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Bredeson J.V.,University of California at Berkeley | Egesi C.N.,National Root Crops Research Institute NRCRI | Esuma W.,National Crops Resources Research Institute NaCCRI | Ezenwaka L.,National Root Crops Research Institute NRCRI | And 37 more authors.
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics | Year: 2015

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major staple crop in Africa, Asia, and South America, and its starchy roots provide nourishment for 800 million people worldwide. Although native to South America, cassava was brought to Africa 400-500 years ago and is now widely cultivated across sub-Saharan Africa, but it is subject to biotic and abiotic stresses. To assist in the rapid identification of markers for pathogen resistance and crop traits, and to accelerate breeding programs, we generated a framework map for M. esculenta Crantz from reduced representation sequencing [genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)]. The composite 2412-cM map integrates 10 biparental maps (comprising 3480 meioses) and organizes 22,403 genetic markers on 18 chromosomes, in agreement with the observed karyotype. We used the map to anchor 71.9% of the draft genome assembly and 90.7% of the predicted protein-coding genes. The chromosome-anchored genome sequence will be useful for breeding improvement by assisting in the rapid identification of markers linked to important traits, and in providing a framework for genomic selectionenhanced breeding of this important crop. © 2015 International Cassava Genetic Map Consortium (ICGMC).

Singh R.K.,IRRI ESA Regional Office | Murori R.,IRRI ESA Regional Office | Ndayiragije A.,IRRI ESA Regional Office | Bigirimana J.,IRRI ESA Regional Office | And 9 more authors.
Sabrao Journal of Breeding and Genetics | Year: 2013

A very high consumption growth rate has made rice one of the most important crops in Africa, but Africa's rice production growth rate is too low to match the consumption trend. A strong thrust is needed to boost rice production and productivity in Africa, especially in eastern and southern Africa (ESA), where large suitable land areas and resources with a congenial environment are available. Rice breeding activities in ESA, specifically for rainfed lowlands and irrigated ecosystems that have maximum area, did not receive enough attention in the past and hence lag behind in the development of appropriate high-yielding varieties. A poor rice variety development program for rainfed lowlands and irrigated areas was also marred by poor capacity, poor infrastructure, and a lack of proper policy support. This paper discusses the current issues related to the rice breeding scenario and the initiation of breeding support by CGIAR institutes such as IRRI in ESA. © Society for the Advancement of Breeding Research in Asia and Oceania (SABRAO) 2013.

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