beneficial health effects of bioactive peptides may be several like antihypertensive, antioxidative, antiobesity, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, hypocholesterolemic and anticancer. Soybeans, one of the most abundant plant sources of dietary protein, contain 36-56% of protein. Recent studies showed that soy milk, an aqueous extract of soybean, and its fermented product have great biological properties and are a good source of bioactive peptides. This review focuses on bioactive peptides derived from soybean; we illustrate their production and biofunctional attributes. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Arora T.,National Dairy Research Institute |
Sharma R.,National Dairy Research Institute
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2011
Energy homeostasis is regulated by twin factors, energy intake and energy expenditure. Obesity arises when these two factors are out of balance. Recently, the microflora residing in the human gut has been found to be one of the influential factors disturbing energy balance. Recent interest in this field has led to use of the term "gut microbiome" to describe the genomes of trillions of microbes residing in the gut. Metagenomic studies have shown that the human gut microbiome facilitates fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates to short-chain fatty acids that provide excess energy to the body, thus contributing to the obese phenotype. Alteration in the ratio of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes drives a change in fermentation patterns that could explain weight gain. Therefore, changes in the gut microbiome (induced by antibiotics or dietary supplements) may be helpful in curbing the obesity pandemic. This review provides information on the expansive role the gut microbiome is believed to play in obesity and other related metabolic disorders. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.
Aggarwal A.,National Dairy Research Institute
Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2012
The study was conducted to investigating the effect of α-tocopherol acetate on heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), oxidative stress, and antioxidant status during periparturient period in medium body condition score crossbred cows. Twenty crossbred Karan Fries cows with confirmed pregnancy were selected 2 months before expected date of calving. The cows were randomly distributed in to two groups: 10 cows were kept as control and 10 were supplemented with α-tocopherol acetate during dry period for 2 months. Blood samples were collected at -20, -10, -5, 0, 5, 10, and 20 days in relation to the expected date of calving. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and total immunoglobulin were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in treatment as compared to control cows. Heat shock protein 70 and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in the treatment cows than their counterpart. Treatment with α-tocopherol acetate during dry period resulted in reduced oxidative stress, heat shock protein Hsp70 levels, improved antioxidant, and improved immunity status indicating beneficial effect of α-tocopherol acetate treatment.
Arora T.,National Dairy Research Institute |
Singh S.,National Dairy Research Institute |
Sharma R.K.,National Dairy Research Institute
Nutrition | Year: 2013
Obesity is a metabolic disorder afflicting people globally. There has been a pivotal advancement in the understanding of the intestinal microbiota composition and its implication in extraintestinal (metabolic) diseases. Therefore, any agent modulating gut microbiota may produce an influential effect in preventing the pathogenesis of disease. Probiotics are live microbes that, when administered in adequate amounts, have been shown to confer health benefits to the host. Over the years, probiotics have been a part of the human diet in the form of different fermented foods consumed around the world. Their influence on different physiologic functions in the host is increasingly being documented. The antiobesity potential of probiotics is also gaining wide attention because of increasing evidence of the role of gut microbiota in energy homeostasis and fat accumulation. Probiotics have also been shown to interact with the resident bacterial members already present in the gut by altering their properties, which may also affect the metabolic pathways involved in the regulation of fat metabolism. The underlying pathways governing the antiobesity effects of probiotics remain unclear. However, it is hoped that the evidence presented and discussed in this review will encourage and thus drive more extensive research in this field. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Kumar M.,National Dairy Research Institute
The British journal of nutrition | Year: 2012
The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of probiotic fermented milk (FM) containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota, alone as well as in combination with chlorophyllin (CHL) as an antioxidant agent in male Wistar rats administered aflatoxin-B 1 (AFB 1). AFB 1 was injected intraperitoneally at the rate of 450 μg/kg body weight per animal twice a week for 6 weeks, maintaining an equal time interval between the two consecutive AFB 1 administrations. A total of 125 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups, each group having twenty-five animals. Group I was offered FM containing L. rhamnosus GG and L. casei strain Shirota. Group II was administered AFB1 and served as the control group; group III was administered FM-AFB 1, in which besides administering AFB 1, FM was also offered. Group IV was offered CHL and AFB 1, and group V was offered both FM and CHL along with AFB 1. The rats were euthanised at the 15th and 25th week of the experiment and examined for the biochemical and hepatopathological profile. A significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) was observed in the FM-CHL-AFB 1 group compared with the AFB1 control group. FM alone or in combination with CHL was found to show a significant (P < 0·05) hepatoprotective effect by lowering the levels of TBARS and by enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase, indicating that probiotic FM alone or in combination with CHL possesses a potent protective effect against AFB 1-induced hepatic damage.
Mehla J.,National Dairy Research Institute |
Sood S.K.,National Dairy Research Institute
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2011
A better understanding of the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) resistance mechanisms of bacteria will facilitate the design of effective and potent AMPs. Therefore, to understand resistance mechanisms and for in vitro assessment, variants of Enterococcus faecalis that are resistant to different doses of the fungal AMP alamethicin (Almr) were selected and characterized. The resistance developed was dose dependent, as both doses of alamethicin and degrees of resistance were colinear. The formation of bacterial cell aggregates observed in resistant cells may be the prime mechanism of resistance because overall, a smaller cell surface in aggregated cells is exposed to AMPs. Increased rigidity of the membranes of Almr variants, because of their altered fatty acids, was correlated with limited membrane penetration by alamethicin. Thus, resistance developed against alamethicin was an adaptation of the bacterial cells through changes in their morphological features and physiological activity and the composition of membrane phospholipids. The Alm r variants showed crossresistance to pediocin, which indicated that resistance developed against both AMPs may share a mechanism, i.e., an alteration in the cell membrane. High percentages of colorimetric response by both AMPs against polydiacetylene/lipid biomimetic membranes of Almr variants confirmed that altered phospholipid and fatty acid compositions were responsible for acquisition of resistance. So far, this is the only report of quantification of resistance and cross-resistance using an in vitro colorimetric approach. Our results imply that a single AMP or AMP analog may be effective against bacterial strains having a common mechanism of resistance. Therefore, an understanding of resistance would contribute to the development of a single efficient, potent AMP against resistant strains that share a mechanism of resistance. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Ringe R.,National Dairy Research Institute |
Bhattacharya J.,National Dairy Research Institute
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
HIV-1 variants that show unusual sensitivity to autologous antibodies due to presence of critical neutralization signatures would likely contribute towards rational envelope based HIV-1 vaccine design. In the present study, we found that presence of a naturally occurring H681 in gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER) of a clade C envelope (Env) obtained from a recently infected Indian patient conferred increased sensitivity to autologous and heterologous plasma antibodies. Furthermore, Env-pseudotyped viruses expressing H681 showed increased sensitivity to soluble CD4, b12 and 4E10 monoclonal antibodies both in related and unrelated Envs and was corroborated with increased Env susceptibility and binding to cellular CD4 as well as with prolonged exposure of MPER epitopes. The increased gp120-CD4 interaction was further associated with relative exposure of CD4-induced epitopes and macrophage infectivity. In summary, our data indicate that Y681H substitution exposes neutralizing epitopes in CD4bs and MPER towards comprehensive interference in HIV-1 entry. © 2012 Ringe, Bhattacharya.
Chawla R.,National Dairy Research Institute |
Patil G.R.,National Dairy Research Institute
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2010
Soluble dietary fibers (SDFs) are present in small quantities in almost each and every commodity and in combination with insoluble dietary fiber contribute towards total dietary fiber. The beneficial properties of SDFs have been associated with their significant role in human physiological function. Reductions in cholesterol level and blood pressure, prevention of gastrointestinal problems, protection against onset of several cancers, which include colorectal, prostate, and breast cancer, increased mineral bioavailability, and many more are the salient features of their potential. Some of the new unexplored soluble fibers are still under investigation for their use in a variety of commercial foodstuffs. This review outlines the various SDFs available, their major sources, and their potential functional role in human health. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®.