National Council of Scientific and Technical Research

Buenos Aires, Argentina

National Council of Scientific and Technical Research

Buenos Aires, Argentina
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Otero A.D.,University of Buenos Aires | Otero A.D.,National Council of Scientific and Technical Research | Quinteros J.,German Research Center for Geosciences
Civil-Comp Proceedings | Year: 2011

This work deals with the design and implementation of a highly modular and flexible software framework to implement numerical models based on the finite element method (FEM) and its extension to deal with distributed problems. We present the improvement of previous implementations by the addition of parallel calculations capabilities by means of the substructure technique applied to solve problems by the FEM in clusters of computers using the message passing interface (MPI) protocol. We use a general Poisson problem with known solution as a test case to conduct experiments in order to validate this implementation and evaluate the scaling capabilities of our code. Two alternatives of solving the global problem are analysed, by means of direct and iterative solvers. Conclusions are extracted with focus on future lines of development. © Civil-Comp Press, 2011.

Singh J.P.,Global Institute of Forensic Research | Singh J.P.,University of Konstanz | Singh J.P.,Molde University College | Desmarais S.L.,North Carolina State University | And 19 more authors.
International Journal of Forensic Mental Health | Year: 2014

Mental health professionals are routinely called upon to assess the risk of violence presented by their patients. Prior surveys of risk assessment methods have been largely circumscribed to individual countries and have not compared the practices of different professional disciplines. Therefore, a Web-based survey was developed to examine methods of violence risk assessment across six continents, and to compare the perceived utility of these methods by psychologists, psychiatrists, and nurses. The survey was translated into nine languages and distributed to members of 59 national and international organizations. Surveys were completed by 2135 respondents from 44 countries. Respondents in all six continents reported using instruments to assess, manage, and monitor violence risk, with over half of risk assessments in the past 12 months conducted using such an instrument. Respondents in Asia and South America reported conducting fewer structured assessments, and psychologists reported using instruments more than psychiatrists or nurses. Feedback regarding outcomes was not common: respondents who conducted structured risk assessments reported receiving feedback on accuracy in under 40% of cases, and those who used instruments to develop management plans reported feedback on whether plans were implemented in under 50% of cases. When information on the latter was obtained, risk management plans were not implemented in over a third of cases. Results suggest that violence risk assessment is a global phenomenon, as is the use of instruments to assist in this task. Improved feedback following risk assessments and the development of risk management plans could improve the efficacy of health services. © 2014 Copyright International Association of Forensic Mental Health Services.

Peltzer R.I.,University of the Sea | Conde K.,University of the Sea | Conde K.,National Council of Scientific and Technical Research | Biscarra M.A.,University of the Sea | And 5 more authors.
Health and Addictions / Salud y Drogas | Year: 2017

Introduction. Although the Theory of Planned Behavior has successfully been applied to explain heavy episodic drinking, recent reviews have identified gaps in the literature like the role of gender and scarce research from non English speaking countries. Objective. We aim to broaden the evidence for the Theory of Planned Behavior by evaluating the capacity of the model to predict heavy episodic drinking in Argentinean female and male youth. Methods. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were performed. Results. Attitude was the main predictor of heavy episodic drinking intention; there were gender differences, among women perceived behavioral control and subjective norm were also predictors of heavy episodic drinking intentions. The intention was the main predictor of heavy episodic drinking for both genders, while perceived behavioral control was also a predictor among women. Conclusions. Theory of Planned Behavior allows us to better understand the motivational variables related to heavy episodic drinking intention and performance, and thus, to design appropriate prevention interventions. © Health and Addictions 2017.

Leofanti G.A.,University of the Sea | Leofanti G.A.,National Council of Scientific and Technical Research | Camadro E.L.,University of the Sea | Camadro E.L.,National Council of Scientific and Technical Research
Turkish Journal of Botany | Year: 2017

Bromus Section Ceratochloa includes temperate forage species. South American species form a morphologically very variable hexaploid complex (2n = 6x = 42), with a controversial taxonomic classification. Reproductive biology has been studied in several of them, but the number of analyzed plants has seldom been reported. Further investigations might clarify breeding relations and the adequacy of current classifications. Pollen viability and size, which can provide evidence of spontaneous hybridization, were studied in seven accessions (six plants/accession) classified as B. catharticus var. catharticus, var. elata, and var. rupestris; B. parodii; B. bonariensis; B. lithobius; and B. coloratus. Variability was detected among accessions for average pollen viability (54%–82%) and pollen size (15.8%– 26.2% n.). Meiotic analyses were performed in a sample of genotypes from five accessions with <70% pollen viability and/or variability in pollen size. Normal and abnormal meiocytes (11.9%–44.5%) were recorded at various meiotic stages in one randomly taken genotype from each sample. Since these cleistogamous species can produce chasmogamous flowers, the analyzed accessions, conserved as “species”, are apparently of hybrid origin. Segregation in hybrid populations could add to the confusion in taxonomy, affecting both conservation of genetic diversity and efficiency of parental selection in breeding. © TÜBİTAK.

Gonzalez-Pisani X.,National Patagonian Center | Gonzalez-Pisani X.,National Council of Scientific and Technical Research | Baron P.,National Patagonian Center | Baron P.,National Council of Scientific and Technical Research | And 3 more authors.
Invertebrate Biology | Year: 2012

To better understand the mating systems of majoid crabs, we studied the functional anatomy of the female reproductive systems of the spider crabs Leurocyclus tuberculosus and Libinia spinosa, comparing them with those of other Majoidea. Adult females were measured and dissected, and their reproductive systems described macroscopically and histologically. In females of both species, the seminal receptacles are paired globular structures of ecto-mesodermal origin. The mesoderm-derived region is lined by a stratified epithelium. The anchoring, proliferative, and secretory strata are clearly recognizable. The ectoderm-derived region is lined by a simple cylindrical epithelium underlying a cuticle that increases in thickness toward the vagina. The transition between the ectoderm and mesoderm-derived regions is abrupt, with differences between the studied species: Li. spinosa has a "velum," whereas Le. tuberculosus presents prominent "folds." In both species, the position in which the oviduct is connected to the seminal receptacles is intermediate between the dorsal and ventral types previously described in other eubrachyurans. The seminal receptacles of the studied species show four different conditions, which can be distinguished macroscopically based on their shape and amount of sperm stored. We compare our data with those from other Majoidea in an attempt to determine whether the morphology of the seminal receptacles is related to different mating strategies or behaviors. © 2011, The American Microscopical Society, Inc.

Bruno M.E.,University of Buenos Aires | Bruno M.E.,National University of San Martín of Argentina | Sittner M.,National University of San Martín of Argentina | Cabrini R.L.,University of Buenos Aires | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A | Year: 2015

As a result of corrosion, microparticles (MP) and/or nanoparticles (NP) can be released from the metallic implants surface into the bioenvironment. The biological response to these particles depends not only on the physico-chemical properties of the particles but also on host factors, such as age. Macrophages have attracted wide concern in biomedicine. The aim of this investigation was to study the age related biological response of macrophages to TiO2-MP and NP in vitro. Alveolar macrophages (AM) obtained from young and senescent rats were cultured and exposed to TiO2-MP and NP. Cell metabolism, superoxide anion (O2-) and nitric oxide (NO) generation, and cytokine release (IL-6, TNFα, IL-10) were measured. Cell metabolism was not affected by particle exposure. O2- and NO generation increased in a dose dependent manner. A marked increase on IL-6 release was found in the young-AM subpopulation exposed to TiO2-MP. Conversely, both particle sizes induced a dose dependent release of TNFα in senescent-AM. Only the highest concentration of TiO2-particles caused a significant increase in IL-10 release in AM-cultures. These observations lend strong support to the suggestion that cellular response of macrophages to TiO2-particles is age dependent. The biological effect of the particles would seem to be more deleterious in the senescent age-group. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 471-478, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Ravera E.P.,National University of Entre Rios | Ravera E.P.,National Council of Scientific and Technical Research | Crespo M.J.,FLENI Institute for Neurological Research | Braidot A.A.A.,National University of Entre Rios
Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2014

Clinical gait analysis provides great contributions to the understanding of gait patterns. However, a complete distribution of muscle forces throughout the gait cycle is a current challenge for many researchers. Two techniques are often used to estimate muscle forces: inverse dynamics with static optimization and computer muscle control that uses forward dynamics to minimize tracking. The first method often involves limitations due to changing muscle dynamics and possible signal artefacts that depend on day-to-day variation in the position of electromyographic (EMG) electrodes. Nevertheless, in clinical gait analysis, the method of inverse dynamics is a fundamental and commonly used computational procedure to calculate the force and torque reactions at various body joints. Our aim was to develop a generic musculoskeletal model that could be able to be applied in the clinical setting. The musculoskeletal model of the lower limb presents a simulation for the EMG data to address the common limitations of these techniques. This model presents a new point of view from the inverse dynamics used on clinical gait analysis, including the EMG information, and shows a similar performance to another model available in the OpenSim software. The main problem of these methods to achieve a correct muscle coordination is the lack of complete EMG data for all muscles modelled. We present a technique that simulates the EMG activity and presents a good correlation with the muscle forces throughout the gait cycle. Also, this method showed great similarities whit the real EMG data recorded from the subjects doing the same movement. © 2014 Taylor & Francis

Gualco A.,National University of Lomas de Zamora | Svoboda H.G.,University of Buenos Aires | Svoboda H.G.,National Council of Scientific and Technical Research | Surian E.S.,National University of Lomas de Zamora | Surian E.S.,National Technological University of Rosario
Welding International | Year: 2015

In the last few years, several welding consumables have been developed that deposit hard iron-based nanostructured alloy coverings with high resistance to abrasive wear. The erosive and abrasive wear resistances are mainly controlled by the chemical composition and the microstructure. In turn, the microstructure of the deposited metal can show variations with the used welding procedure, particularly in relation to the heat input. The operating parameters that define the heat input (voltage, current and welding speed) affect aspects such as bead geometry (wide, penetration and reinforcement) and dilution with the base material. The purpose of this article is to study the effect of heat input on the geometric characteristics of the bead, the dilution and the microstructural evolution of a nanostructured iron-based alloy deposited by FCAW. Several samples with heat input between 0.5 and 3.5 kJ/mm were welded. A dimensional study was carried out for each welded coupon, the chemical composition was analysed and the microstructure was characterized using optical and electronic scanning microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Microhardness, crystallite size and degree of dilution were also measured. Great influence in these conditions in the process was observed about the geometry of the bead. The dilution varied between 30% and 40%; microhardness of the deposit was found between 800 and 870 HV1, and the size of the crystallite varies between 105 and 130 nm, depending on process variables used. The highest hardnesses and the lowest crystallite sizes were obtained with the lowest heat input, associated with a lower dilution. © 2015, © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Zbrun M.V.,National University of Litoral | Altina M.G.,National University of Litoral | Bonansea E.,National University of Litoral | Frizzo L.S.,National University of Litoral | And 9 more authors.
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria | Year: 2013

Blood is a common by-product of the meat industry, which has several potential applications in the animal feed industry. However, since blood is highly susceptible to microbial spoilage, blood and its fractions are often not suitable ingredients for the feed industry. Biopreservation appears as an alternative for the improvement of blood's quality towards its use as an ingredient in foodstuff. The objective of this work was to isolate and identify Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) in avian blood obtained from industrial slaughterhouses and evaluate their antimicrobial activity. Ninety-six LAB were isolated from avian blood and genotyped. Eleven Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis groups were identified. Between two and five different species were detected in each blood sample (31 strains in all blood samples) which were selected to study antagonistic activity. Twenty-eight of them produced antimicrobial compounds such as organic acids, 11 strains produced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and two released bacteriocin-like compounds. The latter, identified as Lactobacillus salivarius (DSPV 027SA) and Enterococcus faecalis (DSPV 008SA), inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and some serotypes of Salmonella spp. These two LAB strains would be candidates for potential application as a blood biopreservation system. This biotechnological tool is cheaper than others sanitation techniques and could reduce the risk of pathogens transmission thought food chain.

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