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Schnoll R.A.,University of Pennsylvania | Goelz P.M.,National Comprehensive Cancer Network | Veluz-Wilkins A.,Northwestern University | Blazekovic S.,University of Pennsylvania | And 5 more authors.
JAMA Internal Medicine | Year: 2015

IMPORTANCE: The US Food and Drug Administration adopted labeling for nicotine patches to allow use beyond the standard 8 weeks. This decision was based in part on data showing increased efficacy for 24 weeks of treatment. Few studies have examined whether the use of nicotine patches beyond 24 weeks provides additional therapeutic benefit. OBJECTIVE: To compare 8 (standard), 24 (extended), and 52 (maintenance) weeks of nicotine patch treatment for promoting tobacco abstinence. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We recruited 525 treatment-seeking smokers for a randomized clinical trial conducted from June 22, 2009, through April 15, 2014, through 2 universities. INTERVENTIONS: Smokers received 12 smoking cessation behavioral counseling sessions and were randomized to 8, 24, or 52 weeks of nicotine patch treatment. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was 7-day point prevalence abstinence, confirmed with breath levels of carbon monoxide at 6 and 12 months (intention to treat). RESULTS: At 24 weeks, 21.7% of participants in the standard treatment arm were abstinent, compared with 27.2% of participants in the extended and maintenance treatment arms (χ12 = 1.98; P = .17). In a multivariate model controlled for covariates, participants in the extended and maintenance treatment arms reported significantly greater abstinence rates at 24 weeks compared with participants in the standard treatment arm (odds ratio [OR], 1.70 [95% CI, 1.03-2.81]; P = .04), had a longer duration of abstinence until relapse (β = 21.30 [95% CI, 10.30-32.25]; P < .001), reported smoking fewer cigarettes per day if not abstinent (mean [SD], 5.8 [5.3] vs 6.4 [5.1] cigarettes per day; β = 0.43 [95% CI, 0.06-0.82]; P = .02), and reported more abstinent days (mean [SD], 80.5 [38.1] vs 68.2 [43.7] days; OR, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.06-2.26]; P = .02). At 52 weeks, participants in the maintenance treatment arm did not report significantly greater abstinence rates compared with participants in the standard and extended treatment arms (20.3% vs 23.8%; OR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.69-1.98]; P = .57). Similarly, we found no difference in week 52 abstinence rates between participants in the extended and standard treatment arms (26.0% vs 21.7%; OR, 1.33 [95% CI, 0.72-2.45]; P = .36). Treatment duration was not associated with any adverse effects or adherence to the counseling regimen, but participants in the maintenance treatment arm reported lower adherence to the nicotine patch regimen compared with those in the standard and extended treatment arms (mean [SD], 3.94 [2.5], 4.61 [2.0], and 4.7 [2.4] patches/wk, respectively; F2,522 = 6.03; P = .003). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The findings support the safety of long-term use of nicotine patch treatment, although they do not support efficacy beyond 24 weeks of treatment in a broad group of smokers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01047527. Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source

Kapadia N.S.,University of Michigan | Mamet R.,City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center | Zornosa C.,National Comprehensive Cancer Network | Niland J.C.,City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center | And 2 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2012

Background: Receipt of chemotherapy at the end of life (EOL) is considered an indicator of poor quality of care for medical oncology. The objective of this study was to characterize the use of radiotherapy (RT) in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) during the same period. Methods: Treatment characteristics of patients with incurable NSCLC who received RT at the EOL, defined as within 14 days of death, were analyzed from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network NSCLC Outcomes Database. Results: Among 1098 patients who died, 10% had received EOL RT. Patients who did and did not receive EOL RT were similar in terms of sex, race, comorbid disease, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of receiving EOL RT included stage IV disease (odds ratio [OR], 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-3.83) or multiorgan involvement (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.08-2.84) at diagnosis, age <65 years at diagnosis (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.21-2.83), and treating institution (OR, 1.24-5.94; P =.02). Nearly 50% of EOL RT recipients did not complete it, most commonly because of death or patient preference. Conclusions: In general, EOL RT was received infrequently, was delivered more commonly to younger patients with more advanced disease, and often was not completed as planned. There also was considerable variation in its use among National Comprehensive Cancer Network institutions. Next steps include expanding this research to other cancers and settings and investigating the clinical benefit of such treatment. © 2011 American Cancer Society. Source

D'Amico T.A.,Duke University | Niland J.,City of Hope Cancer Center | Mamet R.,City of Hope Cancer Center | Zornosa C.,National Comprehensive Cancer Network | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Thoracic Surgery | Year: 2011

Background: Mediastinal lymph node dissection (MLND) is an integral component of complete resection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study analyzed the National Comprehensive Cancer Network's (NCCN) NSCLC Database to compare the efficacy of MLND during lobectomy by video-assisted thoracoscopy surgery (VATS) and thoracotomy (open). Methods: The NCCN NSCLC Database was queried to identify patients who underwent lobectomy to analyze the adequacy of MLND by the number of LN stations. The percentage of patients with at least three N2 stations, the number of N2 LN stations, and the total number of LN stations (N1 + N2) resected was compared by approach. Results: Of 4215 patients with NSCLC (January 2007 to September 2010), 388 patients underwent lobectomy (199 VATS and 189 open) and met entry criteria. The groups were similar in age, sex, comorbidities, performance status, and histology. MLN assessment was similar in both groups as measured by number of N2 stations (median, 3 stations; p = 0.12). At least three MLN stations were assessed in 130 patients (66%) in the VATS group vs 107 patients (58%) in the open group (p = 0.12). The total number of N1 + N2 stations resected for each group was also similar (median, 4 in both groups (p = 0.06). Conclusions: The NCCN database indicates at least three MLN stations were assessed in most patients who underwent lobectomy by either approach. As evaluated by the number of LN stations, there was no difference in the efficacy of MLN dissection by approach. © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Source

Hanisch L.J.,National Comprehensive Cancer Network | Gehrman P.R.,University of Pennsylvania
Aging Male | Year: 2011

Objective. Altered circadian rhythms have been identified in untreated prostate cancer patients. Findings of restored rhythmicity following cancer treatment may have relevance for cancer control and symptom management. This study assessed and compared the cyclic patterns of hot flashes and activity levels in treated prostate cancer patients. Methods. Data were collected during two 24-h periods among 47 prostate patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Hot flashes were detected objectively through sternal skin conductance and by patients via electronic event marking. Activity levels were recorded on a wrist actigraphy device. Results. The mean frequency of objectively measured and patient-reported hot flashes was 13.6 (SD=14.3) and 12.6 (SD=9.6), respectively. There were significant 24-h circadian rhythms of both hot flashes and activity levels. The peak of the rhythms occurred in early afternoon. There was no significant cross correlation between hot flashes and activity levels. Conclusions. The acrophases of hot flashes and elevated activity levels in this study may represent a normalisation of circadian rhythms following ADT, pointing to the need for more research, including controlled, prospective chronobiologic studies. Future research may have important implications for the survival of prostate cancer patients and the identification of new and safe hot flash treatments. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

News Article | August 26, 2016
Site: http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/

A new study quantifies industry financial conflicts of interest (FCOIs) among authors of National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, work that influences practice and defines drugs reimbursable by Medicare.

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