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Atim M.,Makerere University | Atim M.,National Crops Resources Research Institute | Beed F.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Tusiime G.,Makerere University | And 2 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2013

The effect of exogenous applications of potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and nitrogen (N) on the susceptibility of four banana cultivars to Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) was studied. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with normal concentrations of K at 783 mg/liter, Ca at 121 mg/liter, and N at 841 mg/liter was modified to contain various concentrations of K, Ca, and N. Each nutrient was varied singly, each with three replicate experiments. The concentrations were K at 78, 157, 391, 783, 1,565, and 3,913 mg/liter; Ca at 12, 24, 60, 121, 241, and 603 mg/liter; and N at 84, 168, 420, 841, and 1,682 mg/liter. Plantlets were generated in vitro on normal MS medium and later exposed to the nutrient concentrations for a total of 8 weeks. Thereafter, they were artificially inoculated with Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum using an insulin syringe. In each nutrient, plantlets exposed to higher nutrient concentrations significantly (P < 0.0001) accumulated more nutrient in their tissues compared with those exposed to lesser nutrient concentrations. Wilt incidences were significantly reduced, and incubation periods (time from inoculation to appearance of first disease symptoms) increased, with increasing nutrient application. The study lays a background for in vivo studies aimed at management of BXW using nutrients, such as fertilizer application. © 2013 The American Phytopathological Society.

Asea G.,National Crops Resources Research Institute | Vivek B.S.,CIMMYT | Lipps P.E.,Ohio State University | Pratt R.C.,Ohio State University
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2012

Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) caused by Exserohilum turcicum, gray leaf spot (GLS) caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis and maize streak caused by maize streak Mastrevirus (MSV) are the most destructive foliar diseases limiting maize production in sub-Saharan Africa. Most foliar diseases of maize are managed using quantitative (partial) resistance, and previous studies have reported quantitative trait loci associated with host resistance (rQTL). Our objective was to compare the genetic gain and costs resulting from phenotypic, genotypic, and marker-assisted selection of partially inbred lines derived from many families for resistance to infection by three foliar pathogens. We developed a population of 410 F2:3 families by crossing inbred line CML202 with a breeding line designated VP31. These families were planted in nurseries inoculated separately with each pathogen. We conducted one cycle of early generation pedigree selection using three different procedures, phenotypic, genotypic, and marker/phenotypic index, for improvement of resistance to each pathogen. We used simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers flanking six target rQTL associated with partial resistance. Broad- and narrow-sense heritability estimates were also obtained for the F2:3 families, and selected and non-selected F2:4 families. Genetic gains resulting from the selection procedures were determined. Gene action of the candidate rQTL was determined using orthogonal contrasts. Estimates of costs based on lower boundary values indicated that the cost of marker-based selection was lower than that of phenotypic selection. Our results indicate that molecular markers linked to target rQTL can facilitate pyramiding resistance to multiple diseases during early generation pedigree selection. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Muyinza H.,National Crops Resources Research Institute | Talwana H.L.,Makerere University | Mwanga R.O.M.,International Potato Center | Stevenson P.C.,University of Greenwich
International Journal of Pest Management | Year: 2012

Host-plant resistance could be a useful tool for managing the weevils Cylas puncticollis and C. brunneus, which are major insect pests of sweetpotato in Africa. There is currently little information on existing resistance mechanisms against Cylas spp. in African cultivars, except where lower levels of weevil damage were attributed to escape due to deep rooting and reduced soil cracking, limiting the exposure of roots to weevils. Here, we evaluate weevil resistance in 134 sweetpotato cultivars and landraces over two seasons in two agroecologically diverse locations. Several sweetpotato cultivars, including New Kawogo, expressed resistance to Cylas spp. The resistance characteristics have been demonstrated in previous laboratory experiments to be quantifiable and thus potentially useful in targeted plant-breeding against Cylas spp. We showed external root and stem base damage to be an accurate quantitative indicator of internal root damage, offering rapid and accurate evaluation of resistance in field trials for screening. Moreover, weevil resistance can be assessed earlier in plant development, so saving time in the selection of the progeny from breeding programmes. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.

McQuaid C.F.,Rothamsted Research | Sseruwagi P.,Mikocheni Agricultural Research Institute | Pariyo A.,National Crops Resources Research Institute | van den Bosch F.,Rothamsted Research
Plant Pathology | Year: 2016

One method of reducing disease in crops is the dissemination of disease-free planting material from a multiplication site to growers. This study assesses the validity and sustainability of this method for cassava brown streak disease, a threat to cassava crops across East Africa. Using mathematical modelling, the effects of different environmental and control conditions on pathogen spread were determined in a single-field multiplication site. High disease pressure, through large vector populations and disease in the surrounding area, combined with poor roguing practice, resulted in unsuccessful disease suppression. However, fields may produce sufficiently clean material for replanting if these factors can be overcome. Assessing the sustainability of a low-pressure system over multiple harvests, well-managed fields were found to maintain low disease levels, although producing sufficient cuttings may prove challenging. Replanting fields from the previous harvest does not lead to degeneration of planting material, only cutting numbers, and the importation of new clean material is not necessarily required. It is recommended that multiplication sites are only established in areas of low disease pressure and vector population density, and the importance of training in field management is emphasized. Cultivars displaying strong foliar symptoms are to be encouraged, as these allow for effective roguing, resulting in negative selection against the disease and reducing its spread. Finally, efforts to increase plant multiplication rates, the number of cuttings that can be obtained from each plant, have a significant impact on the sustainability of sites, as this represents the primary limiting factor to success. © 2016 British Society for Plant Pathology.

Odipio J.,National Crops Resources Research Institute | Ogwok E.,National Crops Resources Research Institute | Taylor N.J.,Institute for International Crop Improvement | Halsey M.,Institute for International Crop Improvement | And 3 more authors.
GM crops & food | Year: 2014

A confined field trial was established to determine durability of RNAi-mediated resistance to Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). Stem cuttings were obtained from field-grown cassava plants of cv 60444 transgenic for construct p718, consisting of an 894 bp inverted repeat sequence from the Ugandan Cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) coat protein. Plants were established from three transgenic lines previously shown to provide complete resistance to UCBSV and differing levels of protection to the non-homologous virus species Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV), and grown for 11 months. CBSD symptoms were observed on shoots and storage roots of all non-transgenic cv 60444 control plants and transgenic lines p718-002 and p718-005, but not on p718-001. RT-PCR diagnostic showed tissues of plant lines p718-002 and p718-005 to be infected with CBSV, but free of UCBSV. All leaves and roots of p718-001 plants were to carry no detectable levels of either pathogen. Plants of cv 60444 in this field trial showed severe cassava mosaic disease symptoms, indicating that presence of replicating geminiviruses did not cause significant suppression of RNAi-mediated resistance to CBSD. Resistance to CBSD across a vegetative cropping cycle confirms earlier field data, and provides an important step in proof of concept for application of RNAi technology to control of CBSD under conditions encountered in farmers' fields.

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