Chinchiná, Colombia
Chinchiná, Colombia

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Avelino J.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Avelino J.,Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Center | Cristancho M.,National Coffee Research Center | Georgiou S.,Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Center | And 7 more authors.
Food Security | Year: 2015

Coffee rust is a leaf disease caused by the fungus, Hemileia vastatrix. Coffee rust epidemics, with intensities higher than previously observed, have affected a number of countries including: Colombia, from 2008 to 2011; Central America and Mexico, in 2012–13; and Peru and Ecuador in 2013. There are many contributing factors to the onset of these epidemics e.g. the state of the economy, crop management decisions and the prevailing weather, and many resulting impacts e.g. on production, on farmers’ and labourers’ income and livelihood, and on food security. Production has been considerably reduced in Colombia (by 31 % on average during the epidemic years compared with 2007) and Central America (by 16 % in 2013 compared with 2011–12 and by 10 % in 2013–14 compared with 2012–13). These reductions have had direct impacts on the livelihoods of thousands of smallholders and harvesters. For these populations, particularly in Central America, coffee is often the only source of income used to buy food and supplies for the cultivation of basic grains. As a result, the coffee rust epidemic has had indirect impacts on food security. The main drivers of these epidemics are economic and meteorological. All the intense epidemics experienced during the last 37 years in Central America and Colombia were concurrent with low coffee profitability periods due to coffee price declines, as was the case in the 2012–13 Central American epidemic, or due to increases in input costs, as in the 2008–11 Colombian epidemics. Low profitability led to suboptimal coffee management, which resulted in increased plant vulnerability to pests and diseases. A common factor in the recent Colombian and Central American epidemics was a reduction in the diurnal thermal amplitude, with higher minimum/lower maximum temperatures (+0.1 °C/-0.5 °C on average during 2008–2011 compared to a low coffee rust incidence period, 1991–1994, in Chinchiná, Colombia; +0.9 °C/-1.2 °C on average in 2012 compared with prevailing climate, in 1224 farms from Guatemala). This likely decreased the latency period of the disease. These epidemics should be considered as a warning for the future, as they were enhanced by weather conditions consistent with climate change. Appropriate actions need to be taken in the near future to address this issue including: the development and establishment of resistant coffee cultivars; the creation of early warning systems; the design of crop management systems adapted to climate change and to pest and disease threats; and socio-economic solutions such as training and organisational strengthening. © 2015, The Author(s).


Aristizabal L.F.,University of Florida | Jimenez M.,National Coffee Research Center | Trujillo H.I.,Extension Service | Arthurs S.P.,University of Florida
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2015

Summary We monitored dispersing coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), with easily-manufactured, alcohol-baited funnel traps and quantified associated berry infestation on 8 coffee farms in 2 regions in Caldas, Colombia. Flight activity and damage to berries was highest in the 2-3 months after the main harvest (Jan through Mar) and was greater in large farms, where insecticides were used, compared with small farms where efficient and frequent cultural control was implemented. The use of traps and attractants will help farmers track CBB populations and localize efforts to control this pest.


Zarate L.-A.,National Coffee Research Center | Cristancho M.-A.,National Coffee Research Center | Moncada P.,National Coffee Research Center
Euphytica | Year: 2010

This study reports the implementation of three strategies for the development of genetic markers and their evaluation in both progenitors of an F2 population used for the construction of a genetic map of Coffea arabica. The strategies were Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequences (CAPS), Single Strand Conformational Polymorphism (SSCP), and sequence analysis predicted Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP). The methodologies were developed from different sequence sources: For CAPS, we used 25 COS sequences derived from Hedyotis spp. and 29 COSII sequences derived from Solanaceae and Rubiaceae species; for SSCP, we used 111 coffee EST sequences, 50 COSII sequences, and 10 C. arabica BAC end sequences. A low polymorphism was identified with the CAPS and SSCP methodologies. A total of 61 SNPs were identified in silico from 5,371 ESTs of coffee and from amplified, cloned, and sequenced COSII markers. Sixteen of these SNPs were validated with Luminex technology and 2 of them were polymorphic in C. arabica genotypes. This study highlights the difficulties of finding polymorphism in the species C. arabica where SNP identification seems to be the best strategy to search for polymorphic markers for this low diversity plant. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Tinoco H.A.,Autonomous University of Manizales | Ocampo D.A.,Autonomous University of Manizales | Pena F.M.,Autonomous University of Manizales | Sanz-Uribe J.R.,National Coffee Research Center
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2014

This study shows a heuristic process for identification of natural frequencies and modes of vibration of the fruit-peduncle system of Coffea arabica L. var. Colombia by means of a modal analysis. From experimental data, the real topology of the fruit-peduncle system was approached with a proposed theoretical model. The geometric models can be generated in any ripening stage and these showed a good agreement when these are compared with real coffee fruits. The elastic properties of the fruit were determined from a sensitive analysis using experimental data of firmness for each ripening stage. It was observed that with the increase in the days of ripening, the fruit loses its elastic capacity. From a finite element modal analysis, the natural frequencies were identified for the fruit-peduncle system and the first 20 modes of vibration were selected and analyzed. A dynamic criterion was established to identify and define frequency intervals in which the modes of vibration produce rotations at the fruit-pedicel interface. The results shows that the modes associated to natural frequencies in specific intervals probably facilitate the separation between the interface fruit-pedicel for the ripe stage but these intervals are different from other ripening stages. The heuristic process developed in this study may be extrapolated to other varieties of coffee. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Lentijo G.M.,Ziegler | Lentijo G.M.,National Coffee Research Center | Hostetler M.E.,Ziegler
Environment, Development and Sustainability | Year: 2013

This study presents an evaluation of a participatory bird census (PBC) project that has been administered to coffee farmers in Colombia. Our objectives were (1) to evaluate the effect of the PBC project on conservation knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of coffee farmers and (2) to learn about the barriers farmers perceive toward adopting conservation practices. We conducted 261 interviews on four groups to control for the effects of involvement with an environmental coffee certification program (Rainforest Alliance-RA) and the PBC project. The four groups were (1) non-PBC participant, non-RA certified; (2) PBC participant, non-RA certified; (3) non-PBC participant, RA certified; and (4) PBC participant, RA certified. PBC participant/RA and PBC participant/non-RA were more knowledgeable about migratory and threatened birds. PBC participant/RA, PBC participant/non-RA, and non-PBC participant/RA groups believed they had the skills to perform bird conservation practices on their farms. A majority of respondents indicated that they were performing bird conservation practices and had positive attitudes toward birds. Farmers believed that lack of environmental awareness and lack of knowledge were the main barriers to perform bird conservation practices. Evaluating participatory programs with Colombian farmers can reveal environmental literacy improvements, but self-reported surveys may not be adequate to ascertain attitude changes and adoption of conservation practices. Direct observations on individual farms would be required to determine the impacts on such outreach efforts. Bird conservation seems popular with Colombian coffee farmers, and outreach programs that give detailed biodiversity management information could help aid bird conservation efforts on coffee farms. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Oberthur T.,Southeast Asia Program International Plant Nutrition Institute IPNI | Laderach P.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture | Posada H.,National Coffee Research Center | Fisher M.J.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture | And 9 more authors.
Food Policy | Year: 2011

International markets are increasingly signaling demand for quality-differentiated coffee, which the Colombian Coffee Growers Federation (FNC) proposed to exploit to identify those regional coffees that would fulfill the requirements to be classified as denomination of origin. The objective of this study was to develop and implement a sound, robust and repeatable approach with and for the FNC to identify regional causal relationships between coffee quality and environmental characteristics as bases for labels of denomination of origin. Environmental differences between coffee-growing areas in the departments of Cauca and Nariño were statistically significant for several characteristics, including the number of dry months, annual precipitation and diurnal temperature range. The dominant varieties (Caturra and Colombia) did not show major differences in quality attributes, and were pooled for the analyses with the environmental data. There are significant differences in biochemical and sensorial product characteristics between the two departments. The spatial patterns in product characteristics exhibit a non-random, regionally-changing structure that is related to those in the environmental data. The generated results provided ample evidence to support the application for regionally-based denominations of origin. Recommendations were derived to help mainstreaming the developed approach and thereby facilitate policy decisions for its use in other geographies and with other crops. Furthermore, the importance of systematic interdisciplinary institutional collaboration for large-scale denomination of origin projects was corroborated for food policy dialogue and decision making. It seems plausible that producers of high-quality products within other commodities are likely to follow the FNC in seeking denomination of origin for their goods. The presented approach is crucial to facilitate policy. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Castro Caicedo B.L.,University of Pretoria | Cortina Guerrero H.A.,National Coffee Research Center | Roux J.,University of Pretoria | Wingfield M.J.,University of Pretoria
Tropical Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the resistance to coffee leaf rust (CLR) caused by Hemileia vastatrix and to Ceratocystis canker (Cc) in coffee genotypes derived from crosses of Coffea arabica var. Caturra with accessions of C. canephora backcrossed to Caturra. Twenty-three F3BC1 progenies including C. arabica var. Caturra and var. Colombia as controls were established in a field experiment. CLR evaluations were made during five years of natural infection, using an incidence rating scale. For Cc, artificial stem inoculations were made with an isolate of Ceratocystis colombiana and the results were assessed after one year. The selection process also included agronomic aspects such as plant height, canopy diameter, number of branch pairs, yield and grain characteristics. Twenty progenies showed >70% of rust resistance. Twelve progenies exhibited >80% of Cc resistance, while no resistance was observed in either of the controls. Only three progenies performed well for all criteria, including resistance to both pathogens and agronomic characteristics. © by the Brazilian Phytopathological Society.


Neu A.-K.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering | Pleissner D.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering | Mehlmann K.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering | Schneider R.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2016

In this study, mucilage, a residue from coffee production, was investigated as substrate in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production. Mucilage was provided as liquid suspension consisting glucose, galactose, fructose, xylose and sucrose as free sugars (up to 60 g L-1), and used directly as medium in Bacillus coagulans batch fermentations carried out at 2 and 50 L scales. Using mucilage and 5 g L-1 yeast extract as additional nitrogen source, more than 40 g L-1 lactic acid was obtained. Productivity and yield were 4-5 g L-1 h-1 and 0.70-0.77 g lactic acid per g of free sugars, respectively, irrespective the scale. Similar yield was found when no yeast extract was supplied, the productivity, however, was 1.5 g L-1 h-1. Down-stream processing of culture broth, including filtration, electrodialysis, ion exchange chromatography and distillation, resulted in a pure lactic acid formulation containing 930 g L-1 l(+)-lactic acid. Optical purity was 99.8%. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Gartner G.A.L.,University of Caldas | McCouch S.R.,Cornell University | Moncada M.D.P.,National Coffee Research Center
Euphytica | Year: 2013

Coffee is globally one of the most important export crops and is a prominent part of the economy in more than 50 countries in Latin America, Africa and Asia. In Colombia, it has been the leading export commodity for more than a century. However, genetic research on coffee has been rather sparse and mainly focused on the two major cultivated species, Coffea arabica L. and C. canephora P., leaving unexplored the genetic potential in other species. In this study, an interspecific mapping population consisting of 101 F1 hybrid plants from a cross between the diploid species C. liberica and C. eugenioides was evaluated for genetic segregation at 618 molecular marker loci. Of these, 168 SSRs and two ESTs exhibited polymorphic patterns that allowed segregation analysis and genetic linkage estimations. A genetic map consisting of 146 co-dominant loci and 11 predicted linkage groups was constructed using the mapping software JoinMap 3.0. The conjoined maternal/paternal map length is 798.68 cM, has an average saturation density of 6.01 cM/interval, and covers an estimated 66-86 % of the diploid coffee genome. Approximately 24 % of loci had null alleles, and 23.5 % exhibited segregation distortion. Knowledge derived from this study has important applications for quantitative trait locus analysis and marker-assisted selection in Colombian coffee breeding programs. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Castro B.L.,University of Pretoria | Carreno A.J.,National Coffee Research Center | Galeano N.F.,National Coffee Research Center | Roux J.,University of Pretoria | And 2 more authors.
Australasian Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

The genus Rosellinia includes species that cause root rot on a wide range of herbaceous and woody hosts. In Colombia, these fungi cause serious diseases of potato, forest and fruit trees, as well as coffee plants. The aim of this study was to identify isolates of Rosellinia collected from coffee and other hosts using DNA sequence comparisons of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Pathogenicity tests were conducted on coffee seedlings to confirm the role of the collected species in coffee root disease. Twenty six isolates were obtained and these were grouped into two clades representing R. bunodes and R. pepo. Isolates from Coffea arabica, Hevea brasiliensis, Macadamia integrifolia, Psidium guajava and Theobroma cacao were identified as R. pepo, while R. bunodes was obtained only from coffee plants. Low levels of genetic variability were observed among isolates of the two species. Pathogenicity tests on coffee with R. bunodes resulted in 98 % seedling death in an average of 10 days, while R. pepo killed 54 % of inoculated seedlings in an average of 16 days confirming the compatibility of both species with this host. Pathogen characterization will be useful for further research in disease diagnosis, soil recovery and breeding for resistance. © 2013 Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc.

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