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Pena Quian Y.,National Clinical Research Center | Fernandez-Britto J.E.,Atherosclerosis Research and Reference Center | Bacallao J.,Atherosclerosis Research and Reference Center | Batista J.F.,National Clinical Research Center
MEDICC Review | Year: 2012

INTRODUCTION: Silent myocardial ischemia is frequent in type 2 diabetics, therefore, symptoms cannot be relied upon for diagnosis and followup in these patients. Various studies relate blood lipid levels to cardiovascular diseases, and several authors describe certain lipoproteins as independent predictors of ischemia. OBJECTIVE: Identify blood lipid levels that predict silent myocardial ischemia in a type 2 diabetic population in Havana. METHODS: From May 2005 through May 2009, assessment was done of 220 asymptomatic type 2 diabetics in ten polyclinics in Havana using laboratory tests and Single-Photon Emission-Computed Tomography, synchronized with electrocardiogram, known as gated SPECT (gSPECT). Coronary angiography was used for confirmation when gSPECT detected ischemia. Patients were classified into two groups: gSPECT positive and gSPECT negative. Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) were calculated for all variables and mean comparison tests were conducted. Classification trees were developed relating lipid values to gSPECT results, identifying optimal cutoff points for their use as indicators of silent myocardial ischemia in the total study population and for each sex separately. RESULTS: GSPECT found silent myocardial ischemia in 29.1% of those examined, and 68.4% of angiograms found multivessel disease. gSPECT-positive diabetics had higher levels of total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides (p < 0.05). HDL levels were lower in this group (p <0.05). Classification trees showed optimal cutoff points, indicators for silent ischemia, for: HDL ≤44 mg/dL, LDL >119.9 mg/dL, and triglycerides >107.2 mg/d; 80.4% of diabetics with these HDL and triglyceride values had ischemia. HDL was the most important normalized variable when the entire population was analyzed. Analysis by sex showed a greater percentage of silent ischemia in men (33.3%) than in women (24.8%). The most important normalized variables were LDL of >100.8 mg/dL for men and HDL of ≤44 mg/dL for women. CONCLUSIONS: A considerable percentage of the study population had silent myocardial ischemia. Type 2 diabetics with ischemia had higher levels of total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides. HDL levels were significantly lower in these patients. The association of low HDL with high triglycerides was a strong indicator of myocardial ischemia in type 2 diabetics without clinical cardiovascular signs.

Brand J.S.,Karolinska Institutet | Czene K.,Karolinska Institutet | Eriksson L.,Karolinska Institutet | Trinh T.,Karolinska Institutet | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT), little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density. Methods: We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using computer-assisted software. General linear models were used to assess the association between lifestyle factors and mammographic density and effect modification by body mass index (BMI) and HRT was studied. Results: Overall, alcohol intake was positively associated with percent mammographic density (P trend = 0.07). This association was modified by HRT use (P interaction = 0.06): increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing percent density in current HRT users (P trend = 0.01) but not in non-current users (P trend = 0.82). A similar interaction between alcohol and HRT was found for the absolute dense area, with a positive association being present in current HRT users only (P interaction = 0.04). No differences in mammographic density were observed across categories of smoking and physical activity, neither overall nor in stratified analyses by BMI and HRT use. Conclusions: Increasing alcohol intake is associated with an increase in mammography density, whereas smoking and physical activity do not seem to influence density. The observed interaction between alcohol and HRT may pose an opportunity for HRT users to lower their mammographic density and breast cancer risk. © 2013 Brand et al.

Saxena N.,National University of Singapore | Hartman M.,National University of Singapore | Yip C.-H.,University of Malaya | Bhoo-Pathy N.,National Clinical Research Center | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Introduction: Lymph node ratio (LNR, i.e. the ratio of the number of positive nodes to the total number of nodes excised) is reported to be superior to the absolute number of nodes involved (pN stage) in classifying patients at high versus low risk of death following breast cancer. The added prognostic value of LNR over pN in addition to other prognostic factors has never been assessed. Methods: All patients diagnosed with lymph node positive, non-metastatic invasive breast cancer at the National University Hospital (Singapore) and University of Malaya Medical Center (Kuala Lumpur) between 1990-2007 were included (n = 1589). Overall survival of the patients was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method for LNR [categorized as low (>0 and <0.2), intermediate (0.2-0.65) and high (>0.65-1)] and pN staging [pN1, pN2 and pN3]. Adjusted overall relative mortality risks associated with LNR and pN were calculated by Cox regression. The added prognostic value of LNR over pN was evaluated by comparing the discriminating capacity (as indicated by the c statistic) of two multivariate models, one including pN and one including LNR. Results: LNR was superior to pN in categorizing mortality risks for women ≥60 years, those with ER negative or grade 3 tumors. In combination with other factors (i.e. age, treatment, grade, tumor size and receptor status), substituting pN by LNR did not result in better discrimination of women at high versus low risk of death, neither for the entire cohort (c statistic 0.72 [0.70-0.75] and 0.73 [0.71-0.76] respectively for pN versus LNR), nor for the subgroups mentioned above. Conclusion: In combination with other prognosticators, substitution of pN by LNR did not provide any added prognostic value for South East Asian breast cancer patients. © 2012 Saxena et al.

Liu J.,Central South University | Song C.,Central South University | Song C.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Xiao Q.,Central South University | And 4 more authors.
Shock | Year: 2015

Caveolin-1 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We previously showed that fluorofenidone (FD), a novel pyridine agent, can attenuate bleomycin-induced experimental pulmonary fibrosis and restore the production of caveolin-1. In this study, we explore mainly whether caveolin-1 plays a critical role in the anti-pulmonary fibrosis effects of FD in vitro. The normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLFs) were cultured with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and then were treated with FD. Subsequently, NHLFs transfected with cav-1-siRNA were treated with TGF-β1 and/or FD. The expressions of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin, collagen I, caveolin-1, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), and phosphorylated P38 were measured by Western blot and/or real-time polymerase chain reaction. Fluorofenidone attenuated TGF-β1-induced expressions of α-SMA, fibronectin, and collagen I; inhibited phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and P38; and restored caveolin-1 protein expression but cannot increase caveolin-1 mRNA level in vitro. After caveolin-1 was silenced, FD could not downregulate TGF-β1-induced expressions of α-SMA, fibronectin, and collagen I or phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and P38. These studies demonstrate that FD, a potential antifibrotic agent, may attenuate TGF-β1-induced activation of NHLFs by restoring the expression of caveolin-1. © 2014 by the Shock Society.

Koh C.-H.,University of Malaya | Bhoo-Pathy N.,University of Malaya | Bhoo-Pathy N.,National Clinical Research Center | Bhoo-Pathy N.,Julius Center for Health science and Primary Care | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015

Peripheral blood-derived inflammation-based scores such as the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have recently been proposed as prognostic markers in solid tumours. Although evidence to support these markers as unfavourable prognostic factors is more compelling in gastrointestinal cancers, very little is known of their impact on breast cancer. We investigated the association between the NLR and PLR, and overall survival after breast cancer.Methods:Data from the University of Malaya Medical Centre Breast Cancer Registry was used. Of 2059 consecutive patients diagnosed from 2000 to 2008, we included 1435 patients with an available pre-treatment differential blood count (∼70%). Patients were stratified into quintiles of the NLR/PLR. Multivariable Cox regression was used to determine the independent prognostic significances of the NLR/PLR.Results:Compared with the first quintile of the NLR, women in quintile 5 were younger, had bigger tumours, nodal involvement, distant metastases and higher tumour grades. Higher NLR quintiles were significantly associated with poorer survival with a 5-year relative survival ratio (RSR) of 76.4% (95% CI: 69.6-82.1%) in quintile 1, 79.4% (95% CI: 74.4-83.7%) in quintile 2, 72.1% (95% CI: 66.3-77.3%) in quintile 3, 65.6% (95% CI: 59.8-70.8%) in quintile 4 and 51.1% (95% CI: 43.3-58.5%) in quintile 5. Following adjustment for demography, tumour characteristics, treatment and the PLR, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for quintile 5 vs quintile 1 was 1.50 (95% CI: 1.08-1.63); P trend =0.004. Results were unchanged when the NLR was analysed as a dichotomous variable using different cutoff points. Although patients in PLR quintile 5 had lower survival than in quintile 1 (5-year RSR: 53.2% (95% CI: 46.9-59.2%) vs 77.0% (95% CI: 70.9-82.2%)), this association was not significant after multivariable adjustment. However, a PLR >185 was significantly associated with poorer survival; adjusted HR: 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04-1.52).Conclusions:Both the NLR and PLR are independently associated with an increased risk of mortality in breast cancer. Their added value in the prognostication of breast cancer in clinical practice warrants investigation. © 2015 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved.

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