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Chak Azam Saffo, Pakistan

The National College of Arts Lahore, or NCA, is the oldest arts institution of higher learning in Lahore, Pakistan.Long ago it was known as the Mayo School of Arts. Gazetteers written about the city of Lahore in 1915 describe the work being done at the school. Wikipedia.

Mary H.P.A.,Malankara Catholic College | Susheela G.K.,National College of Arts | Jayasree S.,Malankara Catholic College | Nizzy A.M.,Malankara Catholic College | And 2 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Objective: To study the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical characterization of essential oil isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Methods: Fresh rhizomes of Curcuma xanthorrhiza were subjected to hydro distillation process to obtain essential oil and characterized by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The essential oil was evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activity against thirteen pathogenic bacteria and six fungi by the disc diffusion method. Results: GC - MS analysis of the essential oil extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza contained the derivatives of xanthorihizol, camphene and curcumene, monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene, hydrocarbons and other minor compounds. The antimicrobial activity of the oil showed significant inhibitory activity against the human pathogenic bacteria, no activity was observed against the fungi Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicate that the rhizome extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza possess secondary metabolites and potential to develop antimicrobial drugs. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Source

Tirmizi M.A.,National College of Arts
Proceedings: CESB 2010 Prague - Central Europe towards Sustainable Building 'From Theory to Practice'

The OEDC has recently estimated that buildings today account for over 40% of energy consumption in the world, and are responsible for about 45% of all carbon emissions, 40% of all freshwater consumption, 70% of all timber consumption, 50% of world's material consumption and are responsible for 40% of all human-produced waste (OECD1999). However, this quantity of energy consumed can be greater in more industrialized countries due to their energy needs, while the proportion of energy usage by buildings in developing countries is comparatively higher due to inefficiency of systems and is more significant than the developed countries due to prevailing extreme shortage of energy. The building sector consumes more than 43% of total energy produced within Pakistan while 10% is used for manufacturing and transportation of building components & materials (World Resources Institute. 2007). It is a matter of common experience that a large majority of new buildings constructed in Pakistan are not designed in accordance with local climatic conditions. Excessive use of concrete and glass, high levels of illumination and heavy reliance on space conditioning are common feature of our buildings. This means that owners and occupants consume extra energy to make them comfortable for living. ENERCON has estimated that improved building design can reduce building energy bills by 20% and this figure can be raised to 50% by use of efficient appliances (ENERCON2008). Energy Efficient Sustainable Buildings where at one hand can reduce the energy burden, on other can avoid global warming, improve local air quality, retard global climate change and save consumers money. The choices we make in designing and constructing new buildings (and renovating old ones) will impact the global climate directly. Source

Fraser D.,University of Queensland | Weier M.,University of Queensland | Keane H.,National College of Arts | Gartner C.,University of Queensland
International Journal of Drug Policy

Background: The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), also known as personal vaporisers (PVs), has increased rapidly in Australia despite legal barriers to the sale, possession and use of nicotine for non-therapeutic purposes. Australia is one of many countries in the process of developing regulations for these devices yet knowledge of consumers' views on e-cigarette regulation is lacking. Methods: An online survey was completed by 705 e-cigarette users recruited online. Participants answered questions about their smoking history, e-cigarette use, as well as their opinions on appropriate regulation of e-cigarettes. Results: Most participants were male (71%), employed (72%), and highly educated (68% held post-school qualification). They tended to be former heavy smokers who had stopped smoking entirely and were currently vaping. Participants generally agreed that the government should enforce minimum labelling and packaging standards and there was majority support for minimum quality standards. Most supported making e-cigarettes available for sale to anyone over the age of 18, but expressed concern about the government's motivation for regulating e-cigarettes. There was strong opposition to restricting sales to a medicines framework (prescription only or pharmacy only sales). Conclusion: E-cigarette users in Australia are in favour of e-cigarettes being regulated as long as those regulations do not impede their ability to obtain devices and refill solutions, which they view as important for them to remain smoke free. These views align with some aspects of appropriate policy designed to maximise the public health potential of e-cigarettes in society, but conflict with some of the proposed regulatory models. Governments should consider how future regulation of e-cigarettes will affect current consumers while helping to maximise the number of smokers who switch to e-cigarettes and minimise the possibility of non-smokers becoming addicted to nicotine. © 2015 The Authors. Source

Tseng Y.-H.,National College of Arts | Yang J.-H.,Shih Chien University | Li R.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Mau J.-L.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Food Quality

Silver ear (Tremella fuciformis Berkeley) was used to substitute wheat flour to make bread. Bread quality including specific volume, color and sensory evaluation, and taste components including proximate composition, soluble sugars, free amino acids and 5′-nucleotides in bread supplemented with silver ear were analyzed and compared with those of white bread. White bread and 5% silver ear bread had a comparable proximate composition. Specific volumes of 2% and 5% silver ear breads and white bread were 4.02, 3.96 and 3.79 cm3/g, respectively. Both breads contained considerately low amounts of monosodium glutamate-like and sweet components of free amino acids and flavor 5′-nucleotides. The white bread looked lighter and whiter than 5% silver ear bread. All sensory results indicated that two breads were moderately acceptable. Overall, silver ear could be incorporated into bread to provide its beneficial health effects. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

The remains of Romito 2 (probable male, 17-20 years) date to around 11,000 BP and represent the earliest known case of chondrodystrophic dwarfism (acromesomelic dysplasia). From a hunter-gatherer community in a mountainous region of southern Italy, Romito 2's skeletal dysplasia limited his participation in typical economic and other cultural activities undertaken by his cohort, and anomalies in appearance distinguished him from his peers from infancy onwards. Frayer et al. (1987) were first to describe Romito 2 in detail, suggesting survival to age-at-death indicates group support. Four years later Dettwyler (1991) challenged this conclusion and, a decade after this, Frayer retracted the original claim for care (Bower, 2002). Using the Index of Care (Tilley and Cameron, 2014), this study revisits Romito 2 from a bioarchaeology of care perspective to ascertain whether a valid basis for inferring caregiving exists. Concluding Frayer et al. (1987) were right the first time - that Romito 2's survival reflects caregiving in the form of 'accommodation of difference' - this contribution argues that focus on contemporary context is the key to estimating functional impact of pathology and related need for care. This paper also briefly considers ethical concerns raised by archaeology's treatment of Romito 2's remains. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

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