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Rayamajhi A.,University of Liverpool | Rayamajhi A.,National Academy of Medical science | Nightingale S.,University of Liverpool | Bhatta N.K.,BP Koirala Institute of Health science | And 15 more authors.

Background: Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus found across Asia that is closely related to West Nile virus. There is no known antiviral treatment for any flavivirus. Results from in vitro studies and animal models suggest intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) containing virus-specific neutralizing antibody may be effective in improving outcome in viral encephalitis. IVIG' s anti-inflammatory properties may also be beneficial. Methodology/Principal Findings: We performed a pilot feasibility randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of IVIG containing anti-JEV neutralizing antibody (ImmunoRel, 400mg/kg/day for 5 days) in children with suspected JE at two sites in Nepal; we also examined the effect on serum neutralizing antibody titre and cytokine profiles. 22 children were recruited, 13 of whom had confirmed JE; 11 received IVIG and 11 placebo, with no protocol violations. One child (IVIG group) died during treatment and two (placebo) subsequently following hospital discharge. Overall, there was no difference in outcome between treatment groups at discharge or follow up. Passive transfer of anti-JEV antibody was seen in JEV negative children. JEV positive children treated with IVIG had JEV-specific neutralizing antibody titres approximately 16 times higher than those treated with placebo (p=0.2), which was more than could be explained by passive transfer alone. IL-4 and IL-6 were higher in the IVIG group. Conclusions/Significance: A trial of IVIG for JE in Nepal is feasible. IVIG may augment the development of neutralizing antibodies in JEV positive patients. IVIG appears an appealing option for JE treatment that warrants further study. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01856205. © 2015, Public Library of Science. All rights reserved. Source

Jones P.H.,University of Liverpool | Jones P.H.,National Consortium for Zoonosis Research | Dawson S.,University of Liverpool | Gaskell R.M.,University of Liverpool | And 5 more authors.
Veterinary Journal

Using the Small Animal Veterinary Surveillance Network (SAVSNET), a national small animal disease-surveillance scheme, information on gastrointestinal disease was collected for a total of 76days between 10 May 2010 and 8 August 2011 from 16,223 consultations (including data from 9115 individual dogs and 3462 individual cats) from 42 premises belonging to 19 UK veterinary practices. During that period, 7% of dogs and 3% of cats presented with diarrhoea.Adult dogs had a higher proportional morbidity of diarrhoea (PMD) than adult cats (P<. 0.001). This difference was not observed in animals <1year old. Younger animals in both species had higher PMDs than adult animals (P<0.001). Neutering was associated with reduced PMD in young male dogs. In adult dogs, miniature Schnauzers had the highest PMD. Most animals with diarrhoea (51%) presented having been ill for 2-4days, but a history of vomiting or haemorrhagic diarrhoea was associated with a shorter time to presentation. The most common treatments employed were dietary modification (66% of dogs; 63% of cats) and antibacterials (63% of dogs; 49% of cats). There was variability in PMD between different practices.The SAVNET methodology facilitates rapid collection of cross-sectional data regarding diarrhoea, a recognised sentinel for infectious disease, and characterises data that could benchmark clinical practice and support the development of evidence-based medicine. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

O'Shea T.J.,U.S. Geological Survey | Cryan P.M.,U.S. Geological Survey | Cunningham A.A.,Zoological Society of London | Fooks A.R.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge | And 9 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host-virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts. Source

Luis A.D.,Colorado State University | Luis A.D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Hayman D.T.S.,Colorado State University | Hayman D.T.S.,University of Cambridge | And 16 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. Source

Marston D.A.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Horton D.L.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Ngeleja C.,Central Veterinary Laboratory | Hampson K.,University of Glasgow | And 10 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases

Evidence in support of a novel lyssavirus was obtained from brain samples of an African civet in Tanzania. Results of phylogenetic analysis of nucleoprotein gene sequences from representative Lyssavirus species and this novel lyssavirus provided strong empirical evidence that this is a new lyssavirus species, designated Ikoma lyssavirus. Source

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