Taichung, Taiwan

National Chung Hsing University , colloquially known in Chinese as Xingda ,is a research-led comprehensive university in South District, Taichung, Taiwan. According to Ministry of Education rankings, it is the best university in central Taiwan.Currently, NCHU is among the four universities of Taiwan's Public Ivy - the Taiwan Comprehensive University System. Wikipedia.

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The present invention relates to a surface modification method for improving the hemocompatibility of biomedical metallic substrate, comprising: fixing a sulfur-containing monomolecular film on the surface of oxide layer of a biomedical metallic substrate by molecular self-assembly. The surface modification will improve the hydrophilicity and hemocompatibility of the biomedical metallic substrate in contact with the blood, and ensure that the biomedical metallic substrate is non-toxic to the endothelial cells.

Wu J.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Hung K.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
WCTE 2016 - World Conference on Timber Engineering | Year: 2016

This study investigates the effect of wood acetylation on the mechanical properties and creep resistance of wood-recycled polypropylene composites (WRPCs) using the time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP). The results revealed that the flexural and tensile strength of WRPCs increased with increasing weight percent gain (WPG) of acetylated wood particles up to 13%. Additionally, the TTSP-predicted creep compliance curve fit well with the longterm experimental data. The creep resistance of WRPCs with acetylated wood particles was greater than that of WRPCs with unmodified wood particles, especially for the WRPC with 13% WPG of acetylated wood particles.

Tsai M.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Li J.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Fan A.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Tsai P.-H.,National Chung Hsing University
Scripta Materialia | Year: 2017

One of the key issues in high-entropy alloys (HEAs) is the development of alloys that contains only simple solid solution (SSS) phases. Researchers have proposed various parametric models to predict SSS formation. However, incorrect predictions are not uncommon. Here, we investigate the main cause of these mispredictions. It is found that the premises of most existing models do not apply to some intermetallic phases. Hence, the models cannot distinguish alloys containing these intermetallics from alloys containing only SSSs. A possible solution to this issue is proposed. With this strategy, the accuracy of existing models can be evidently improved. © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc.

Kishida T.,University of California at Berkeley | Tsai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering | Year: 2017

Prediction models of shear wave velocity (Vs) based on standard penetration test (SPT) blow counts (N) are widely used in design practice. Recently, a Vs prediction model that uses multiple predictor variables (e.g., N and effective overburden stress) was suggested by several researchers to improve prediction capability. However, the application of these models to design practice is limited because calibrating the regression parameters for a site-specific condition is difficult because of multicollinearity in the model. This study describes the problem of this recently suggested Vs prediction model and proposes a calibration procedure to develop a site-specific model. The framework is based on conditional probability theory and can be applied to any site. Two application examples are presented to develop the site-specific model depending on data availabilities. The first application considers a site where only N are available from several borings, and the second application considers a site where both N and Vs are available from several locations. The examples show that the conditional probability approach is useful to obtain the site-specific Vs prediction model. © 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Chang Y.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Chiang Y.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
European Microwave Week 2016: "Microwaves Everywhere", EuMW 2016 - Conference Proceedings; 46th European Microwave Conference, EuMC 2016 | Year: 2016

A low-power K-band divide-by-5 injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) implemented in the 0.18-μm CMOS process technology is proposed in this paper. By utilizing a differential injected pair formed by cross-coupled transistors and a stacked cross-coupled pair architecture, the fourth order harmonic of the proposed ILFD is enhanced to realize divide-by-5 function without adopting an LC filter. Thus, its performances are improved, including the power consumption and the locking range without using tuning varactors. A built-in balun is adopted before the gate terminals of the injected transistors to generate the differential input signals. The input locking range of the proposed divide-by-5 ILFD is from 21.1 to 22.1 GHz under 0-dBm input power levels, corresponding to 1-GHz maximum locking range. The core circuit only consumes a 3.75 mW DC power from a 1.5-V supply. © 2016 EuMA.

Zhuang G.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Wey M.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Tseng H.-H.,Chung Shan Medical University
Journal of Membrane Science | Year: 2017

Three styrene-butadiene copolymer (SBC)-derived membranes were prepared using different polystyrene/polybutadiene (PS/PB) ratios, including a graft copolymer with 4 wt% PB (PS-4BR) and block copolymers with 55 and 70 wt% PB (PS-55BR and PS-70BR). The SBC-derived membranes were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); the CO2/N2 separation performances of the membranes were studied under long-term operation. The SBC-derived membranes adopted different microphase-separated structures, including spherical, lamellar and cylindrical structures for PS-4BR, PS-55BR and PS-70BR, respectively. This result indicated that the CO2 separation performance of the SBC-derived membranes was affected by the CO2 solubility in the PB domain and the crystalline PS domain in the microphase-separated structure. The cylindrical PS-70PB membrane that contained a γ crystalline PS domain showed a high CO2 permeability of 50–60 Barrer, with a CO2/N2 selectivity of 15. Moreover, after 28 days, the cylindrical PS-70BR membrane showed greater stability in CO2 separation performance compared to the pure PS and PB membranes due to the high stability of the microphase-separated structure. © 2017

BACKGROUND:: Growth arrest and DNA-damage–inducible protein 45β reactivates methylation-silenced neural plasticity-associated genes through DNA demethylation. However, growth arrest and DNA-damage–inducible protein 45β–dependent demethylation contributes to neuropathic allodynia-associated spinal plasticity remains unclear. METHODS:: Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats (654 out of 659) received a spinal nerve ligation or a sham operation with or without intrathecal application of one of the following: growth arrest and DNA-damage–inducible protein 45β messenger RNA–targeted small interfering RNA, lentiviral vector expressing growth arrest and DNA-damage–inducible protein 45β, Ro 25–6981 (an NR2B-bearing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist), or KN-93 (a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II antagonist) were used for behavioral measurements, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, dot blots, detection of unmodified cytosine enrichment at cytosine-phosphate-guanine site, chromatin immunoprecipitation quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, and slice recordings. RESULTS:: Nerve ligation-enhanced growth arrest and DNA-damage–inducible protein 45β expression (n = 6) in ipsilateral dorsal horn neurons accompanied with behavioral allodynia (n = 7). Focal knockdown of growth arrest and DNA-damage–inducible protein 45β expression attenuated ligation-induced allodynia (n = 7) by reducing the binding of growth arrest and DNA-damage–inducible protein 45β to the voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel 3.2 subunit promoter (n = 6) that decreased expression of and current mediated by the voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel 3.2 subunit (both n = 6). In addition, NR2B-bearing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II act in an upstream cascade to increase growth arrest and DNA-damage–inducible protein 45β expression, hence enhancing demethylation at the voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel 3.2 subunit promoter and up-regulating voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel 3.2 subunit expression. Intrathecal administration of Ro 25–6981, KN-93, or a growth arrest and DNA-damage–inducible protein 45β–targeting small interfering RNA (n = 6) reversed the ligation-induced enrichment of unmodified cytosine at the voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel 3.2 subunit promoter by increasing the associated 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine levels. CONCLUSIONS:: By converting 5-formylcytosine or 5-carboxylcytosine to unmodified cytosine, the NR2B-bearing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, or growth arrest and DNA-damage–inducible protein 45β pathway facilitates voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel 3.2 subunit gene demethylation to mediate neuropathic allodynia. Copyright © by 2017, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Lin K.-Y.A.,National Chung Hsing University | Zhang Z.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2017

While Oxone can be activated by catalysts for efficient generation of sulfate radicals, most of catalysts are transition metals, which could lead to secondary pollution and relatively high costs. Thus, non-metal catalysts consisting of earth-abundant elements are promising metal-free alternatives for activating Oxone. As graphitic carbon nitride (CN) has been demonstrated to activate Oxone under visible light irradiation, sulfur-doping CN (SCN) is expected to exhibit a relatively high catalytic activity for activating Oxone. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate SCN for activating Oxone. Additionally, SCN should be prepared conveniently to reduce usage of associated reagents during the doping. To this end, a one-step preparation method is adopted in this study to convert trithiocyanuric acid to SCN. The as-prepared SCN shows the morphology of crumpled micro-bags with porous surfaces, enabling it to exhibit a much higher surface area (86.8 m2 g−1) than typical CN (ca. 10 m2 g−1). As Rhodamine B (RB) decolorization was employed as a model test to evaluate sulfate radicals generated from activation of Oxone, SCN also exhibited a much higher catalytic activity (rate constant (k1) = 0.107 min−1) to activate Oxone than CN (k1 = 0.037 min−1). SCN-activated Oxone for RB decolorization was relatively favorable at elevated temperatures as well as neutral conditions; it also remained quite effective even in the presence of NaCl. Through examining effects of radical scavengers, the RB mechanism can be primarily attributed to sulfate radicals. SCN was also reusable to activate Oxone for RB decolorization over 6 cycles. These features indicate that SCN is an easy-to-prepare and promisingly effective non-metal catalyst to activate Oxone. © 2016

Lin K.-Y.A.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen B.-J.,National Chung Hsing University
Chemosphere | Year: 2017

A Prussian blue analogue, cobalt hexacyanoferrate Co3[Fe(CN)6]2, was used for the first time to prepare a magnetic carbon/cobalt/iron (MCCI) nanocomposite via one-step carbonization of Co3[Fe(CN)6]2. The resulting MCCI consisted of evenly-distributed cobalt and cobalt ferrite in a porous carbonaceous matrix, making it an attractive magnetic heterogeneous catalyst for activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS). As Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation was adopted as a model test for evaluating activation capability of MCCI, factors influencing RhB degradation were thoroughly examined, including MCCI and PMS dosages, temperature, pH, salt and radical scavengers. A higher MCCI dosage noticeably facilitated the degradation kinetics, whereas insufficient PMS dosage led to ineffective degradation. RhB degradation by MCCI-activated PMS was much more favorable at high temperatures and under neutral conditions. The presence of high concentration of salt slightly interfered with RhB degradation by MCCI-activated PMS. Through examining effects of radical scavengers, RhB degradation by MCCI-activated PMS can be primarily attributed to sulfate radicals instead of a combination of sulfate and hydroxyl radicals. Compared to Co3O4, a typical catalyst for PMS activation, MCCI also exhibited a higher catalytic activity for activating PMS. In addition, MCCI was proven as a durable and recyclable catalyst for activating PMS over multiple cycles without efficiency loss and significant changes of chemical characteristics. These features demonstrate that MCCI, simply prepared from a one-step carbonization of Co3[Fe(CN)6]2 is a promising heterogeneous catalyst for activating PMS to degrade organic pollutants. © 2016

Cheng Y.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Lu C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Yen G.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2017

The gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa provides the first protective barrier for digested food and xenobiotics, which are easily attacked by toxic substances. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including aspirin, diclofenac, indomethacin, and ketoprofen, are widely used in clinical medicine, but these drugs may cause oxidative stress, leading to GI damage such as ulcers. Lansoprazol, omeprazole, and other clinical drugs are widely used to treat duodenal and gastric ulcers and have been shown to have multiple biological functions, such as antioxidant activity and the ability to upregulate antioxidant enzymes in vivo. Therefore, the reduction of oxidative stress may be an effective curative strategy for preventing and treating nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced ulcers of the GI mucosa. Phytochemicals, such as dietary phenolic compounds, phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, flavonoids, gingerols, carotenes, and organosulfur, are common antioxidants in fruits, vegetables, and beverages. A large amount of evidence has demonstrated that natural phytochemicals possess bioactivity and potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial benefits, and they can prevent digestive disease processes. In this review, we summarize the literature on phytochemicals with biological effects, such as angiogenic, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antiulceration effects, and their related mechanisms are also discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Fann K.-J.,National Chung Hsing University | Su J.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University
METAL 2016 - 25th Anniversary International Conference on Metallurgy and Materials, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2016

In this study, a commercially acquired Ni-rich (50.0~50.8at% Ni) Ni-Ti shape memory alloy sheet having the thickness of 0.9 mm was cut in the shape of a circle with a diameter of 36 mm and placed in a heated chamber at 800°C for one hour and then quenched in water, which served as a solid solution process affiliated to an annealing process. This sheet blank was then stretch formed with a hemispherical punch of 30 mm in diameter to a stroke 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm, respectively. After removing the punch, the formed part was then put into a furnace for aging treatment at 300°C for one hour and subsequently quenched in water. As a result, for smaller punch strokes the sheets could not be well formed, because the maximum strain presented in the alloy was little bit over the elastic region. After the aging process, the heights of the formed sheets were extra shortened because of a further springback. The springback after stretch forming and during aging can be compensated by modifying the punch radius, so that a tolerable shape with shape memory effect can be achieved with only one die set. Furthermore, if the sheet part was immersed in liquid nitrogen basin to have its martensitic phase and compressed into a flat shape, the original shape of the part can be fully recovered by returning to room temperature.

Ho C.-T.B.,National Chung Hsing University | Yang J.-M.D.,National Chung Hsing University
International Journal of Mobile Communications | Year: 2017

Mobile commerce is supported by mobile technologies called applications (apps) installed on mobile devices. This study uses QR code, one of the most compelling apps for mobile commerce, as research context example attempts to explore factors that affecting users' mobile technology usage intentions. We use the theory of reasoned action (TRA) as a research framework. Structural equation modelling analysis was conducted using SmartPLS 3.0 with 172 samples. All of the hypotheses are supported by significant path coefficients and high levels of R2. While this appears to be a perfect result, it does not explain phenomena that the authors observed during sampling procedures and could not by itself solve the problems that marketers face in their promotion of mobile QR code usage. Therefore, the study was extended through qualitative analysis. We determined that there are four reasons that individuals cannot scan QR codes and six factors in limited usage, which explain customers' scanning willingness and are crucial to future practice. Finally, this paper discusses practical and academic implications and recommendations based on these findings. © Copyright 2017 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Lin K.-Y.A.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen B.-J.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2017

Extensive usage of caffeine (CAF) as a medicine and additives in beverages has led to increasing presence of CAF in wastewater and even drinking water. To remove CAF, peroxymonosulfate (PMS), is adopted to generate sulfate radical to degrade CAF in water. To facilitate PMS activation, a magnetic carbon-supported cobalt (MC/Co) hybrid material is prepared via carbonization of a cobalt-containing Prussian blue analogue framework (Co3[Co(CN)6]2). The resultant MC/Co contains Co and Co3O4 nanoparticles supported on a carbon matrix, making it an attractive magnetic catalyst to activate PMS for degrading CAF. MC/Co-activated PMS was shown to degrade CAF much more effectively than PMS and Co3O4-activated PMS. Parameters affecting CAF degradation by MC/Co-activated PMS were also examined, including MC/Co and PMS concentrations, temperature, pH, and salt. Effects of radical quenchers were also examined to provide insights into the CAF degradation mechanism. MC/Co-activated PMS was much more favorable at higher temperatures than ambient temperature, and under neutral conditions. Nevertheless, the presence of concentrated NaCl noticeably hindered CAF degradation. Through examining effects of radical quenchers, the mechanism of CAF degradation by MC/Co-activated PMS was attributed primarily to sulfate radicals and hydroxyl radicals to a lesser extent. The degradation products of CAF by MC/Co-activated PMS were also identified and a possible degradation pathway is proposed. MC/Co can activate PMS over multiple cycles without loss of catalytic activity. These findings demonstrate that MC/Co, simply prepared from simple carbonization of Co3[Co(CN)6]2 can be a promising heterogeneous catalyst for activating PMS to degrade CAF. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Kuo C.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Wang Y.-T.,National Chung Hsing University
Advanced Structured Materials | Year: 2017

The temporal variations of the spreading diameter, in relation to the dynamic contact angle, are measured by a high speed camera while the droplet impacts onto dry solid surfaces of different surface characteristics. Immediately after impingement at high impact Reynolds numbers, there always exists a thin lamella already attached to the surface, leading to an acute initial contact angle. The dynamic contact angle increases dramatically and attains a maximum value before the maximum spreading diameter is reached. The dynamic contact angle decreases substantially toward the end of the receding stage; and will experience large fluctuation if the rebounding and the oscillating stages exist. The contact angle will eventually approach the equilibrium contact angle after completely wetted on the surfaces. During the kinematics stage, the spreading speeds are proportional to (t*)-0.5. The spreading speed experiences a rapid and continuous deceleration and may be related to the non-regular variations of the dynamic contact angle before the maximum spreading diameter is reached. The receding speeds of the liquid film depend strongly on the surface characters. The more hydrophobic the surface is, the higher the receding speed of the liquid film. © Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2017.

Tsai M.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Fan A.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Wang H.-A.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2017

Strengthening high-entropy alloys (HEAs) by precipitates or second phases is a very appealing direction. However, knowledge regarding the relationship between composition and intermetallic phase type in HEAs is extremely rare. In this paper, ten systematically alloyed CoCrFeNiX alloys, with X being mainly refractory elements, were used as a model system to study how alloying affects the type of major intermetallic phase. It was found that atomic size difference is a dominating factor in the selection of intermetallic phase type. The CoCrFeNiX alloys form a particular major intermetallic structure only when the atomic size ratio (ASR) of the alloy corresponds to the allowable ASR of that structure. This behavior is also observed in other HEAs with similar compositions. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Shen Y.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Wang W.-K.,Da - Yeh University | Horng R.-H.,National Chung Hsing University
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society | Year: 2017

Zinc gallate (ZnGaO) epilayers were grown on a c-plane sapphire substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and fabricated into metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). The ZnGaO MOSFETs exhibited a complete channel pinch-off of the drain current for VGS < ?4.43 V, high off-state breakdown voltage of 378 V, high ION/IOFF ratio of 106, and low gate leakage current.

Wang F.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Tsai C.-E.,National Chung Hsing University
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics | Year: 2017

A patterned sapphire substrate with a submicron hole array structure was used to fabricate ZnO nanorod (NR) array by low-temperature hydrothermal method. A ZnO seed layer was spin-coated using sol-gel process and then etched to form separated seed islands. Different concentrations of zinc acetate in the hydrothermal solution were performed for ZnO NR synthesis to investigate ultraviolet (UV) photo-response properties. The ZnO NRs synthesized on the patterned substrates were oriented at various inclined angles. The diameter of the NRs increased and their surface-to-volume ratio decreased as the concentrations of zinc acetate increased from 0.01 to 0.04 M. X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence analyses showed that the NRs synthesized at a higher zinc acetate concentration had better crystal quality and fewer defects. The current-voltage characteristics of the ZnO NR-based metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors exhibited a linear relationship, suggesting an Ohmic contact between NRs and Al electrodes. The UV response, defined by the resistance ratio (Rdark/RUV), of the photodetectors increased with the decreasing zinc acetate concentration from 0.04 to 0.01 M. Compared to traditional vertically aligned NR array on plain substrates, the proposed ZnO NR-based photodetector on the patterned substrates achieved improved UV responses, and the average increment for samples of 0.01-0.04 M was 145%. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

Yang K.-M.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of oleo science | Year: 2017

Algae oil and fish oil are n-3 PUFA mainstream commercial products. The various sources for the stability of n-3 PUFA oxidation are influenced by the fatty acid composition, extraction and refined processing. In this study, the oil stability index (OSI) occurs within 2.3 to 7.6 hours with three different n-3 PUFA rich oil. To set the OSI in the Rancimat test as the oil stability limit and observed various degrees of oxidation (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125%). The volatile oxidation compounds were analyzed via headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and GC/MS. We detected 51 volatile compound variations during the oxidation, which were composed of aldehydes, hydrocarbons, cyclic compounds, alcohols, benzene compounds, ketones, furans, ester and pyrrolidine. The off-flavor characteristics can be strongly influenced by the synergy effects of volatile oxidation compounds. Chemometric analysis (PCA and AHC) was applied to identify the sensitive oxidation marker compounds, which included a (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal appropriate marker, via lipid oxidation in the n-3 PUFA rich oil.

Su E.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Huang B.-S.,Taiwan Research Institute | Wey M.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University
ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering | Year: 2017

Real electroplating wastewater/liquid containing disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Na2EDTA) and nickel (Ni), a platinum/nitrogen-doped TiO2/strontium titanate-TiO2 tube (a solar light-responsive material), and simulated sunlight were used as the photogenerated hole scavenger, photocatalyst, and light source, respectively, in the development and evaluation of a waste-to-energy system. Effects of the wastewater/liquid source, pH, EDTA concentration, EDTA/Ni molar ratio, EDTA/photocatalyst weight ratio, and the degree of Ni removal on the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution efficiency are discussed. Our results indicate that the hydrogen evolution efficiency is affected by these factors in the following order: EDTA/Ni molar ratio > EDTA/photocatalyst weight ratio > pH value. When the initial EDTA/Ni molar ratio and EDTA/photocatalyst weight ratios were 30 and 0.7, respectively, economically optimal hydrogen evolution efficiency (480.0 μmol/h/g) was achieved; when the waste liquid was further treated for Ni removal, improved and stable hydrogen evolution was achieved. These results indicate that our hydrogen evolution system increases the recycling value of the electroplating wastewater/liquids and reduces the pollution caused by their high heavy-metal concentrations and the species that increase their chemical oxygen demand. © 2017 American Chemical Society.

Chang J.-C.,National Taiwan University | Tseng S.-H.,National Taiwan University | Lai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Lai C.-C.,China Medical University at Taichung | And 3 more authors.
Nature Chemistry | Year: 2017

Daisy chains (DCs) are garlands of flowers that can be worn as bracelets and necklaces. As a result of their beautiful interlocked structures and possible muscle-like motions, cyclic molecular DCs ([cn]DCs, where n is the number of repeating units) have long been attractive synthetic targets for supramolecular chemists. Herein we report artificial molecular muscles that-unlike one-dimensional (1D) biological muscles-contract and stretch in 2D or 3D. These systems have the structures of [c3]- and [c4]DCs with subcomponents that operate as molecular switches, powered through the addition or removal of Zn2+ ions to impart muscle-like behaviour. We assembled these [c3]- and [c4]DCs selectively by exploiting structural rigidity, coordination geometries and bond rotational barriers that disfavoured the formation of smaller homologues. The switching phenomena of our [c3]- and [c4]DCs resulted in the contracted molecular muscles stretching by approximately 23 and 36%, respectively, comparable to the value (27%) for linear biological muscles. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.

He C.-R.,National Chung Hsing University | Kuo Y.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Li S.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2017

Napier grass is a potential feedstock for biofuel production because of its strong adaptability and wide availability. Compositional analysis has been done on Napier grass which was collected from a local area of Taiwan. By comparing acid- and alkali-pretreatment, it was found that the alkali-pretreatment process is favorable for Napier grass. An overall glucose yield of 0.82 g/g-glucosetotal can be obtained with the combination of alkali-pretreatment (2.5 wt% NaOH, 8 wt% sample loading, 121 °C, and a reaction time of 40 min) and enzymatic hydrolysis (40 FPU/g-substrate). Semi-simultaneous saccharification fermentation (sSSF) was carried out, where enzymatic hydrolysis and ABE fermentation were operated in the same batch. It was found that after 24-h hydrolysis, followed by 96-h fermentation, the butanol and acetone concentrations reached 9.45 and 4.85 g/L, respectively. The butanol yield reached 0.22 g/g-sugarglucose+xylose. Finally, the efficiency of butanol production from Napier grass was calculated at 31%. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Song J.-M.,National Chung Hsing University | Hsiao C.-H.,National Chung Hsing University
2016 IEEE CPMT Symposium Japan, ICSJ 2016 | Year: 2016

The combination of excellent electrical conductivity (only 6% less than Ag) and low cost makes copper a good selection for interconnect materials. However, rapid oxidation of Cu nano particles is a fatal demerit. In order to improve the oxidation resistance, Cu-Ag composite particles are developed for the bonding and interconnect applications in this study. To cut the cost and realized mass production, we develop Cu@Ag core-shell submicron particles using commercial copper oxide particles. A low temperature reduction method has been successfully developed, which can transform copper oxide particles to copper particles efficiently (at 250°C for 30 minutes) without aggregation and coarsening. The reduced copper particles are subsequently electroless-plated to form Cu@Ag core-shell particles with continuous Ag shell. TGA analytical results and in situ synchrotron radiation XRD patterns both suggest that Ag coated Cu particles show improved anti-oxidation ability. Mixed with Ag submicron particles obtained from thermal spray pyrolysis, Cu/Ag composite pastes are applied to achieve Cu to Cu bonding. Under a reductive atmosphere, the electrical resistivity of the sintered composite pastes reaches 10.4 μΩ · cm Through adjusting the bonding temperature, load and holding time, the optimal conditions can be suggested. Under the bonding pressure of 10MPa at 275°C for 30 min, the shear strength of the joints reaches 32. 7MPa, and it remains 28.2 MPa as the bonding pressure is reduced to 5 MPa. The results of mechanical tests demonstrate that the joints thus formed had excellent shear strength at high temperatures and excellent reliability subjected to high temperature storage at 250°C and thermal cycling ranged from-65 °C∼150 °C. © 2016 IEEE.

Ciou C.,National Chung Hsing University | Liang C.,National Chung Hsing University
Chemosphere | Year: 2017

Nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs) such as 1,3-dinitrobenzene (1,3-DNB) contain the nitrogroup (-NO2), in which the N with a +III oxidation state accepts electrons. Water soluble ascorbic acid (AsA) at elevated pH produces electron transfer and governs the electron-donating pathway. The influence of the NaOH/AsA molar ratio on the degradation of 1,3-DNB was investigated. Using 0.21–2 M NaOH and 20–100 mM AsA, nearly complete 1,3-DNB removals (90–100%) were achieved within 0.5 h. On the basis of intermediates identified using GC/MS, the reduction pathways of 1,3-DNB can be categorized into step-by-step electron transfer, and condensation routes. A higher NaOH/AsA molar ratio would result in relatively higher AsA decomposition, promote the condensation route into the formation of azo- and azoxy-compounds, and ultimately reduce 1,3-DNB to 1,3-phenylenediamine. Contaminated soil flushing using 500 mM NaOH/100 mM AsA revealed that 1,3-DNB was completely degraded within 2 h. Based on these test results, the alkaline AsA treatment method is a potential remediation process for NACs contaminated soils. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Han P.,National Chung Hsing University | Hsieh T.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Liu Y.-L.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics and Image Science, and Vision | Year: 2017

A correspondence relationship between space and wavenumber for fully spatially coherent uniform monochromatic and polychromatic light in near- and far-field diffraction is fully illustrated, and it is used to study a phenomenon called the Fresnel zone spectra, which is verified experimentally. The spectra can be filtered or manipulated by moving the detection position relative to Fresnel zone plate along the optical axis. © 2017 Optical Society of America.

Shen W.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Su H.-N.,National Chung Hsing University
PICMET 2016 - Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology: Technology Management For Social Innovation, Proceedings | Year: 2016

Industrial innovation based on intellectual property is a key process for creating competitive advantage in this globalized environment of knowledge economy. IP as a way of protecting innovation is becoming essential for both commercial and strategic objectives. Therefore, it is of importance to understand the global patent family portfolio which has been barely investigated systematically. The objective of this study is to measure degree of IP globalization based on different type of patent families defined in literatures. Also, it is observed that areas with extensive patent family coverages are consistent to industries or countries where IP is rigorously practiced for commercial or strategic purposes. Management implication are discussed in this paper to suggest a systematic way of how patent family can be analyzed to understand the globalized industrial innovation. © 2016 Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology, Inc.

Hsu S.-P.,National Chung Hsing University
2016 European Control Conference, ECC 2016 | Year: 2016

In this paper the controllability issues of the single-leader multi-agent systems modelled with graphs are considered. Under mild conditions, the author shows that the system that implements the consensus policy is conditionally controllable if the underlying graph has exactly two vertices with the same degree. The controllability is ensured if either one of these two vertices is selected as the leader to receive the control signals. © 2016 EUCA.

Su H.-N.,National Chung Hsing University
PICMET 2016 - Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology: Technology Management For Social Innovation, Proceedings | Year: 2016

The integration of humanity and digital technology has been becoming a new approach for social science research or even gradually forming a new discipline in academy. To understand currently developed knowledge structure of 'Digital Humanity', this study utilized keyword analysis and social network analysis on investigating scientific papers published in the field of 'Digital Humanity'. The methodology used in this study is capable of creating three-dimensional 'Research focus parallelship network' and 'Keyword Co-occurrence Network', together with two-dimensional knowledge map. The networks and knowledge maps can be depicted differently by choosing different information as network actor, i.e. country, institute, paper and keyword, to reflect knowledge structures form macro, meso, to micro-levels. The quantitative exploration provides a way to visualize and assess the development of 'Digital Humanity' to encourage the formation of this emerging research field. © 2016 Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology, Inc.

Chen I.Y.-J.,National Chung Hsing University | Lu T.-J.,National Chung Hsing University
PICMET 2016 - Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology: Technology Management For Social Innovation, Proceedings | Year: 2016

The Internet of Things are thought to be the third wave of IT-driven competition, which is expected to be a much bigger revolution than the past two waves, computer and the Internet. As IoT involve multiple technologies, and intellectual property rights (IPRs) are especially important for industries involving multiple technologies, firms shall develop a proper IPRs strategy to gain the rent that a firm deserves. © 2016 Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology, Inc.

Su H.-N.,National Chung Hsing University
PICMET 2016 - Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology: Technology Management For Social Innovation, Proceedings | Year: 2016

International R&D collaboration is perceived as important R&D strategy to obtain complementary resources, learn from the partner as well as sharing risks and costs. Previous studies suggested that international R&D collaboration has positive impact but the impact investigated in literature are either not clearly defined or largely focused on business or technological impact. This study attempts to investigate social and legal impacts of international R&D collaboration by analyzing East Asian collaborative patents with multiple assignee countries from the perspectives of social network theory as well as cross-border patent infringement probability. It is found that international R&D collaboration has positive influence on both social and legal impacts. The evolving pattern shows that China and Taiwan are the most prolific and fastest-growing patenting countries. Also, Taiwan is the most important partner country in East Asia's internationalization of R&D. Two important contributions of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) this study defines social and legal impacts based on which the dynamics of East Asia's international R&D collaboration can be obtained, 2) the legal impact defined in this study can be used to evaluate patent value as well as evaluate the quality of R&D partnership in East Asia. © 2016 Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology, Inc.

Lee P.-I.,National Chung Hsing University | Su H.-N.,National Chung Hsing University
PICMET 2016 - Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology: Technology Management For Social Innovation, Proceedings | Year: 2016

Patent indicators are increasingly used to assess competitive advantage or technology development trends for innovation studies. There are a number of patent indicators proposed in the literature to access such technology-based innovativeness. However, most of the studies arbitrarily select patent indicators for their investigations without optimizing the choice of indicators. Only a limited researchers attempt to classify patent indicators to assist the selection of indicators for diverse research objectives. In this paper, a novel framework structure is provided to frame patent indicators accepted in scientific literature after extensive review on patent related journal papers. The framework provides insights on comprehensive correlations as well as management implications of obtainable patent indicators. It is expected that this framework can be served as a channel for innovation studies to uncover much wider and systematic insights from the application of patent indicators. © 2016 Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology, Inc.

Ding P.-F.,Huaqiao University | Han P.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Optics (United Kingdom) | Year: 2017

A polarization control method using crystal birefringence is suggested to manipulate polychromatic light. This scheme can be used with narrower bandwidth to produce various spectral effects, such as a notch filter, a flat top, and triangle-type, nipple-type, and central-frequency-dominant distributions. A modulated spectrum with greater bandwidth can be used as an optical frequency ruler, and phenomena called complementary spectra are also proposed, where the two spectral distributions, produced by rotating the polarizer, complement each other in the sense that the peaks and valleys in one spectrum are the reverse in the other. These results benefit the controlling of the spectral shape and the measurement of an unknown optical frequency. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Chung Y.-K.,National Chung Hsing University | Chung Y.-K.,Aqua Fairy Biotechnology Company Ltd | Lin C.-C.,National Changhua University of Education
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

The collective egress of social insects is important in dangerous situations such as natural disasters or enemy attacks. Some studies have described the phenomenon of symmetry breaking in ants, with two exits induced by a repellent. However, whether symmetry breaking occurs under high temperature conditions, which are a common abiotic stress, remains unknown. In our study, we deposited a group of Polyrhachis dives ants on a heated platform and counted the number of escaping ants with two identical exits. We discovered that ants asymmetrically escaped through two exits when the temperature of the heated platform was >32.75°C. The degree of asymmetry increased linearly with the temperature of the platform. Furthermore, the higher the temperature of heated platform was, the more ants escaped from the heated platform. However, the number of escaping ants decreased for 3 min when the temperature was higher than the critical thermal limit (39.46°C), which is the threshold for ants to endure high temperature without a loss of performance. Moreover, the ants tended to form small groups to escape from the thermal stress. A preparatory formation of ant grouping was observed before they reached the exit, indicating that the ants actively clustered rather than accidentally gathered at the exits to escape. We suggest that a combination of individual and grouping ants may help to optimize the likelihood of survival during evacuation. © 2017 Chung, Lin. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Suebsaiprom P.,Kasetsart University | Lin C.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Engkaninan A.,National Chung Hsing University
Control Engineering Practice | Year: 2017

Swimming, turning, and whip-sweeping propulsion for carangiform locomotion of a fish robot are investigated by means of a 4-link planar tail and an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV)-like model. It is observed that excellent acceleration occurs when a whip sweeping behavior has been applied to the fish tail. The forward speed can even increases twice to the nominal swimming via the simulation study. The efficient movement is thus incorporated to the fish robot for agile movement. The robot's swimming patterns realize the effect in terms of the forward swimming, turning swimming, acceleration increasing, descended swimming, ascended swimming, depth regulating, and self-stabilization. Verification is accomplished by incorporating the 4-link planar tail, AUV-like model, and a two degree-of-freedom (DOF) barycenter mechanism. The four-link planar tail and 2-DOF barycenter mechanism act, respectively, as the thrust generator and stabilizing actuator for the fish robot. Sliding mode control (SMC) has been applied for three-dimensional (3D) trajectory tracking. Simulation results illustrate satisfactory performances of the fish robot in terms of the fish-like behaviors and maneuverability, which are due to the consequence of the mimicked predator-fish behaviors and performance robustness of the SMC for trajectory tracking under ocean current perturbations and modeling uncertainties. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Wang C.-W.,National Chung Hsing University
44th Annual Conference of the European Society for Engineering Education - Engineering Education on Top of the World: Industry-University Cooperation, SEFI 2016 | Year: 2016

Imagination and creativity are important factors of design performance, but few research exam imagination and creativity on design performance simultaneously. This study attempts to examine imagination and creativity toward design performance in the front and in the final stage of concepts generation. The subjects of the study were 544 students in pairs who were participants of the two design contests. Results showed that imagination and creativity all have positive effects on design performance. Imagination affects the front and creativity affects the final stage of design performance. This study shows that imagination and creativity should be important on design education. © 2016, European Society for Engineering Education (SEFI). All rights reserved.

Hsieh C.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin S.-K.,National Chung Hsing University
Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions | Year: 2017

This paper discusses the feasibility of using the impact-echo method (IE method) to evaluate the deterioration of near-surface mounted carbon fiber reinforced polymer (NSM CFRP) strengthening under outdoor exposure. In NSM CFRP strengthening materials, CFRP bars are embedded in pre-cut grooves on the surface of reinforced concrete members and the grooves are filled with epoxy. Prolonged outdoor exposure reduces the bonding strength of epoxy and generates debonding flaws at epoxy–concrete interfaces, preventing CFRP bars from fully exerting their material strength and inhibiting the reinforcement effectiveness of NSM CFRP. The IE method based on the principle of stress wave propagation was adopted in this study as a nondestructive technique for detecting debonding flaws at epoxy–concrete interfaces caused by the prolonged outdoor exposure of the NSM CFRP strengthening members. Firstly, the IE tests were conducted on the NSM CFRP beams without outdoor exposure. The IE spectra showed high-amplitude peaks at the dominant frequencies associated with the cross sectional mode of vibration of the NSM CFRP beams. Subsequently, the strengthening surfaces of the NSM CFRP beams were exposed to direct sunlight under outdoor environments. The IE and loading tests were conducted when the beams were exposed to the outdoor environment for 4, 8, 12, and 48 months. The experimental results indicated that prolonged outdoor exposure generated the debonding flaws at the epoxy–concrete interfaces and the IE method can be used to detect the interfacial debonding by identifying the decrease in the dominant frequencies. For a NSM CFRP beam with debonding interfaces, the result obtained from loading test revealed a decrease in the load-carrying capacity due to damages at the epoxy–concrete interfaces resulting in the inability of the CFRP bars to fully exert their material strength. Therefore, the IE method is applicable for assessing the deterioration of the NSM CFRP strengthening members under prolonged outdoor exposure. © 2016, RILEM.

Kishida T.,University of California at Berkeley | Tsai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Geotechnical and Geophysical Site Characterisation, ISC 2016 | Year: 2016

Prediction models of shear wave velocity (Vs) based on the standard penetration test (SPT) blow counts (N) are widely used in design practice. However, application of these models is limited because these models are typically ranged between regions. Moreover, it is difficult to calibrate the regression parameters for a site specific condition if multicollinearity exists in the model. This paper proposes a calibration procedure for developing a site specific Vs prediction model. The framework is based on conditional probability theory by developing correlations of model parameters from a global database. An application example is presented to develop the site specific Vs prediction model based on the available local N measurements. The framework of the conditional probability theory provides the rational approach to calibrate the site specific Vs prediction model. © 2016 Australian Geomechanics Society.

Chou C.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen K.-T.,National Chung Hsing University
Proceedings - 2016 International Computer Symposium, ICS 2016 | Year: 2016

Finite element method (FEM) must be created the element mesh, it is very tedious and time-consuming. A novel meshless method doesn't require generating the element mesh, it reduces a large amount of computational and human time. The shape parameter plays a key role of meshless methods, the authors usually choose the shape parameter by trial and error or some other ad-hoc means. This study will propose LOOCV-GRBFCM to choose a 'GOOD' shape parameter and solve problems automatically and practically. Performance evaluations will also be presented. We hope these results to support useful suggestions. © 2016 IEEE.

Chen C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Tsai J.-L.,National Chung Hsing University
Future Generation Computer Systems | Year: 2017

With the advent of the two-day weekend and improvements in the public transit system, people have begun to focus on leisure activities. When the YouBike public bicycle system was installed in the city of Taichung, Taiwan, it created a convenient transportation system network that was set up perfectly for a tremendous impact on the local tourism industry. This has happened in parallel with the development and proliferation of smartphones and wireless networks. The functions of mobile applications ("apps") have become more powerful over time, allowing people to access travel information and share their experiences almost instantaneously. Since a smartphone's positioning system can be used to provide more personalized information and services, the development trend is heading toward location-based services (LBSs) that can bring the app's functionality closer to the needs of the user.This study develops a personalized location-based mobile tourism application (PLMTA) for travel planning. The PLMTA combines hybrid filtering technology with the ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm to make more efficient customized tourism recommendations. It allows users to more effectively search through travel information and arrange their trip. This study also integrates the technology acceptance model (TAM) and the information system success model (ISSM) to present a research model that explores users' intention to use the PLMTA. The questionnaire survey method is used to collect our data, and the hypotheses are tested via structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that information quality, perceived ease of use, and perceived usefulness significantly affect the intention to use PLMTA, while information quality and perceived convenience are found to have an influence on perceived usefulness. Information quality, system quality, and perceived convenience are found to significantly affect perceived ease of use, which consequently affects the intention to use the system. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Hsueh P.-W.,National Chung Hsing University | Li K.-R.,National Chung Hsing University
Zootaxa | Year: 2017

Following a recent report on two new species of Thelepus for the Taiwan, we describe two more new species, T. hemeiensis sp. nov. and T. wuchiensis sp. nov., for the genus. In addition, a new species of the Family Trichobranchidae is also de-scribed, Terebellides baliensis sp. nov., which was collected from an offshore monitoring survey in northwestern Taiwan. The genus Terebellides as well as the Family Trichobranchidae are reported for the first time from Taiwanese waters. © 2017 Magnolia Press.

Meng M.,National Chung Hsing University | Lee C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2017

The genus Potexvirus is one of the eight genera belonging to the family Alphaflexiviridae according to the Virus Taxonomy 2015 released by International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (www.ictvonline.org/index.asp). Currently, the genus contains 35 known species including many agricultural important viruses, e.g., Potato virus X (PVX). Members of this genus are characterized by flexuous, filamentous virions of 13 nm in diameter and 470-580 nm in length. A potexvirus has a monopartite positive-strand RNA genome, encoding five open-reading frames (ORFs), with a cap structure at the 5' end and a poly(A) tail at the 3' end. Besides PVX, Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) is another potexvirus that has received intensive attention due to the wealth of knowledge on the molecular biology of the virus. In this review, we discuss the enzymatic activities associated with each of the functional domains of the BaMV replication protein, a 155-kDa polypeptide encoded by ORF1. The unique cap formation mechanism, which may be conserved across the alphavirus superfamily, is particularly addressed. The recently identified interactions between the replication protein and the plant host factors are also described. © 2017 Meng and Lee.

Tsai D.D.-W.,Feng Chia University | Chen P.H.,National Chung Hsing University | Ramaraj R.,Maejo University
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2017

Algae are generally accepted as an excellent option for greenhouse gas control, but the ecological niche of algal CO2 bio-fixation is not completely understood today. This study showed an excellent CO2 uptake rate of 159 mgL−1day−1 and CO2 consumption efficiency of 93% in comparison to the continuously stirred tank reactor (178 mgL−1day−1 and 96%). Thus, the experimental ecosystem that imitated the freshwater algal niche had a similar CO2 uptake performance to the artificial ideal mixing reactor prototype. To investigate terrestrial plants as a carbon sink, we compared CO2 fixation rates among species, geographic areas, plant ages, and lignin contents; in the tropical zone, forest plantations had higher growth rates, higher lignin content, and higher CO2 uptake rates. In addition, natural forests and old plantations had the highest CO2 consumption efficiency. Furthermore, we found that algae had the highest CO2 uptake rates and CO2 consumption efficiency, a characteristic that is not found in other plants. Therefore, algae were able to accumulate large carbon stores within a short period of time and were able to play a critical role as a biological sink in the carbon cycle. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Lin W.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Lee W.-J.,National Chung Hsing University
Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects | Year: 2017

Waterborne polyurethane resins (WPUs) were synthesized with polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMG), dimethylolpropionic acid (DMPA), isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), triethylamine (TEA) and ethylenediamine (EDA) as the raw materials of polyol, internal emulsifier, isocyanate, neutralizer and chain extender, respectively. The NCO/OH molar ratios used for the pre-polymerization were set as 1.6/1, 1.8/1 and 2.0/1. Furthermore, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was added to the WPUs to prepare the WPU/silica organic-inorganic hybrids by the sol-gel process. The characteristics of WPUs prepared with different NCO/OH molar ratios, and the properties of WPU and WPU/silica films were investigated. The results show that WPUs prepared with higher NCO/OH molar ratios have suspensions with lower viscosity, smaller average particle size and smaller average molecular weight, and lead the films to have more urea and amide structure, better solvent resistance, higher tensile strength, modulus and break energy, lower molecular chain activity, and smaller damping peak height, but weaker thermal resistance. The network structure of silica can limit the activity of the soft-segment, increase the stiffness of the hard-segment and enhance the thermal resistance of WPUs films. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Juang C.-F.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang Y.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
2016 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC 2016 - Conference Proceedings | Year: 2016

This paper considers the problem of data-driven fuzzy controller (FC) design with the objectives of not only high control accuracy but also high interpretability in the control rules. Because the tradeoff between the two objectives, a multi-objective genetic algorithm is employed to find a set of Pareto-optimal FCs. The optimization is based on an initial FC structure online generated through clustering of input data with the input space flexibly partitioned. A constrained objective function is defined to measure fuzzy set transparency and optimization of which improves FC interpretability. Since the dimension of each FC in the parameter solution population changes with the generation of a new rule, a new solution update method is proposed in this paper. The data-driven interpretable fuzzy control approach is applied to control a nonlinear plant in simulation to verify its performance. © 2016 IEEE.

News Article | May 8, 2017
Site: en.prnasia.com

TAIPEI, Taiwan, May 8, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- GigaMedia Limited (NASDAQ: GIGM) today announced that its Board of Directors has appointed James Huang a.k.a Cheng-Ming Huang as its new chief executive officer upon the departure of Collin Hwang, who has resigned from his role as Chairman of the Board, a member of the Board, Chief Executive Officer and Chief Finance Officer. Collin Hwang's resignation was accepted by the Board of Directors and effective on May 5th 2017. Currently he is still a large shareholder of Gigamedia. James Huang will also take over the positions of Chairman of the Board, a member of Board, and Chief Financial Officer of the Company, effective on the same date. James Huang obtained a Bachelor degree in Economics from National Chung Hsing University and a Master degree of Science in Management from MIT Sloan School of Management. Before joining GigaMedia, James has more than 30 years of experiences in finance, investment and direct marketing. "With the extensive experiences in financial management and diverse background in senior management positions, James will be suited to lead GigaMedia and accelerate the Company's growth in the coming years." Collin Hwang stated. James Huang, the new Chief Executive Officer, commented: "I am honored to be appointed and thank Collin's service to the Company for four and a half years. Collin had successfully helped the Company to improve the financial health and streamlined the operations. Building on the strong foundation, we believe there is opportunity for growth and expansion in the foreseeable future. I will do my best to keep up the pace and find the best ways to boost its value. " The Board of Directors also thanks Collin for his dedication, leadership and contribution to the Company during his tenure which were valuable to the Company, and all the staff wish him well in his future endeavors. Headquartered in Taipei, Taiwan, GigaMedia Limited (Singapore registration number: 199905474H) is a diversified provider of online game products. GigaMedia's online games business is an innovative leader in Asia with growing game development, distribution and operation capabilities, as well as platform services for games; focus is on mobile games and social casino games. More information on GigaMedia can be obtained from www.gigamedia.com. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The statements included above and elsewhere in this press release that are not historical in nature are "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the "safe harbor" provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. GigaMedia cautions readers that forward-looking statements are based on the company's current expectations and involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Actual results may differ materially from those contained in such forward-looking statements. Information as to certain factors that could cause actual results to vary can be found in GigaMedia's Annual Report on Form 20-F filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission in April 2017. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/james-huang-appointed-chief-executive-officer-of-gigamedia-300453050.html

Wu C.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen S.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Chou H.-T.,National Central University
Engineering Geology | Year: 2011

A high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) and field investigations are used to analyze the distribution and characteristics of rainfall-induced landslides in the Kaoping watershed of southwest Taiwan during Typhoon Morakot. The heavy rainfall brought by Typhoon Morakot is characterized as high intensity and long duration, with a return period well over 200years. The landslide distribution correlates well with the heavy rainfall distribution. Heavy rainfall and flood triggered 12,697 landslides, including four giant landslides. The cumulative area of the landslides was 183.1 km2. The landslide ratio in four sub-watersheds of the Kaoping watershed exceeded 6.5%. Analysis results indicate that the percentage of the downslope landslide areas is approximately 3.2Β10.5 times higher than that of upslope landslide areas owing to serious scour of the riverside. The power-law exponent Β for rainfall-induced landslide distribution during Typhoon Morakot is lower (Β=1.3Β1.4) than that for earthquake-induced landslide distribution in the comparison of self-organized criticality, because the heavy rainfall induced many new landslides at different scales. The Hsiaolin landslide, one of four giant landslides, was a deep-seated, dip-slope landslide with an area of 2.5km2 and a volume of 2.7×107m3. A portion of the sediment slid into the original valley and dammed the Chishan River, while another portion buried Hsiaolin village. Based on the results, the extremely high intensity and long duration of rainfall caused numerous landslides with different scales near the downslope region. We recommend using the detailed topographic changes that occurred during the Hsiaolin landslide to identify and prevent similar deep-seated landslide disasters. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Sheih I.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Fang T.J.,National Chung Hsing University | Wu T.-K.,National Chiao Tung University | Lin P.-H.,Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Algae protein waste is a byproduct during production of algae essence from Chlorella vulgaris. There is no known report on the anticancer peptides derived from the microalgae protein waste. In this paper, the peptide fraction isolated from pepsin hydrolysate of algae protein waste had strong dose-dependent antiproliferation and induced a post-G1 cell cycle arrest in AGS cells; however, no cytotoxicity was observed in WI-38 lung fibroblasts cells in vitro. The peptide fraction also revealed much better antioxidant activity toward peroxyl radicals and LDL than those of Trolox. Among these peptides, a potent antiproliferative, antioxidant, and NO-production-inhibiting hendecapeptide was isolated, and its amino acid sequence was VECYGPNRPQF. These results demonstrate that inexpensive algae protein waste could be a new alternative to produce anticancer peptides. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

Hsu S.-H.,National Taiwan University | Hsu S.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Tseng H.-J.,National Chung Hsing University
Biomaterials | Year: 2010

Nanocomposites from a polyester-type waterborne polyurethane (PU) containing various low concentrations (15-75 ppm) of silver nanoparticles (nano Ag, size ∼5 nm) were prepared. The PU-Ag nanocomposites exhibited good nanoparticle dispersion up to 30 ppm of nano Ag, confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy. Distinct surface morphology at different concentrations of nano Ag was shown by the atomic force microscopy. The oxidative degradation of PU-Ag was inhibited in all concentrations of nano Ag tested, especially at 30 ppm (" PU-Ag 30 ppm" ). This may be related to the free radical scavenging ability observed for the nanocomposites. PU-Ag 30 ppm showed enhanced fibroblast attachment and endothelial cell response, as well as reduced monocyte and platelet activation, relative to PU alone or nanocomposites at the other silver contents. The rat subcutaneous implantation confirmed the better biocompatibility of the nanocomposites. The adhesion of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia (E.) coli or Ag+-resistant E. coli on PU-Ag nanocomposites was significantly lower at all concentrations of nano Ag tested. Besides, the nanocomposites demonstrated microbiostatic effect while pure PU did not. The commercial catheters coated with PU-Ag 30 ppm were inserted into rat jugular veins for evaluation. The results showed milder inflammation for PU-Ag after 3 months compared to the non-coated catheters or pure PU-coated catheters. The enhanced performance of PU-Ag over that of pure PU was a result of extensively modified surface morphology in the presence of a very small amount of nano Ag. The dispersion of nano Ag was highly associated with the overall performance. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Chang C.-S.J.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chang C.-S.J.,National Chung Hsing University | Maloof J.N.,University of California at Davis | Wu S.-H.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Wu S.-H.,National Chung Hsing University
Plant Physiology | Year: 2011

Light regulates multiple aspects of growth and development in plants. Transcriptomic changes govern the expression of signaling molecules with the perception of light. Also, the 26S proteasome regulates the accumulation of positive and negative regulators for optimal growth of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in the dark, light, or light/dark cycles. BBX22, whose induction is both light regulated and HY5 dependent, is a positive regulator of deetiolation in Arabidopsis. We found that during skotomorphogenesis, the expression of BBX22 needs to be tightly regulated at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels. During photomorphogenesis, the expression of BBX22 transiently accumulates to execute its roles as a positive regulator. BBX22 protein accumulates to a higher level under short-day conditions and functions to inhibit hypocotyl elongation. The proteasome-dependent degradation of BBX22 protein is tightly controlled even in plants overexpressing BBX22. An analysis of BBX22 degradation kinetics shows that the protein has a short half-life under both dark and light conditions. COP1 mediates the degradation of BBX22 in the dark. Although dispensable in the dark, HY5 contributes to the degradation of BBX22 in the light. The constitutive photomorphogenic development of the cop1 mutant is enhanced in cop1BBX22ox plants, which show a short hypocotyl, high anthocyanin accumulation, and expression of light-responsive genes. Exaggerated light responsiveness is also observed in cop1BBX22ox seedlings grown under short-day conditions. Therefore, the proper accumulation of BBX22 is crucial for plants to maintain optimal growth when grown in the dark as well as to respond to seasonal changes in daylength. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists.

Hsieh P.-W.,National Central University | Shih Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Yang S.-Y.,National Central University
Communications in Computational Physics | Year: 2011

In this paper we propose a development of the finite difference method, called the tailored finite point method, for solving steady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) duct flow problems with a high Hartmann number. When the Hartmann number is large, the MHD duct flow is convection-dominated and thus its solution may exhibit localized phenomena such as the boundary layer. Most conventional numerical methods can not efficiently solve the layer problem because they are lacking in either stability or accuracy. However, the proposed tailored finite point method is capable of resolving high gradients near the layer regions without refining the mesh. Firstly, we devise the tailored finite point method for the scalar inhomogeneous convection-diffusion problem, and then extend it to the MHD duct flow which consists of a coupled system of convection-diffusion equations. For each interior grid point of a given rectangular mesh, we construct a finite-point difference operator at that point with some nearby grid points, where the coefficients of the difference operator are tailored to some particular properties of the problem. Numerical examples are provided to show the high performance of the proposed method.

Kuo J.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin C.-L.,National University of Kaohsiung | Wey M.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2011

Al- and Ca-based materials can serve as metal sorbents or agglomeration inhibitors in fluidized beds. Although particle agglomeration could affect the adsorption efficiency of metal sorbents, Al- and Ca-based materials have been found to inhibit the particle agglomeration phenomenon during the incineration process. Accordingly, this study emphasizes the effect of particle agglomeration on heavy metal adsorption by Al- and Ca-based sorbents in a fluidized bed. The results show that Al- and Ca-based sorbents inhibit the tendency of particle agglomeration caused by Na. Thus, high concentrations of heavy metals exist mainly in fine particles compared to those present in the large particles when Na is added to the system. However, the addition of Na apparently increased the adsorption efficiency and followed the sequence of Cr > Cd > Pb with an increase in the operating temperature. A comparison of sorbents and Na additive for the relative enrichment factor showed that Na plays an important role in capturing Cr with Al- and Ca-based sorbents. Also, both sorbent adsorption and Na agglomeration are the dominant mechanisms for capturing Cd. The results of adding Na and an Al-based sorbent presented positive effects for Pb adsorption; however, a negative effect was observed with the addition of Na and a Ca-based sorbent at low temperatures. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pei T.-H.,National Chiao Tung University | Thiyagu S.,National Chung Hsing University | Pei Z.,National Chung Hsing University
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2011

We fabricated large-area, vertically aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays on Si substrates employing catalytic etching on a polystyrene nanosphere template. The density of SiNWs was as high as 1010/cm2, and the bottom radii of SiNWs ranged between 30 and 60 nm. The reflection from the SiNW layer was approximately 0.1 over the spectral range of 300-800 nm for SiNWs longer than 750 nm. Effective medium theory was applied to explain this extremely low reflection, and it was confirmed that the incident light scatters randomly inside cone-like SiNWs, which lengthens the actual traveling path of light. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Chern C.-M.,Taipei Veterans General Hospital | Liao J.-F.,National Yang Ming University | Wang Y.-H.,Hungkuang University | Shen Y.-C.,National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine | Shen Y.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2012

Melatonin has many protective effects against ischemic stroke, but the underlying neuroprotective mechanisms are not fully understood. Our aim was to explore the relationship between melatonin's neuroprotective effects and activation of the MT2 melatonin receptor in a murine ischemic-stroke model. Male ICR mice were subjected to a transient middle cerebral ischemic/reperfusional injury, and melatonin (5 and 10 mg/kg, ip) was administrated once daily starting 2 h after ischemia. More than 80% of the mice died within 5 days after stroke without treatment. Melatonin treatment significantly improved the survival rates and neural functioning with modestly prolonged life span of the stroke mice by preserving blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity via a reduction in the enormous amount of stroke-induced free radical production and significant gp91 phox cell infiltration. These protective effects of melatonin were reversed by pretreatment with MT2 melatonin receptor antagonists (4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin (4P-PDOT) and luzindole). Moreover, treatment with melatonin after stroke dramatically enhanced endogenous neurogenesis (doublecortin positive) and cell proliferation (ki67 positive) in the peri-infarct regions. Most ki67-positive cells were nestin-positive and NG2-positive neural stem/progenitor cells that coexpressed two neurodevelopmental proteins (adam11 and adamts20) and the MT2 melatonin receptor. RT-PCR revealed that the gene expression levels of doublecortin, ki67, adamts20, and adam11 are markedly reduced by stroke, but are restored by melatonin treatment; furthermore, pretreatment with 4P-PDOT and luzindole antagonized melatonin's restorative effect. Our results support the hypothesis that melatonin is able to protect mice against stroke by activating MT2 melatonin receptors, which reduces oxidative/inflammatory stress. This results in the preservation of BBB integrity and enhances endogenous neurogenesis by upregulating neurodevelopmental gene/protein expression. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Chen P.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin T.-H.,Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital Taichung Branch | Lin T.-H.,China Medical University at Taichung | Cheng H.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Tang C.-H.,China Medical University at Taichung
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2012

Nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV or CCN3) is a secreted matrix-associated protein that belongs to the CCN gene family and is involved in many cellular functions, including growth, differentiation and adhesion. The effect of CCN3 on human prostate cancer cells, however, is unknown. Here, we have shown that CCN3 increased cell migration and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in prostate cancer cells. In addition, expression of CCN3 was positively correlated with both cell migration and ICAM-1 expression in human prostate cancer cells. CCN3 activated a signal transduction pathway that included αvβ3 integrin, integrin-linked kinase (ILK), Akt and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Reagents that inhibit specific components of this pathway each diminished the ability of CCN3 to effect cell migration and ICAM-1 expression. Moreover, CCN3 increased binding of p65 to an NF-κB-binding element in the ICAM-1 promoter. Finally, knockdown of CCN3 expression markedly inhibited cell migration, tumor growth in bone and bone metastasis. Taken together, our results indicate that CCN3 enhances the migration of prostate cancer cells by increasing ICAM-1 expression through a signal transduction pathway that involves αvβ3 integrin, ILK, Akt and NF-κB. CCN3 thus represents a promising new target for treating prostate cancer. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Peng T.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin C.-L.,National University of Kaohsiung | Wey M.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2014

This study develops a low-temperature two-stage fluidized bed system for treating municipal solid waste. This new system can decrease the emission of heavy metals, has low construction costs, and can save energy owing to its lower operating temperature. To confirm the treatment efficiency of this system, the combustion efficiency and heavy-metal emission were determined. An artificial waste containing heavy metals (chromium, lead, and cadmium) was used in this study. The tested parameters included first-stage temperature and system gas velocity. Results obtained using a thermogravimetric analyzer with a differential scanning calorimeter indicated that the first-stage temperature should be controlled to at least 400 C. Although, a large amount of carbon monoxide was emitted after the first stage, it was efficiently consumed in the second. Loss of the ignition values of ash residues were between 0.005% and 0.166%, and they exhibited a negative correlation with temperature and gas velocity. Furthermore, the emission concentration of heavy metals in the two-stage system was lower than that of the traditional one-stage fluidized bed system. The heavy-metal emissions can be decreased by between 16% and 82% using the low-temperature operating process, silica sand adsorption, and the filtration of the secondary stage. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lin S.-Y.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chen P.-W.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chuang M.-H.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Juntawong P.,University of California at Riverside | And 3 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2014

Transcriptome profiling has been used to identify genes expressed in pollen tubes elongating in vitro; however, little is known of the transcriptome of in vivo-grown pollen tubes due to the difficulty of collecting pollen that is elongating within the solid maternal gynoecium. Using a pollen-specific promoter (ProLAT52) to generate epitope-tagged polysomal-RNA complexes that could be affinity purified, we obtained mRNAs undergoing translation (the translatome) of in vivo-grown pollen tubes from self-pollinated gynoecia of Arabidopsis thaliana. Translatomes of pollen grains as well as in vivo- and in vitro-cultured pollen tubes were assayed by microarray analyses, revealing over 500 transcripts specifically enriched in in vivo-elongating pollen tubes. Functional analyses of several in vivo mutants (iv) of these pollination-enhanced transcripts revealed partial pollination/fertilization and seed formation defects in siliques (iv2, iv4, and iv6). Cytological observation confirmed the involvement of these genes in specialized processes including micropylar guidance (IV6 and IV4), pollen tube burst (IV2), and repulsion of multiple pollen tubes in embryo sac (IV2). In summary, the selective immunopurification of transcripts engaged with polysomes in pollen tubes within self-fertilized florets has identified a cohort of pollination-enriched transcripts that facilitated the identification of genes important in in vivo pollen tube biology. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Kuo C.-F.,National University of Kaohsiung | Tseng H.-W.,National Chung Hsing University
Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing | Year: 2014

The aim of this paper is to investigate the assignment problem of a cloud computing system where user requests to run virtual machines continuously arrive and the associated virtual machines (VMs) must be hosted on physical machines (PMs). Each PM has limited resource amounts for four kinds of resources, i.e., CPU, disk, memory, and network bandwidth. Also, each VM has the resource requirements for the four kinds resources in a PM. We propose an online VM-to-PM assignment algorithm, the Delay-based Incrementally Mapping Algorithm (DIMA), to assign VMs to PMs. We attempt to reduce resource wastes on running PMs such that the number of PMs can be minimized. The algorithm uses a user-defined variable to control the number of VMs handled at some time unit. The corresponding VM for an arrival VM request does not be host by a PM until the number of waiting VM requests reaches the value of the user-defined variable. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the proposed algorithm. The experimental results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed DIMA scheme is better than the greedy algorithm. Copyright 2014 ACM.

Liu Z.-S.,Ming Chi University of Technology | Lin C.-L.,National University of Kaohsiung | Chou J.-D.,National Chung Hsing University
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2010

This study focused on the effects of agglomeration/defluidization on the Cd, Pb and Cr distribution in bottom ash particles of different sizes. In this study we have incinerated artificial waste, which was a mixture of sawdust, polypropylene, selected metal solutions, and polyethylene. The experimental parameters included Na concentration, addition of Ca and Mg and operating temperature. The results indicated that particle size decreased by attrition and thermal impact in the absence of added Na. When Na was added to the system, this metal reacted with silica sand to form eutectics, which increased particle size. Further addition of Ca and Mg was found to prolong the operating time, with greater amounts of liquid eutectic accumulating, leading to increase particle size. The heavy metal concentrations in coarse and fine particles were greater than those present in particles of intermediate sizes over a range of experimental conditions. As the particle size decreased below 0.59 mm or increased above 0.84 mm, the heavy metal concentrations increased. As Ca and Mg were added, the heavy metal concentrations in particles of all sizes increased relative to those present in identical particles when no metals or only Na were added. Additionally, the ratio of Cd sorption to silica sand decreased with increasing Na concentration, but Cr sorption had the opposite tendency. Therefore, while the addition of Na tended to increase agglomeration, it also increased the tendency for heavy metals to remain in the sand bed of fluidized bed incinerators. Addition of Ca and Mg not only inhibited the agglomeration/defluidization process, resulting in increased operating time, but also enhanced the removal of heavy metals by silica sand, decreasing the concentration of heavy metals in reactor exhaust. Crown Copyright © 2010.

Wu L.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Wu L.-H.,National Central University
Journal of Computer Information Systems | Year: 2010

The concept of service Science, Management, and Engineering (SSME) is an emerging interdisciplinary approach that combines fundamental management, and engineering theories. The objective is to help organizations improve their competiveness in a rapidly changing business environment by exploring the true requirements of their customers, and setting up an effective service process with the support of IT. Despite the significance of SSME, few studies have attempted to develop a methodology to guide and implement SSME research. To address this research gap, we discuss the interdisciplinary nature of the SSME approach. We review related literature and theories, and explore the tools used in various fields relevant to SSME. Then, we propose a systematic three-phase framework for SSME research. Our interdisciplinary review and the proposed framework are designed to help researchers and practitioners utilize available SSME tools and theories. We believe the framework will enable researchers and practitioners to implement their respective SSME processes more effectively and efficiently.

McConnell I.L.,Yale University | Grigoryants V.M.,Albany State University | Scholes C.P.,Albany State University | Myers W.K.,Albany State University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

The synthesis of efficient water-oxidation catalysts demands insight into the only known, naturally occurring water-oxidation catalyst, the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Understanding the water oxidation mechanism requires knowledge of where and when substrate water binds to the OEC. Mn catalase in its Mn(III)-Mn(IV) state is a protein model of the OEC's S 2 state. From 17O-labeled water exchanged into the di-μ-oxo di-Mn(III,IV) coordination sphere of Mn catalase, CW Q-band ENDOR spectroscopy revealed two distinctly different 17O signals incorporated in distinctly different time regimes. First, a signal appearing after 2 h of 17O exchange was detected with a 13.0 MHz hyperfine coupling. From similarity in the time scale of isotope incorporation and in the 17O μ-oxo hyperfine coupling of the di-μ-oxo di-Mn(III,IV) bipyridine model (Usov, O. M.; Grigoryants, V. M.; Tagore, R.; Brudvig, G. W.; Scholes, C. P.J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 11886-11887), this signal was assigned to μ-oxo oxygen. EPR line broadening was obvious from this 17O μ-oxo species. Earlier exchange proceeded on the minute or faster time scale into a non-μ-oxo position, from which 17O ENDOR showed a smaller 3.8 MHz hyperfine coupling and possible quadrupole splittings, indicating a terminal water of Mn(III). Exchangeable proton/deuteron hyperfine couplings, consistent with terminal water ligation to Mn(III), also appeared. Q-band CW ENDOR from the S 2 state of the OEC was obtained following multihour 17O exchange, which showed a 17O hyperfine signal with a 11 MHz hyperfine coupling, tentatively assigned as μ-oxo- 17O by resemblance to the μ-oxo signals from Mn catalase and the di-μ-oxo di-Mn(III,IV) bipyridine model. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Tubtimtae A.,Kasetsart University | Lee M.-W.,National Chung Hsing University
Thin Solid Films | Year: 2012

Carrier recombination can greatly reduce the efficiencies of quantum-dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). This work aims to find a general preparation route to reduce carrier recombination in QDSSCs. The effects of a series of passivation treatments on CdS/CdSe quantum-dot (QD) co-sensitized solar cells are investigated. The QDs were synthesized on a nanoporous TiO2 electrode by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction processes. The different types of treatment included a blocking layer, a fluoride-ion coating, a ZnS coating, annealing, a TiO2 scattering layer and an Au counterelectrode. The power conversion efficiency was observed to become three times larger after treatment. The effectiveness of each treatment method is as follows in descending order: blocking layer ≅ TiO2 scattering layer > Au counterelectrode > F- ions and ZnS coatings > annealing. The best cell yields a current density of 14.6 mA/cm2 and a respectable power conversion efficiency of η = 3.11% under AM 1.5 sun. The passivation procedure makes a useful general guide for researchers for the preparation of QDSSCs. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Chen D.-T.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | Hsu Y.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Fulp W.J.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | Yeatman T.J.,The Interdisciplinary Center
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2011

Background The malignancy-risk gene signature is composed of numerous proliferative genes and has been applied to predict breast cancer risk. We hypothesized that the malignancy-risk gene signature has prognostic and predictive value for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods The ability of the malignancy-risk gene signature to predict overall survival (OS) of early-stage NSCLC patients was tested using a large NSCLC microarray dataset from the Director's Challenge Consortium (n = 442) and two independent NSCLC microarray datasets (n = 117 and 133, for the GSE13213 and GSE14814 datasets, respectively). An overall malignancy-risk score was generated by principal component analysis to determine the prognostic and predictive value of the signature. An interaction model was used to investigate a statistically significant interaction between adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) and the gene signature. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The malignancy-risk gene signature was statistically significantly associated with OS (P < .001) of NSCLC patients. Validation with the two independent datasets demonstrated that the malignancy-risk score had prognostic and predictive values: Of patients who did not receive ACT, those with a low malignancy-risk score had increased OS compared with a high malignancy-risk score (P = .007 and .01 for the GSE13212 and GSE14814 datasets, respectively), indicating a prognostic value; and in the GSE14814 dataset, patients receiving ACT survived longer in the high malignancy-risk score group (P = .03), and a statistically significant interaction between ACT and the signature was observed (P = .02). Conclusions The malignancy-risk gene signature was associated with OS and was a prognostic and predictive indicator. The malignancy-risk gene signature could be useful to improve prediction of OS and to identify those NSCLC patients who will benefit from ACT. © The Author 2011.

Wang C.-H.,National Chiao Tung University | Wang J.,National Chung Hsing University
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2014

In an era of global customization, dominating the majority market with a single product has become increasingly difficult and almost impossible for most companies. In contrast, they must provide various product varieties that attract diverse customers, particularly when acquiring distinct market segments. In practice, however, most companies cannot effectively reduce the gap between customer requirements and design characteristics, although this impacts the profitability and future growth of companies. Meanwhile, companies often get stuck in the trade-offs between enhancing product varieties and controlling manufacturing costs. Accordingly, this paper proposes a hybrid framework that combines fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP), fuzzy Kano model with zero-one integer programming (ZOIP) to incorporate customer preferences and customer perceptions into the decision-making process of product configuration. Specifically, fuzzy AHP is used to extract customer preferences for core attributes while fuzzy Kano model is utilized to elicit customer perceptions of optional attributes. Finally, by virtue of ZOIP, the optimal product varieties (smart cameras) for distinct segments are determined by maximizing overall customer utility (OCU) and taking a firm's pricing policy into account. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Tubtimtae A.,Kasetsart University | Lee M.-W.,National Chung Hsing University
Superlattices and Microstructures | Year: 2012

We present the growth of ZnO nanostructures on indium-doped ZnO film on a non-conductive glass substrate. The indium-doped ZnO film was used as the transparent conductive layer replaces the ITO layer. Various indium doping concentrations can change the electrical properties of ZnO film. The reduced electrical resistivity was investigated from 16.60 × 10 -2 to 10 × 10 -2 Ω cm. after doping with the optimal concentration of 2 wt% indium. It is found that the characteristic of ZnO nanostructures was strongly affected with indium doping concentration in ZnO films. The overall structural characteristics of ZnO ranged from 100-500 nm in size and 7-10 μm in length and the branch-like structures can be revealed from the 2 wt% indium-doped ZnO film. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectra show a sharp ultraviolet band of 353 nm, indicated to the ZnO nanorods structure. The branch-like structures on the 2 wt% indium-doped film can be yielded the photovoltaic properties with a short-circuit current density of 3.96 mA/cm 2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.72 V, a fill factor of 20% and an overall power conversion efficiency of 0.56% under irradiance of 100 mW/cm 2 (AM 1.5 G). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Tubtimtae A.,Kasetsart University | Cheng K.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Lee M.-W.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry | Year: 2014

This work investigates the photovoltaic properties of new-architecture Ag2S quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) fabricated on WO 3 electrodes. Liquid-junction Ag2S QDSCs were fabricated from QDs synthesized using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction process. The optimal QDSC yielded an efficiency Λ of 0.20 % under a 100-mW/cm2 light illumination. Coating the QDSC with a compact layer and a scattering layer improved Λ to 0.31 % with a short-circuit current density Jsc of 5.81 mA/cm2 and an open-circuit voltage Voc of 0.21 V. Λ increased to 0.53 % at a reduced 0.1 sun illumination with a Jsc of 1.11 mA/cm2. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) spectrum covered the spectral range of 350-900 nm with a maximal EQE of 29 % at Λ=650 nm. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the new-configuration Ag2S QDSCs fabricated on WO3 electrodes. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

Lu L.-Y.,National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology | Lin G.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Shih M.-H.,National Chi Nan University
Engineering Structures | Year: 2012

Long-stroke fluid dampers may be installed under seismic isolation systems to provide supplementary damping. Due to the larger vibration amplitude and velocity, highly nonlinear viscoelastic behavior may exist in a long-stroke fluid damper. In order to accurately simulate the hysteretic behavior of such a damper, this paper presents and experimentally verifies a mathematical model called the generalized Maxwell model (GMM). Similar to the classic Maxwell model, the GMM is composed of a stiffness and a viscous elements connected in series. However, nonlinearity is incorporated into both elements of the GMM by assuming that their resistant forces are exponential functions of the relative velocity and deformation of the damper. By adjusting the two exponential coefficients, the GMM is able to simulate the more complicated viscoelastic behavior of fluid dampers. The GMM is reduced to the Maxwell model when both exponential coefficients are set to one. To verify the GMM, both an element test with harmonic excitations and a shaking table test with seismic excitations were conducted for a long-stroke fluid damper with highly nonlinear viscoelastic behavior. The result of the element test confirms that the GMM model is very accurate in simulating the hysteretic property of the fluid damper under a wide range of excitation frequencies, while the classic Maxwell and the viscous models may only be accurate under a certain excitation frequency. Moreover, the shaking table test, in which the fluid damper is used to provide supplementary damping for a sliding isolation system, demonstrates that the GMM is able to more accurately predict the amount of energy dissipation by the damper and also the peak isolator drift of the isolation system, especially for an earthquake with a long-period pulse. © 2011.

Shih H.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Ng P.K.L.,National University of Singapore
Systematics and Biodiversity | Year: 2011

The diversity and biogeography of the two families of freshwater crabs in East Asia (China, Taiwan, Ryukyus and mainland Japan) were studied. The richness in different areas, as well as the distributions of all 40 genera and 311 species were analysed, the patterns examined and possible mechanisms discussed. The published data of freshwater crab species and their distributions in East Asia were analysed by using clustering, diversity index and graphical methods. Six biogeographical districts were recognized for the East Asian freshwater crabs based on similarity of distribution: (I) Hengduanshan Area, including Yunnan and Tibet; (II) Karst Area of Guizhou; (III) Yangtze River Basin, extending to Yellow River basin, with three subdivisions; (IV) Wuyishan Area and Pearl River Basin in Southeast and South China; (V) Hainan Island; and (VI) East Asian Islands, with subdivisions of Taiwan, Ryukyus and mainland Japan. The most diverse genera are the potamids Sinopotamon (84 species) and Geothelphusa (54 species), as well as the gecarcinucid Somanniathelphusa (27 species). Yunnan has the highest species richness (48 species) and diversity (Shannon index 2-21) in continental China, while Taiwan has the highest species richness (42 species) of the island systems. The distribution of the species of the potamid Sinopotamon and other genera along China's longest drainage, the Yangtze River, can be subdivided into several zones corresponding to the upper, middle and lower reaches of the river basin. The freshwater crab fauna of continental China, the East Asian islands and Hainan Island were all different from each other, and this finding agreed with the findings of molecular phylogenetic studies. The distribution of freshwater crabs in the Yangtze River showed a similar pattern with other freshwater organisms in this drainage. The present biogeographical interpretation contrasts sharply with the traditional zoogeographical patterns proposed that are based on Chinese terrestrial vertebrates. The present analyses of crab distributions suggest that Yunnan is a possible centre of origin for the Potamidae of China and perhaps the whole of East Asia. The freshwater crab species richness in Yunnan is probably the result of its generally warmer climate, more diverse habitats and a long history of cladogenesis. © 2011 The Natural History Museum.

Ke C.-J.,National Tsing Hua University | Chiang W.-L.,National Tsing Hua University | Liao Z.-X.,National Tsing Hua University | Chen H.-L.,National Tsing Hua University | And 3 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2013

Chemotherapy research highly prioritizes overcoming the multi-drug resistance (MDR) effect in cancer cells. To overcome the drug efflux mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporters, we developed pH-responsive poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) hollow particles (PLGA HPs), capable of delivering doxorubicin (DOX) into MDR cells (MCF-7/ADR). The shell wall of PLGA HPs contained DiO (a hydrophobic dye), and their aqueous core carried DOX hydrochloride salt and sodium bicarbonate, a gas-generating agent when present in acidic environments. Both DiO and DOX could serve as fluorescence probes to localize HPs and visualize their intracellular drug release in real-time. Real-time confocal images provided visible evidences of the acid-responsive intracellular release of DOX from PLGA HPs in MDR cells. Via the macropinocytosis pathway, PLGA HPs taken up by cells experienced an increasingly acidic environment as they trafficked through the early endosomes and then matured into more acidic late endosomes/lysosomes. The progressive acidification of the internalized particles in the late endosomes/lysosomes generated CO2 bubbles, leading to the disruption of HPs, prompt release of DOX, its accumulation in the nuclei, and finally the death of MDR cells. Conversely, taken up via a passive diffusion mechanism, free DOX was found mainly at the perimembrane region and barely reached the cell nuclei; therefore, no apparent cytotoxicity was observed. These results suggest that the developed PLGA HPs were less susceptible to the P-gp-mediated drug efflux in MDR cells and is a highly promising approach in chemotherapy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Bessho T.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Zakeeruddin S.M.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Yeh C.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Diau E.W.-G.,National Chiao Tung University | Gratzel M.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2010

To dye for: A porphyrin chromophore, which is integrated into a donor-acceptor dye as a π-conjugated bridge (see picture), exhibits an unprecedented efficiency of 11 □ % when used as a photosensitizer in a double-layer TiO2 film. A greatly enhanced photovoltaic performance is observed when the porphyrin dye is cosensitized with a metal-free dye that has a complementary spectral response. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Shih D.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen C.-H.,Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute | Yeh G.-T.,National Central University
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2014

In recent decades, Taiwan has suffered from severe bouts of torrential rain, and typhoon induced floods have become the major natural threat to Taiwan. In order to warn the public of potential risks, authorities are considering establishing an early warning system derived from an integrated hydro-meteorological estimation process. This study aims at the development and accuracy of such a warning system. So it is first necessary to understand the distinctive features of flood forecasting in integrated rainfall-runoff simulations. Additionally the adequacies of a warning system that is based on extracting useful intelligence from earlier, possibly faulty numerical simulation results are discussed. In order to precisely model flooding, hydrological simulations based upon spot measured rainfall data have been utilized in prior studies to calibrate model parameters. Here, precipitation inputs from an ensemble of almost 20 different realizations of rainfall fields have been used to derive flood forecasts. The flood warning system therefore integrates rainfall-runoff calculations, field observations and data assimilations. Simulation results indicate that the ensemble precipitation estimates generated by a Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model produce divergent estimates. Considerable flooding is often shown in the simulated hydrographs, but the results as to the peak time and peak stage are not always in agreement with the observations. In brief, such forecasts can be good for warning against potential damaging floods in the near future, but the meteorological inputs are not good enough to forecast the time and magnitude of the peaks. The key for such warning system is not to expect highly accurate rainfall predictions, but to improve our understanding from individual ensemble flood forecasts. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Lin J.-K.,National Chung Hsing University | Uan J.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Wu C.-P.,National Yang Ming University | Huang H.-H.,National Yang Ming University | Huang H.-H.,Taipei Veterans General Hospital
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2011

This work presents a novel method for directly forming highly-oriented Mg-Fe-CO3 LDH coating on pure Mg samples by treating the sample in pH 5.6 aqueous Fe3+/HCO3 -/CO3 2- at 50°C, and then immersing it in pH 9.5 aqueous HCO 3 -/CO3 2- at 50°C. The former step was performed to yield Mg2+ in aqueous solution at pH 5.6 by corroding the Mg sample. A two-layered thin film was thus formed on the Mg substrate, of which the outer layer (∼1 μm-thick) comprised fine platelet-like Mg-Fe-CO3 LDH. The latter treatment in pH 9.5 aqueous HCO3 -/CO3 2- at 50°C resulted in the growth of the fine LDH platelets into a strongly-oriented Mg-Fe-CO 3 LDH. The chemical formula of the Mg-Fe-CO3 LDH is Mg0.74Fe0.26(OH)2(CO3) 0.13·mH2O. The method used herein involves a metal salt-free system, which requires no addition of Mg(NO3)2 and Fe(NO3)3. Several in vitro tests of the Mg-Fe-CO 3 LDH coating on a Mg sample were performed. Based on the measured contact angle between the sample surface and human whole blood, the Mg-Fe-CO3 LDH coating can improve the hydrophilicity of a pure Mg surface. According to the results of an in vitro corrosion test in revised simulated body fluid (R-SBF), the Mg-Fe-CO3 LDH coated sample had a much higher corrosion resistance than the pure Mg substrate. The results of in vitro human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion tests showed that the Mg-Fe-CO 3 LDH coated sample had a better cell spreading and cell-cell interaction behavior than the pure Mg substrate. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

Kuo J.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin C.-L.,National University of Kaohsiung | Wey M.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2012

This study presents the effect of particle agglomeration on syngas emission during the biomass air gasification process. Various operating conditions such as operating temperature, equivalence ratio (ER), and amount of bed materials are employed. The concentrations of H2 and CO increase along with the operating time as agglomeration begins, while CO2 decreases at the same time. However, there is no significant change in the emission concentration of CH4 during the defluidization process. The lower heating value increases while the system reaches the agglomeration/defluidization under various operating parameters. When the system reaches the agglomeration/ defluidization process, the LHV value sharply increases. The results are obtained when the system reaches agglomeration/defluidization. The temperature increases while bed agglomeration occurs. A higher temperature increases the production of H2 and CO, contributing to the LHV calculation. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Venkatesan S.,National Chung Hsing University | Kumar A.S.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Lee J.-F.,Research Division | Chan T.-S.,Research Division | Zen J.-M.,National Chung Hsing University
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2012

The aerobic oxidation of primary amines to their respective nitriles has been carried out at room temperature using a highly reusable nanocrystalline ruthenium oxide pyrochlore Nafion composite catalyst (see figure). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Huang C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Wang F.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Yang C.-F.,National University of Kaohsiung
Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing | Year: 2013

A compound of 98 mol% ZnO and 1 mol% Al2O3 (AZO, Al:Zn = 98:2) was sintered at 1350 C as a target and the AZO thin films were deposited on glass using a radio frequency magnetron sputtering system. The effects of deposition temperature (from room temperature to ∼300 C) on the optical transmission spectrum of the AZO thin films were studied. The Burstein-Moss shift was observed and used to prove that defects in the AZO thin films decreased with increasing deposition temperature. The variations in the optical band gap (E g) values of the AZO thin films were evaluated from plots of (αhv)2=c(hν-E g), revealing that the measured E g values increased with increasing deposition temperature. The effects of the H2 flow rate during deposition (0 %∼11.76 %, deposition temperature of 200 C) on the crystallization, morphology, resistivity, carrier concentration, carrier mobility, and optical transmission spectrum of the AZO thin films were measured. The chemical structures of the Ar-deposited and 2 % H2-flow rate-deposited AZO thin films (both were deposited at 200 C) were investigated by XPS to clarify the mechanism of improvement in resistivity. The prepared AZO thin films were also used as transparent electrodes to fabricate amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells, and their properties were also measured. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and National Chung Hsing University | Date: 2015-09-09

The present invention is directed to compounds of formula (I) and pharmaceutical compositions comprising compounds of formula (I) and pharmaceutically acceptable carriers. The invention further comprises improved process for the preparation of compounds of formula (I), and the use of compound of formula (I) to induce a specific immune response or to treat an autoimmune disease.

Ching-Piao T.,National Chung Hsing University | Ching-Her H.,Chienkuo Technical University | Chien H.,National Central University | Hao-Yuan C.,National Central University
Renewable Energy | Year: 2012

To reduce the dependence on fossil fuel and imported energy resources, Taiwan has ever-increasing needs of renewable energy. With the rapid development of the technologies of wave energy converter, the wave energy source will be able to meet parts the demand. The Energy Research Laboratories of the Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan (2005), based on the statistic of one-year wave data, stated that the mean wave energy at the northeast coast of Taiwan reaches 11.56 kW/m, giving it the potential of wave power utilization. However, one of the major obstacles with the wave energy utilization is lack of long-term ocean wave measurements. The long-term variations in wave parameters impose changes in wave energy converter outputs. Lack of long-term data makes it difficult to assess the cost-benefit of wave energy conversion projects for the policy and decision makers.The present study aims to quantitatively evaluate the wave climate variations of the northwestern Pacific and the Taiwan Waters based on long-term wave data base. Wave observations around Taiwan have been performed since 1998, thus, earlier data of wave climate are not available. This study reconstructs the wave data of the northwest Pacific over the past three decades based on the SWAN numerical wave model that driven by NECP global reanalysis wind fields. The simulation results are compared and validated with measured data. The results show that the long-term wave climate variations around Taiwan consist of oscillations of three different periods, i.e. the seasonal, inter-annual and decade oscillations. The seasonal oscillation has significant amplitude that leads the wave energy one order magnitude greater in winter than in summer. In addition to seasonal changes, the wave energy features inter-annual variations, which are highly related to the El Nino and La Nina phenomena. In the La Nina years, the annual averaged wave energy could be double than in El Nino years. Finally, this study adopted the Man-Kendall Non-Parametric Test and the Hilbert Huang EMD method to analyze the long-term wave variation trends. The results showed that the wave height experienced climbing trends during 1976-1985 and 1997-2006, and a descending trend during 1985-1997. The reasons for wave climate oscillations in the decadal variation should be further investigation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Li C.-T.,Tainan University of Technology | Hwang M.-S.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Network and Computer Applications | Year: 2010

In this paper, we propose an efficient biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards, in which the computation cost is relatively low compared with other related schemes. The security of the proposed scheme is based on the one-way hash function, biometrics verification and smart card. Moreover, the proposed scheme enables the user to change their passwords freely and provides mutual authentication between the users and the remote server. In addition, many remote authentication schemes use timestamps to resist replay attacks. Therefore, synchronized clock is required between the user and the remote server. In our scheme, it does not require synchronized clocks between two entities because we use random numbers in place of timestamps. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Weng C.-J.,Tainan University of Technology | Yen G.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Clinical and Experimental Metastasis | Year: 2010

The Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst, an edible mushroom, has been utilized for centuries in East Asia to prevent or treat various diseases and to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis. The primary bioactive compounds are commonly considered to be polysaccharides and triterpenoids. Evidence that G. lucidum extract and its bioactive compounds may have a potential inhibitory effect on cancer invasion and metastasis is increasingly being reported in the scientific literature. This review assembles and summarizes past publications on the in vitro and in vivo effects of G. lucidum on cancer invasion and metastasis, and concludes that these effects occur through modulation of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) or Akt kinase (protein kinase B). Activation of these kinases subsequently inhibits the activity or expression of activator protein-1(AP-1) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), resulting in the down-regulation of urokinase plaminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor (uPAR), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interleukin (IL)-8, inducible nitric oxide (NO) and β1-integrin as shown in various cell lines or animal models. G. lucidum may be an effective nutraceutical used in the prevention of cancer metastasis. To further elucidate the bioactive components present in G. lucidum and the anti-metastatic mechanisms underlying these compounds, more in vitro and in vivo tests as well as clinical trials are necessary. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Lo C.-M.,Chienkuo Technical University | Feng Z.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University
Engineering Geology | Year: 2014

This study investigated the deformation characteristics of consequent slate slopes in the region between Cuifeng and Wuling in Taiwan. Onsite surveys, terrain analysis, and UDEC numerical models were used to describe the characteristics of gravity-driven deformation under various conditions and identify the process of slate deformation as well as potential failure mechanisms. Our results demonstrate that valley erosion and slope toe soaking mechanisms play key roles in the deformation of slate and accelerate the weakening of slate material. Comparisons of material strength of rock and foliation, the location of erosion gullies, and the inclination of the foliation indicate that a reduction in the strength of rock material and foliation expanded the range of slate deformation. The inclination of foliation is the most important factor in the deformation of slate and the location of erosion gullies has relatively little influence. Slate deformation was shown to begin in the tension zone at the cliff top, wherein the slope body slips along the highly inclined foliation, contributing to shear failure or composite failure near the eroded zone of weakness. The phenomenon of foliation opening was widespread within the area of deformation, enabling surface water and groundwater to seep in, thereby accelerating failure in the slate deformation zone. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Huang S.-M.,Army Academy | Liu C.-W.,National Yunlin University of Science and Technology | Liu C.-W.,Dow Chemical Company | Dow W.-P.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2012

Microvia filling of a printed circuit board by acidic copper electroplating was performed to evaluate whether the filling performance of an acidic copper plating solution could be quantified and monitored. The acidic copper plating solution was composed of polyethylene glycol, chloride ions, bis(3-sulfopropyl) disulfide and Alcian Blue. The electrochemical methodology for quantifying the filling performance of the copper plating solution is based on the adsorption and mass transfer of chloride ions. The potential difference that was obtained from galvanostatic measurements at two different rotating speeds of a copper working electrode was confirmed to be an effective indicator of filling performance. A larger potential difference reflected better filling performance. The individual contribution of each additive in the potential difference was explored in detail. The leveler and chloride ion concentrations dominated the potential difference, i.e., the filling performance. When the potential difference was larger than a critical value, i.e., 11 mV, the filling performance was higher than 80. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

Donati S.,University of Pavia | Donati S.,National Chung Hsing University | Martini G.,University of Pavia | Tambosso T.,Da - Yeh University
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics | Year: 2013

We analyze the random errors occurring in interferometric measurements because of the speckle pattern regime, when the remote target is a diffusing surface. First, we review the statistical properties of speckle and discuss amplitude fading that is affecting the self-mixing interferometer (SMI) signal and methods to alleviate it. Second, we derive intra-speckle phase errors using the bivariate conditional probability, and find that the noise-equivalent- displacement for small displacement Δ is proportional to the ratio of Δ to speckle longitudinal size sl. Last, we extend the analysis to inter-speckle displacements (Δ>sl) and, after deriving speckle systematic and random errors, show that operation up to meters on a diffusing surface target is possible with a small (λ) error. Results are mainly focussed on SMI, yet they have general validity for any configuration of interferometry. © 1965-2012 IEEE.

Wang J.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin W.,Fu Jen Catholic University | Huang Y.-H.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Technovation | Year: 2010

Uncertainty is one of the major inherent difficulties in developing innovative products, due to their highly dynamic markets and technologies. The presence of a large degree of uncertainty leads to high R&D risks, resulting in many R&D failures. Therefore, it is important to manage R&D risks through all R&D stages to improve R&D project success rates. This paper proposes a new risk management framework that aligns project risk management with corporate strategy and a performance measurement system to increase success rates of R&D projects and to accomplish corporate strategic goals. The balanced scorecard is used to identify major performance measures of an R&D organization based on the firm vision and strategy. Quality function deployment is adapted to transform organizational performance measures into project performance measures and a systematic procedure is developed for risk identification, assessment, response planning, and control. The proposed risk management framework enables an R&D project to be focused on achieving the corporate goals and provides a more effective way to identify, assess, analyze, and monitor R&D risks along the project cycle. The proposed methodology is illustrated with a drug development project. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chen C.-Y.,National Chiayi University | Yu F.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Geomorphology | Year: 2011

Important factors for the initiation of debris flows include available loose sediment, torrential rainfall, and topographic conditions. The objective of this study is to identify topographic features of debris flows and conditions favorable for debris-flow initiation based on geomorphological analyses of 11 river basins in northern and central Taiwan. Morphometric indices were derived from 10-m grid digital terrain models before and after debris flow events using GIS. The indices include the stream power index (SPI), topographic wetness index (TWI), sediment transport capacity index, elevation-relief ratio, form factor, effective basin area, and slope gradient. The results show that debris flows tend to initiate from steep slopes or landslides with higher TWI values. Debris flows are expected in basins with higher SPI and TWI. Basins with lower slope gradients and SPI but higher TWI may also have a high potential for debris flow. SPI changes most significantly due to a debris flow event particularly in steep basins. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Lee K.-W.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chen P.W.,National Chiayi University | Yu S.-M.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Yu S.-M.,National Chung Hsing University
Plant, Cell and Environment | Year: 2014

Rice is characterized by a broad range of metabolic and morphological adaptations to flooding, such as germination and mobilization of stored nutrients under submergence until seedlings reach the water surface to carry out photosynthesis, and sustainable growth of mature plants for long durations under partial submergence. The underlying mechanisms of the molecular basis of adaptation to anaerobic germination and seedling growth in rice are being uncovered. Induction of an ensemble of hydrolases to mobilize endosperm nutrient reserves is one of the key factors for successful germination and coleoptile elongation in rice under submergence. To compensate for reduced efficiency of Tricarboxylic Acid cycle and oxidative respiration in mitochondria under O2 deficient conditions, α-amylases play a central role in the hydrolysis of starch to provide sugar substrates for glycolysis and alcohol fermentation for generating ATP. We review the progress on the molecular mechanism regulating α-amylase expression that involves the integration of signals generated by the hormone gibberellin (GA), sugar starvation and O2 deprivation that results in germination and sustainable seedling growth in rice under anaerobic conditions. Comparisons are also made between dicots and monocots for the molecular mechanism of induction of genes involved in alcohol fermentation and sugar/O2 deficiency sensing system. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Weng C.-J.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen M.-J.,Tainan University of Technology | Yeh C.-T.,Taipei Medical University | Yen G.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
New Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Flavonoids are natural phenolic substances widely found in fruit, vegetables, grains, and wine. Most of these compounds exert health-promoting effects seem to attribute to their antioxidant activity. Metallothioneins (MT) has been suggested to protect against acute heavy metal toxicity in the liver, and the proteins of MT can be induced by various stimuli including antioxidant. Measuring the induction of MT genes may provide an efficient approach to understand the chemopreventive mechanisms of flavonoids. The antioxidant activity of eight flavonoids was determined by TEAC and ORAC assays and their effects on MT protein were also measured. HepG2 cells were employed to explore the mechanisms underlying flavonoid-induced MT induction. Statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation between the antioxidant activity of flavonoids and MT expression. Quercetin-induced MT expression may function by activating the phosphorylation of JNK, p38 and PI3K/Akt as well as by enhancing Nrf2 DNA-binding activity. Moreover, quercetin exhibited a potential protective effect on t-BHP-caused injury in hepatocytes through the induction of MT. These results suggest that quercetin is a natural antioxidant in the diet and the consumption of foods that are rich in quercetin could be beneficial for the prevention of environmental oxidant-induced liver damage. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Lai H.-T.,National Chiayi University | Wang T.-S.,National Chiayi University | Chou C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

In this study, the effects of natural, visible and ultraviolet lights, microbial activities and aerobic and anaerobic conditions on degradation of four different sulfonamide antibiotics (SAs) were studied. Water and sediment collected from a marine shrimp pond were examined and a factorial design was employed to evaluate the effects of selected parameters. The results showed that all the SAs in water and sediment had significant declines attributed to natural light and microbial activities. The half-lives (t 1/2s) of SAs in non-sterile water and sediment samples under natural light were 2.0-15.0 and 0.7-7.3days, respectively, and slowed to 2.9-62.9 and 6.9-85.6days after sterilized. Moreover, the declines of SAs were significantly faster under ultraviolet than visible light with 36.5-70.9% shorter t 1/2s. Anaerobic condition was also effective on declines of SAs in sediment. Both sulfate-reducing and methanogenic microbes were directly involved in the decline of SDM, and indirectly contributed to SMX declines. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Hwang S.-L.,Food Industry Research and Development Institute | Shih P.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Yen G.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Recent attention has been given to the influence of dietary factors on health and mental well-being. Oxidative stress is associated with many diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. Dietary flavonoids exert cardioprotective, chemopreventive, and neuroprotective effects. The biological activities of flavonoids have been attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and signaling properties. A clear understanding of the mechanisms of action, as either antioxidants or signaling molecules, is crucial for the application of flavonoids as interventions in neurodegeneration and as brain foods. Citrus flavonoids exert little adverse effect and have low or no cytotoxicity to healthy, normal cells. The main citrus flavonoids can also traverse the blood-brain barrier; hence, they are promising candidates for intervention in neurodegeneration and as constituents in brain foods. In this review, we discuss the bioactivity, multiple neuroprotection mechanisms, and antioxidant and signaling properties of citrus flavonoids. Receptor-mediated neuroprotective actions and parallel signaling pathways are also explored. Finally, the induction of cellular defense proteins against oxidative stress and neurotoxicity by hesperetin, a main and widespread citrus flavonoid, are also discussed. It is suggested that citrus fruits, which are rich in abundant sources of hesperetin and other flavonoids, are promising for the development of general food-based neuroprotection and brain foods. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Hwang J.D.,National Chiayi University | Lin Y.L.,National Chung Hsing University | Kung C.Y.,National Chung Hsing University
Nanotechnology | Year: 2013

Various seed layers were prepared on a Si substrate using the sol-gel (SG) or hydrothermal (HT) method and then ZnO nanocrystal was grown on the seed layer by an HT process. Au/ZnO nanocrystal Schottky diodes (SDs) were fabricated to study the effects of various seed layers on the electrical properties of Au/ZnO SDs. The observations showed that large numbers of Zn vacancies were present near the interface of Au/ZnO with an HT seed layer. The Zn vacancy plays an acceptor-like role, which raises the barrier height of the Au/ZnO SDs to 0.79 eV with a rectifying ratio of more than 8000. Hence, a non-surface-treated Au/ZnO SD was achieved as compared to those of other reported oxygen-plasma treated surfaces. In contrast, oxygen vacancies appear near the interface of Au/ZnO with an SG seed layer. The O vacancy plays a donor-like role, which reduces the barrier height of Au/ZnO, leading to an Ohmic behavior in the I-V characteristics. Zn out-diffusion is found during Au evaporation by of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Li C.-T.,Tainan University of Technology | Lee C.-W.,National Chung Hsing University | Shen J.-J.,National Chung Hsing University
Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2015

In this paper, we propose an extended chaotic maps-based keyword search scheme over encrypted data resist outside and inside keyword guessing attacks in cloud storage services, which achieves the essential requirements of a secure cloud storage service. A secure cloud storage service has to satisfy five security requirements: consistency, ciphertext indistinguishability, trapdoor indistinguishability and resist off-line keyword guessing attacks (including off-line outside keyword guessing attack and off-line inside keyword guessing attack). Moreover, due to the characteristics of extended chaotic maps and session key establishment, which allow two communication parties to agree a common session key and the agreed session key is only known by the data sender and the authorized data receiver. Therefore, in this paper, we integrated the concept of session key establishment and extended chaotic maps into our proposed scheme which aims to resist the off-line keyword guessing attacks not only from the outside cloud attackers but also from an inside malicious cloud server. To the best of our knowledge, none of the recently proposed secure keyword search schemes can resist inside keyword guessing attacks and this work is the first attempt to provide a secure keyword search scheme without inside keyword guessing attacks in cloud storage services. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Jeng B.-W.,National Taichung University of Education | Wang Y.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Chien C.-S.,Chien Hsin University of Science and Technology
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2013

We describe an efficient two-parameter continuation algorithm combined with spectral collocation methods for computing the ground state and central vortex state solutions of rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices, where the first kind and second kind Chebyshev polynomials are used as the basis functions for the trial function space. By treating the chemical potential and angular velocity as the continuation parameters simultaneously under the additional constraint of normalization condition, the proposed algorithm can effectively compute numerical solutions for a rich variety of physical phenomena observed in physical experiments with very little cost. Comparisons with various numerical methods on some sample test problems are reported. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wang M.W.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin C.H.,National Chung Hsing University | Juang T.Y.,National Chiayi University
Macromolecules | Year: 2013

Primary amine-containing benzoxazines 3 and 6 were prepared from an unsymmetrical diamine 1, in which the amine group ortho to diethyl substituents, the hindered amine, is not reactive toward aldehyde at room temperature. Based on 6, three poly(benzoxazine imide) (PBzI) thermosets were prepared by low-temperature polymerization, followed by thermal treatment. Experimental data show that incorporating thermosetting benzoxazine into a polyimide increased the Tg, tensile modulus, dimensional stability, flame retardancy, and contact angle without sacrificing too much in thermal stability. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Li C.-T.,Tainan University of Technology | Hwang M.-S.,National Chung Hsing University
International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control | Year: 2010

In this article, we propose an online (t,n) threshold secret sharing scheme, in which the system, will disperse a, primary secret sharing key K for n users, and, at least t users together can reconstruct the secret K. The security of our scheme is based, on biometric verification and threshold password authentication. Therefore, the scheme is not only secure against several common attacks, but is also appropriate to be applied, to other applications such as entrance guard, systems and, treasury management systems. © 2010 ISSN.

Weng C.-J.,Tainan University of Technology | Chou C.-P.,National Chung Hsing University | Ho C.-T.,Rutgers University | Yen G.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2012

Scope: We previously demonstrated that 6-shogaol and 6-gingerol, two active compounds in ginger (Zingiber officinale), possess antiinvasive activity against highly metastatic hepatoma cells. The aims of this study were to evaluate the inhibitory effect and molecular mechanism underlying the transcription and translation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in Hep3B cells as well as the antiangiogenic activity of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol. Methods and results: By gelatin zymography and luciferase reporter gene assays, we found that 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol regulate MMP-2/-9 transcription. Moreover, 6-gingerol directly decreased expression of uPA, but the 6-shogaol-mediated decrease in uPA was accompanied by up-regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1. 6-Gingerol and 6-shogaol concentrations of ≥10 μM and ≥2.5 μM, respectively, significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3K/Akt signaling, the activation of NF-κB, and the translocation of NF-κB and STAT3. Incubation of 6-gingerol or 6-shogaol with human umbilical vein endothelial cells or rat aortas significantly attenuated tube formation. Conclusion: 6-Shogaol and 6-gingerol effectively inhibit invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma through diverse molecular mechanisms, including inhibition of the MAPK and PI3k/Akt pathways and NF-κB and STAT3 activities to suppress expression of MMP-2/-9 and uPA and block angiogenesis. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Weng C.-J.,Tainan University of Technology | Yen G.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews | Year: 2012

Cancer metastasis refers to the spread of cancer cells from the primary neoplasm to distant sites, where secondary tumors are formed, and is the major cause of death from cancer. Natural phytochemicals containing phenolic compounds have been widely demonstrated to have the capability to prevent cancer metastasis. Among phenolic compounds, flavonoids are a very large subclass, and they are abundant in food and nutraceuticals. The number of reports demonstrating that flavonoids are an effective natural inhibitor of cancer invasion and metastasis is increasing in the scientific literature. Catechin derivatives, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, and (-)-epicatechin, are the most studied compounds in this topic so far; genistein/genistin, silibinin, quercetin, and anthocyanin have also been widely investigated for their inhibitory activities on invasion/metastasis. Other flavonoids in dietary vegetable foods that are responsible for anti-invasive and anti-metastatic activities of tumors include luteolin, apigenin, myricetin, tangeretin, kaempferol, glycitein, licoricidin, daidzein, and naringenin. To effectively overcome the metastatic cascade, including cell-cell attachment, tissue-barrier degradation, migration, invasion, cell-matrix adhesion, and angiogenesis, it is essential that a bioactive compound prevent tumor cells from metastasizing. This review summarizes the effects of flavonoids on the metastatic cascade and the related proteins, the in vitro anti-invasive activity of flavonoids against cancer cells, and the effects of flavonoids on anti-angiogenic and in vivo anti-metastatic models. The available scientific evidence indicates that flavonoids are a ubiquitous dietary phenolics subclass and exert extensive in vitro anti-invasive and in vivo anti-metastatic activities. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Hsu C.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Nieh M.-P.,University of Connecticut | Lai P.-S.,National Chung Hsing University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2012

A robust and uniform porphysome, which reveals an efficient photodynamic therapy and contrast-enhanced ultrasonic imaging for theranostic applications, can be fabricated from a 4-armed porphyrin-polylactide conjugate. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Weng C.-J.,Tainan University of Technology | Yen G.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Cancer Treatment Reviews | Year: 2012

Cancer metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related death, and chemoprevention is defined as the use of natural or synthetic substances to prevent cancer formation or cancer progress. Evidence that phenolic compounds may have a potential inhibitory effect on cancer invasion and metastasis is increasingly being reported in the scientific literature. Curcumin, resveratrol, and their related derivatives are the most studied compounds in this topic so far; gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, carnosol, capsaicin, 6-shogaol, 6-gingerol, and their corresponding derivatives are also suggested to be the active members of the phenolic family on anti-invasion and anti-metastasis. Because metastasis occurs through a multistep process, these bioactives might act on a variety of stages of the metastatic process to prevent tumor cells from metastasizing. This review summarizes the common protein targets and signaling pathways for the inhibition of invasion and metastasis as well as past publications on the in vitro and in vivo effects and molecular mechanisms of phenolic acids, monophenol, polyphenol, and their derivatives, except flavonoids, on cancer invasion and metastasis. Based on these data, we conclude that the daily consumption of natural dietary components that are rich in phenolics could be beneficial for the prevention of cancer metastasis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Tseng L.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Han T.-Y.,Chienkuo Technical University
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation | Year: 2010

We present a new evolutionary design method using genetic local search (GLS) algorithm to obtain broad/dual-band characteristics for circular polarization (CP) slot antennas. By employing this computer-aided design (CAD) technique, optimal or near-optimal impedance and axial-ratio bandwidths for a given operating frequency can be achieved without using the trial and error method. In our method, several key parameters were first investigated, and their effects on both the input impedance and the axial-ratio were obtained by simulation. Different local search procedures used in the GLS algorithm were then developed. The proposed design technique was evaluated by designing antennas using different slot shapes: the ellipse, the equilateral triangle, and the square. These antenna prototypes were constructed and measured to provide validation of the design method. © 2006 IEEE.

Kuo B.-C.,National Taichung University of Education | Ho H.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Li C.-H.,Wuyi University | Hung C.-C.,Southern Polytechnic State University | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing | Year: 2014

Hyperspectral imaging fully portrays materials through numerous and contiguous spectral bands. It is a very useful technique in various fields, including astronomy, medicine, food safety, forensics, and target detection. However, hyperspectral images include redundant measurements, and most classification studies encountered the Hughes phenomenon. Finding a small subset of effective features to model the characteristics of classes represented in the data for classification is a critical preprocessing step required to render a classifier effective in hyperspectral image classification. In our previous work, an automatic method for selecting the radial basis function (RBF) parameter (i.e., $ \sigma $) for a support vector machine (SVM) was proposed. A criterion that contains the between-class and within-class information was proposed to measure the separability of the feature space with respect to the RBF kernel. Thereafter, the optimal RBF kernel parameter was obtained by optimizing the criterion. This study proposes a kernel-based feature selection method with a criterion that is an integration of the previous work and the linear combination of features. In this new method, two properties can be achieved according to the magnitudes of the coefficients being calculated: the small subset of features and the ranking of features. Experimental results on both one simulated dataset and two hyperspectral images (the Indian Pine Site dataset and the Pavia University dataset) show that the proposed method improves the classification performance of the SVM. © 2008-2012 IEEE.

Wang Y.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Jeng B.-W.,National Taichung University of Education | Chien C.-S.,Chien Hsin University of Science and Technology
Communications in Computational Physics | Year: 2013

We study efficient spectral-collocation and continuation methods (SCCM) for rotating two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and rotating two-component BECs in optical lattices, where the second kind Chebyshev polynomials are used as the basis functions for the trial function space. A novel two-parameter continuation algorithm is proposed for computing the ground state and first excited state solutions of the governing Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPEs), where the classical tangent vector is split into two constraint conditions for the bordered linear systems. Numerical results on rotating two-component BECs and rotating two-component BECs in optical lattices are reported. The results on the former are consistent with the published numerical results. © 2013 Global-Science Press.

Lee C.-C.,Fu Jen Catholic University | Chung P.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Hwang M.-S.,Asia University, Taiwan
International Journal of Network Security | Year: 2013

In Attribute-based Encryption (ABE) scheme, attributes play a very important role. Attributes have been ex- ploited to generate a public key for encrypting data and have been used as an access policy to control users' access. The access policy can be categorized as either key-policy or ciphertext-policy. The key-policy is the access struc-ture on the user's private key, and the ciphertext-policy is the access structure on the ciphertext. And the access structure can also be categorized as either monotonic or non-monotonic one. Using ABE schemes can have the advantages: (1) to reduce the communication overhead of the Internet, and (2) to provide ne fia-grained access control. In this paper, we survey a basic attribute-based encryption scheme, two various access policy attribute-based encryption schemes, and two various access struc-tures, which are analyzed for cloud environments. Finally, we list the comparisons of these schemes by some criteria for cloud environments.

Jiang Y.-R.,National Taichung University of Education | Lin H.-P.,National Taichung University of Education | Chung W.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Dai Y.-M.,National Taichung University of Education | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2015

A series of BiOxCly/BiOmIn composites were prepared using autoclave hydrothermal methods. The composition and morphologies of the BiOxCly/BiOmIn composites were controlled by adjusting the experimental conditions: the reaction pH value, temperature, and KCl/KI molar ratio. The products were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface areas, cathodoluminescence, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic efficiencies of composite powder suspensions were evaluated by monitoring the crystal violet (CV) concentrations. In addition, the quenching effects of various scavengers indicated that the reactive O2 - played a major role, and OH or h+ played a minor role in CV degradation. The intermediates formed during the decomposition process were isolated, identified, and characterized using high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to elucidate the CV decomposition mechanism. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Tseng H.-W.,National Chung Hsing University | Chuang Y.-R.,Fu Jen Catholic University
IEEE Sensors Journal | Year: 2013

In IEEE 802.15.4 wireless personal area networks (WPANs), reliable data transmission is an important issue in areas such as body information for medical treatments. Some handshaking mechanisms in literatures are studied and proposed to guarantee successful data frame transmission. One is to adopt ACK frame, which is replied by the receiver back to the sender when the data frame is correctly received. This is a popular mechanism. However, there are many different reasons, such as the fading channel, data frame collision, and hidden terminal problem, by which data frames cannot be correctly received on the receiver. Therefore, a sender should have different data retransmission policies and procedures for data frame retransmission. Neglecting these measures of failed transmission, the data frame retransmission may fail again, and the transmission efficiency will be degraded. In this paper, we propose a cross-layer judgment scheme (CL-JS) to solve the retransmission problem. It does not require the extra control overhead, but it can correctly judge the reasons of failed transmission from overlapped signals. Thus, the sender can adaptively adjust system parameters to handle the different retransmission procedures. Simulation results validated by mathematical analysis show that the proposed scheme significantly improves the goodput with the reduction in power consumption. © 2001-2012 IEEE.

Chen C.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Lu C.-W.,National Chung Hsing University | Huang S.-M.,Army Academy | Dow W.-P.,National Chung Hsing University
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2011

The filling of micron through-holes (THs) in a printed circuit board (PCB) by copper electroplating was investigated in this study. The role of supporting electrolytes, such as H2SO4, Na2SO4 and K2SO4, was explored using practical TH filling plating and linear-sweep voltammetry (LSV) analysis of plating solutions. The copper could selectively fill THs using one organic additive, namely, tetranitroblue tetrazolium chloride (TNBT), as an inhibitor. The inhibiting strength of TNBT depended on the supporting electrolytes. Although H2SO4 could enhance the inhibiting strength of TNBT, it also decreased the filling capability of the copper plating solution; Na2SO4 and K2SO4 did not enhance the inhibiting strength of TNBT but they increased the filling capability of the copper plating solution. Additionally, the protons could chemically interact with TNBT to form precipitate, whereas sodium and potassium ions did not easily interact with TNBT. The filling capability of the copper plating solution using Na 2SO4 and K2SO4 as supporting electrolytes could be greatly improved by adding a small amount of bis(3-sulfopropyl)-disulfide (SPS) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with a molecular weight of 600. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All Rights Reserved.

Chen H.-C.,Da - Yeh University | Chen J.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang C.,National Chung Hsing University | Shieh C.-J.,National Chung Hsing University
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry | Year: 2011

The ultrasound-accelerated enzymatic synthesis of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) from caffeic acid and phenethyl alcohol was investigated in this study. A commercial immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica, called Novozym® 435, was used as the catalyst. A 5-level-4-factor central-composite rotatable design (CCRD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were employed to evaluate the effects of reaction time, substrate molar ratio, enzyme amount, and ultrasonic power on percent molar conversion of CAPE. The results indicated that reaction time, substrate molar ratio, and ultrasonic power significantly affected percent molar conversion, whereas enzyme amount did not. A model for synthesis of CAPE was established. Based on ridge max analysis, the optimum condition for CAPE synthesis was predicted to be reaction time 9.6h, substrate molar ratio 1:71, enzyme amount 2938 PLU, and ultrasonic power 2W/cm2 with the molar conversion value of 96.03±5.18%. An experiment was performed under this optimal condition and molar conversion of 93.08±0.42% was obtained. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Tsai M.F.,Da - Yeh University | Wang C.C.,Fu Jen Catholic University | Chen J.J.W.,National Chung Hsing University
World Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2014

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality throughout the world. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85% of all diagnosed lung cancers. Despite considerable progress in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, the overall 5-year survival rate of NSCLC patients remains lower than 15%. The most common causes of death in lung cancer patients are treatment failure and metastasis. Therefore, developing novel strategies that target both tumour growth and metastasis is an important and urgent mission for the next generation of anticancer therapy research. Heat shock proteins (HSPs), which are involved in the fundamental defence mechanism for maintaining cellular viability, are markedly activated during environmental or pathogenic stress. HSPs facilitate rapid cell division, metastasis, and the evasion of apoptosis in cancer development. These proteins are essential players in the development of cancer and are prime therapeutic targets. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for HLJ1's role in lung cancer carcinogenesis and progression. HLJ1, a member of the human HSP 40 family, has been characterised as a tumour suppressor. Research studies have also reported that HLJ1 shows promising dual anticancer effects, inhibiting both tumour growth and metastasis in NSCLC. The accumulated evidence suggests that HLJ1 is a potential biomarker and treatment target for NSCLC. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

Li C.-T.,Tainan University of Technology | Yang C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Hwang M.-S.,Asia University, Taiwan
International Journal of Mobile Communications | Year: 2012

In Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), available nodes must act as their own router and also rely on other nodes to relay communication packets. However, some intermediate nodes may refuse to forward packets to other nodes or discard route-discovery requests from others to save power, as much as those consumed during the message transmission phase. In order to prevent node selfishness, we have proposed a novel approach to message security using a payment-based mechanism in MANETs. In this way, the proposed routing protocol with payment mechanism not only avoids the selfish nodes that may refuse to route packets, but also restrains the nodes from sending useless packets into the networks. Finally, the proposed payment mechanism ensures ad hoc communications in a selfless environment by providing economic encouragement to enforce node cooperation in MANETs. Copyright © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Wang Y.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Yi T.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin K.-H.,Kaohsiung Medical University
American Journal of Chinese Medicine | Year: 2011

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) have resulted in severe pathogenesis caused by the host's immune response, including the cytokine cascade. Paris polyphylla Smith is a folk medicinal plant in Asia traditionally prescribed for the reduction of pain and elimination of poisoning. In this study, we investigated the anti-EV71 and CVB3 activity of P. polyphylla Smith as well as its immune modulation. The IC 50 for the P. polyphylla Smith 95% ethanol extract against EV71 and CVB3 were 12.523% and 99156% of that of ribavirin, a positive control. Prevention of viral infection, viral inactivation, and anti-viral replication effects against both EV71 and CVB3 were demonstrated by the extract, the anti-viral replication effect being dominant. The extract significantly increased IL-6 production in both EV71- and CVB3-infected cells. A high correlation was possibly demonstrated between the high amounts of IL-6 induction in the EV71 and CVB3-infected cells and the anti-viral replication activity of the extract. In conclusion, good anti-EV71 and CVB3 activity was observed in the P. polyphylla Smith 95% ethanol extract. The high amounts of IL-6 induction in the virus-infected cells played a key role in the anti-viral activity of the extract. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company & Institute for Advanced Research in Asian Science and Medicine.

Ou J.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Mizushina Y.,Kobe Gakuin University | Wang S.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Chuang D.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | And 2 more authors.
FEBS Journal | Year: 2013

Curcumin (Cur) is a commonly used colouring agent and spice in food. Previously, we reported that Cur inhibits type A influenza virus (IAV) infection by interfering with viral haemagglutination (HA) activity. To search for a stable Cur analogue with potent anti-IAV activity and to investigate the structure contributing to its anti-IAV activity, a comparative analysis of structural and functional analogues of Cur, such as tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) and petasiphenol (Pet), was performed. The result of time-of-drug addition tests indicated that these curcuminoids were able to inhibit IAV production in cell cultures. Noticeably, Pet and THC inhibit IAV to a lesser extent than Cur, which is in line with their effect on reducing plaque formation when IAV was treated with Cur analogues before infection. Unexpectedly, both THC and Pet did not harbour any HA inhibitory effect. It should be noted that the structure of Pet and THC differs from Cur with respect to the number of double bonds present in the central seven-carbon chain, and structure modelling of Cur analogues indicates that the conformations of THC and Pet are distinct from that of Cur. Moreover, simulation docking of Cur with the HA structure revealed that Cur binds to the region constituting sialic acid anchoring residues, supporting the results obtained by the inhibition of HA activity assay. Collectively, structure-activity relationship analyses indicate that the presence of the double bonds in the central seven-carbon chain enhanced the Cur -dependent anti-IAV activity and also that Cur might interfere with IAV entry by its interaction with the receptor binding region of viral HA protein. We demonstrated two curcumin derivatives (Pet and THC) exhibit anti-influenza virus activity. Structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that the two-enone functional groups, as an acceptor of Michael addition conjugation, attribute to the differential inhibitory effect of curcuminoids. Collectively, experimental evidences and in silico docking simulation indicated that curcumin effectively blocks influenza entry by interrupting the interaction of HA protein with cellular receptor. © 2013 FEBS.

Hwang J.-D.,National Chiayi University | Kung C.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin Y.-L.,National Chung Hsing University
IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology | Year: 2013

Nonsurface-treated zinc oxide (ZnO) Schottky diodes were fabricated on a Si substrate using one of two different seed layers, prepared by either the sol-gel or hydrothermal method. Then, ZnO film was grown on a seed layer by the hydrothermal method, and Au/ZnO Schottky diodes were fabricated to study the effects of different seed layers on the electric behavior. Observations show that the Schottky diodes grown on a hydrothermal seed layer exhibit very good rectifying behavior with a rectification ratio as large as 8000 at a bias voltage of ±2 V. In contrast, an ohmic behavior is observed in the Schottky diodes with sol-gel seed layer. Capacitance-voltage measurements demonstrate that the Schottky diodes grown on the hydrothermal seed layer have a Schottky barrier height of 0.77 eV as a result of Zn vacancies. However, a surface downward band bending is obtained in the ZnO grown on the sol-gel seed layer. The downward band bending renders a high carrier concentration on the ZnO surface, which is caused by the oxygen vacancies. Atomic ratio of Zn/O was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and carrier transport mechanism was studied by current-voltage measurement. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

Eren M.I.,University of Kent | Chao A.,National Tsing Hua University | Hwang W.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Colwell R.K.,University of Connecticut
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Estimating assemblage species or class richness from samples remains a challenging, but essential, goal. Though a variety of statistical tools for estimating species or class richness have been developed, they are all singly-bounded: assuming only a lower bound of species or classes. Nevertheless there are numerous situations, particularly in the cultural realm, where the maximum number of classes is fixed. For this reason, a new method is needed to estimate richness when both upper and lower bounds are known. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here, we introduce a new method for estimating class richness: doubly-bounded confidence intervals (both lower and upper bounds are known). We specifically illustrate our new method using the Chao1 estimator, rarefaction, and extrapolation, although any estimator of asymptotic richness can be used in our method. Using a case study of Clovis stone tools from the North American Lower Great Lakes region, we demonstrate that singly-bounded richness estimators can yield confidence intervals with upper bound estimates larger than the possible maximum number of classes, while our new method provides estimates that make empirical sense. Conclusions/Significance: Application of the new method for constructing doubly-bound richness estimates of Clovis stone tools permitted conclusions to be drawn that were not otherwise possible with singly-bounded richness estimates, namely, that Lower Great Lakes Clovis Paleoindians utilized a settlement pattern that was probably more logistical in nature than residential. However, our new method is not limited to archaeological applications. It can be applied to any set of data for which there is a fixed maximum number of classes, whether that be site occupancy models, commercial products (e.g. athletic shoes), or census information (e.g. nationality, religion, age, race). © 2012 Eren et al.

Huang Y.-J.,National Chiayi University | Lee F.-F.,National Chung Hsing University
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2010

A vision-guided grasping system for Phalaenopsis tissue culture plantlets (PTCPs) was developed and tested. In manually transplanting Phalaenopsis plantlets, the plantlet is usually grasped at the root or the stem since the leaf is fragile and is easily damaged by the gripper. An image-processing algorithm for locating a grasping point was employed to determine a suitable grasping point on the roots. A binocular stereovision algorithm was applied to compute the 3D coordinates of the grasping point. Furthermore, a grasping device with a gripper suitable for grasping the PTCP plantlet was developed and tested. Finally, the binocular vision locating algorithm was then integrated with the robotic gripper in order to construct an automatic PTCP grasping system. The experimental results indicated that the automatic grasping system had a success rate of 78.2% in grasping the plantlets in an appropriate position. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Galula U. J.U.,National Chung Hsing University | Shen W.-F.,National Chung Hsing University | Chuang S.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang G.-J.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Chao D.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Virology | Year: 2014

Dengue virus (DENV), composed of four distinct serotypes, is the most important and rapidly emerging arthropod-borne pathogen and imposes substantial economic and public health burdens. We constructed candidate vaccines containing the DNA of five of the genotypes of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) and evaluated the immunogenicity, the neutralizing (Nt) activity of the elicited antibodies, and the protective efficacy elicited in mice immunized with the vaccine candidates. We observed a significant correlation between the level of in vitro virus-like particle secretion, the elicited antibody response, and the protective efficacy of the vaccines containing the DNA of the different DENV genotypes in immunized mice. However, higher total IgG antibody levels did not always translate into higher Nt antibodies against homologous and heterologous viruses.Wealso found that, in contrast to previous reports, more than 50% of total IgG targeted ectodomain III (EDIII) of the E protein, and a substantial fraction of this population was interdomain highly neutralizing flavivirus subgroup-cross-reactive antibodies, such as monoclonal antibody 1B7-5. In addition, the lack of a critical epitope(s) in the Sylvatic genotype virus recognized by interdomain antibodies could be the major cause of the poor protection of mice vaccinated with the Asian 1 genotype vaccine (pVD2-Asian 1) from lethal challenge with virus of the Sylvatic genotype. In conclusion, although the pVD2-Asian 1 vaccine was immunogenic, elicited sufficient titers of Nt antibodies against all DENV-2 genotypes, and provided 100% protection against challenge with virus of the homologous Asian 1 genotype and virus of the heterologous Cosmopolitan genotype, it is critical to monitor the potential emergence of Sylvatic genotype viruses, since vaccine candidates under development may not protect vaccinated humans from these viruses. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology.

Lin G.-S.,Da - Yeh University | Chang M.-K.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.-L.,National Chung Hsing University
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology | Year: 2011

In this paper, we propose a passive-blind scheme for detecting forged images. The scheme leverages quantization table estimation to measure the inconsistency among images. To improve the accuracy of the estimation process, each AC DCT coefficient is first classified into a specific type; then the corresponding quantization step size is measured adaptively from its energy density spectrum (EDS) and the EDS's Fourier transform. The proposed content-adaptive quantization table estimation scheme is comprised of three phases: pre-screening, candidate region selection, and tampered region identification. In the pre-screening phase, we determine whether an input image has been JPEG compressed, and count the number of quantization steps whose size is equal to one. To select candidate regions for estimating the quantization table, we devise a candidate region selection algorithm based on seed region generation and region growing. First, the seed region generation operation finds a suitable region by removing suspect regions, after which the selected seed region is merged with other suitable regions to form a candidate region. To avoid merging suspect regions, a candidate region refinement operation is performed in the region growing step. After estimating the quantization table from the candidate region, an maximum-likelihood-ratio classifier exploits the inconsistency of the quantization table to identify tampered regions block by block. To evaluate the scheme's performance in terms of tampering detection, three common forgery techniques, copy-paste tampering, inpainting, and composite tampering, are used. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can estimate quantization tables and identify tampered regions effectively. © 2006 IEEE.

Tao C.W.,National Ilan University | Taur J.S.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.C.,National Ilan University
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2010

In this paper, a helicopter-like twin rotor multi-input multi-output system (TRMS) is decoupled and is fuzzy Takagi-Sugeno modeled with the complex nonlinear functions simplified as the propositional combination of linear functions. The design procedures of the fuzzy Takagi-Sugeno model of TRMS are detailed. Based on the derived fuzzy Takagi-Sugeno model, parallel distributed fuzzy LQR controller are designed to control the positions of the pitch and yaw angles in TRMS. The stability of the TRMS system with the proposed fuzzy controllers is discussed. Moreover, simulation results are included to indicate the effectiveness of the presented parallel distributed fuzzy LQR controllers for the TRMS. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lin T.-P.,National Chung Hsing University | Tsai K.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Hwang R.-L.,National United University | Matzarakis A.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2012

Outdoor shading affects the thermal environment and human thermal comfort, thereby influencing the usage of space. The objective of this study is to establish a relationship between the thermal environment and number of people visiting an outdoor space, and to explore the utilization of outdoor space during different seasons with various shading levels. This study includes onsite investigations of the microclimate parameters of the thermal environment and attendance at a park in central Taiwan. The results in cool seasons showed a positive correlation among the air temperature, mean radiant temperature (Tmrt), and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) of shaded areas and the number of visitors. In hot seasons, the Tmrt and PET, which also reflect solar radiation conditions, are negatively correlated with the number of visitors. In other words, the higher Tmrt/PET values indicate that fewer people visit the park during the summer. Meanwhile, a significant correlation exists between park utilization and solar radiation conditions. This study proposes the use of area-averaged sky view factor (SVFa), instead of the traditional single-point sky view factor from fisheye photographs (SVFsp), as the indicator for measuring the shading level at various areas in parks. Analytical results indicate that the lower the SVFa, the higher the park utilization. This study highlights the importance of shade design in parks located in tropical or subtropical climates. The results can serve as a reference for park design in the future. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Tao C.W.,National Ilan University | Taur J.S.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang C.-W.,Chang Gung University | Chang Y.-H.,Chang Gung University
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2012

Wing rock is a highly nonlinear phenomenon in which aircrafts with slender delta wings undergo limit cycle roll oscillations at high angles of attack. A simplified type-2 fuzzy sliding controller is designed for suppressing wing rock phenomena and tracking the desired trajectories. To reduce the computational complexity of a type-reducer, the end points of a type-reduced set are approximated by the outputs of two standard fuzzy sliding mechanisms in the proposed simplified type-2 fuzzy sliding controller. Furthermore, the sliding modes of the fuzzy sliding control system are guaranteed. Simulation results are included to show the effectiveness of the proposed simplified type-2 fuzzy sliding controller. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Donati S.,University of Pavia | Donati S.,National Chung Hsing University | Norgia M.,Polytechnic of Milan
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics | Year: 2014

Self-mixing interferometry is a noncontact method well suited for measuring a variety of biological signals, like blood pressure wave at wrist and thorax (the optical stethoscope), blood velocity in vein and in external circulation, THz echoes from skin, ear drum vibration, and oculomotor reflex measurements. In this review, after presenting the underlying theory and the main developments of self-mixing, we analyze the applications to biosignal measurement reported so far, and illustrate potentialities and perspectives of the technique. © 2013 IEEE.

Hwang Y.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen W.-D.,TPV Technology Ltd | Hong C.-R.,United Microelectronics
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers | Year: 2014

Geometric Mean Decomposition (GMD) is considered an efficient precoding scheme in joint MIMO transceiver designs capable of facilitating asymptotically equivalent performance of maximum likelihood detector (MLD). In this paper, a low complexity and non-iterative GMD computing scheme featuring a divide-and-conquer approach is presented. It requires no iterative singular value decomposition (SVD) as pre-processing and is thus exempted from the convergence problem adverse to a constant throughput hardware implementation. The divide-and-conquer approach reduces the computing complexity and provides abundant computing parallelism. The basic operation of the proposed scheme is a real valued Givens rotation, which can be efficiently implemented using CORDIC algorithm. Computing complexity analyses indicate that the proposed scheme is at least 30% more computing efficient than other SVD based GMD computing schemes. Finally, a unified GMD/QRD design using a fully parallel and deeply pipelined architecture is presented. One GMD or QRD computation on a 4x4 complex-valued matrix can be accomplished every 4 clock cycles. Chip implementation in TSMC 90 nm CMOS technology shows that, with a maximum clock frequency up to 170 MHz, the design can perform 42.5 M GMD computations per second. The equivalent data rate is 1.02 Gbps for a 64 QAM modulation scheme. © 2004-2012 IEEE.

Tao C.W.,National Ilan University | Taur J.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang J.H.,National Ilan University | Su S.-F.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics | Year: 2010

In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy switched swing-up and sliding controller (AFSSSC) is proposed for the swing-up and position controls of a double-pendulum-and-cart system. The proposed AFSSSC consists of a fuzzy switching controller (FSC), an adaptive fuzzy swing-up controller (FSUC), and an adaptive hybrid fuzzy sliding controller (HFSC). To simplify the design of the adaptive HFSC, the double-pendulum-and-cart system is reformulated as a double-pendulum and a cart subsystem with matched time-varying uncertainties. In addition, an adaptive mechanism is provided to learn the parameters of the output fuzzy sets for the adaptive HFSC. The FSC is designed to smoothly switch between the adaptive FSUC and the adaptive HFSC. Moreover, the sliding mode and the stability of the fuzzy sliding control systems are guaranteed. Simulation results are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed AFSSSC. © 2009 IEEE.

Tao C.-W.,National Ilan University | Taur J.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang Y.-H.,Chang Gung University | Chang C.-W.,Chang Gung University
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2010

In this paper, a novel fuzzy-sliding and fuzzy-integral-sliding controller (FSFISC) is designed to position the yaw and pitch angles of a twin-rotor multi-inputmulti-output system (TRMS). With the coupling effects, which are considered as the uncertainties, the highly coupled nonlinear TRMS is pseudodecomposed into a horizontal subsystem and a vertical subsystem (VS). The proposed FSFISC consists of a fuzzy-sliding controller and an FISC for the horizontal and the VSs, respectively. The reaching conditions and the stability of the TRMS with the proposed controller are guaranteed. Simulation results are included to indicate that TRMS with the presented FSFISC can greatly alleviate the chattering effect and remain robust to the external disturbances. In addition, the performance comparisons with the proportionalintegraldifferential (PID) approach using a modified real-value-type genetic algorithm are provided to show that the FSFISC has better performance in the aspects of error and control indexes. © 2010 IEEE.

Chen Y.-T.,National Ilan University | Lu C.-J.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2014

This study investigated the effects of tetrachloroethene (PCE) on radon measurements that employed the liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method referring to 7500-Rn B of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Laboratory-produced radon-enriched water was used to compare the counting rates of the radon water with and without PCE addition, and groundwater samples from a site contaminated by chlorinated solvents were used to investigate the application of the laboratory experiments. The results showed that the major factor reducing counting efficiency was resulted from the interaction between PCE and a cocktail through the quench effect. The counting rate showed an exponentially decreasing trend when PCE addition was increased. The results indicated that a small addition of PCE reduced the counting rate considerably. An alternative energy channel 500-1000 to the optimal channel was suggested to attenuate the quench effect on radon measurement. The quench effect was also observed on samples from a site contaminated by chlorinated solvents. The concepts and procedures presented in this study are a reference for future research on the topic of chlorinated solvents or other quench chemicals involving in radon measurement. © 2013.

Tsai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin H.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Taur J.,National Chung Hsing University | Tao C.-W.,National Ilan University
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics | Year: 2012

In this paper, we propose a novel possibilistic fuzzy matching strategy with invariant properties, which can provide a robust and effective matching scheme for two sets of iris feature points. In addition, the nonlinear normalization model is adopted to provide more accurate position before matching. Moreover, an effective iris segmentation method is proposed to refine the detected inner and outer boundaries to smooth curves. For feature extraction, the Gabor filters are adopted to detect the local feature points from the segmented iris image in the Cartesian coordinate system and to generate a rotation-invariant descriptor for each detected point. After that, the proposed matching algorithm is used to compute a similarity score for two sets of feature points from a pair of iris images. The experimental results show that the performance of our system is better than those of the systems based on the local features and is comparable to those of the typical systems. © 2011 IEEE.

Yang T.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Leu S.-Y.,University of California at Los Angeles | Lo S.-F.,National Ilan University
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2012

Wood-plastic composite (WPC) is an environmentally progress way of combining recycled plastics and wood flour. The composite typically consists of four major elements: wood flour, thermoplastic plastics, coupling agent, and lubricant. The physical and mechanical properties of WPCs highly depend on the material formulation, and the optimal material composition is an essential topic of current research. This study investigated the effects of changing material compositions on the physical and mechanical properties of WPCs. The studied WPCs were extruded molding WPCs manufactured using recycled polypropylene (RPP) plastics and wood flour. The study evaluated four parameters: (1) wood flour particle size; (2) coupling agent dosage; (3) lubricant content; and (4) the mass ratio of wood and RPPs. The results showed that using finer wood flour (smaller than 125 μm) can improve the tensile and flexural strength of WPCs, and reduce the swelling due to water adsorption. The optimal concentration of the coupling agent (Maleic Anhydride Polypropylene) and lubricant (Zinc stearate) in WPCs were both 3%. Adding the proper amount of coupling agent can improve the mechanical properties and significantly reduce the swelling, but over-dosing the lubricant significantly increased swelling and reduced all the mechanical properties of the WPCs. Maintaining wood content at 50% or less produced the best mechanical properties, and wood content above approximately 50% resulted in reduction of all physical and mechanical properties of WPCs. The study demonstrated the relationship between moisture adsorption to thickness swelling. Reducing thickness swelling from water adsorption, or reducing the exposure of wood fibers to atmosphere, may also improve all the mechanical performances of WPCs. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

National Chung Hsing University, Tandon and Remsburg | Date: 2011-02-09

Base plate apparatus for mounting IGBT modules, the base plate apparatus includes a base plate with a mounting surface and an opposed surface. A tailored coefficient of thermal expansion interface layer is directly bonded to the mounting surface of the base plate and forms a mounting surface for mounting IGBT modules. The interface layer has a coefficient of thermal expansion ranging from approximately 4 ppm/C to approximately 12 ppm/C.

Huang W.-S.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Huang W.-S.,Cornell University | Greene H.W.,Cornell University | Chang T.-J.,National Chung Hsing University | Shine R.,University of Sydney
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2011

The independent evolutionary origin of a complex trait, within a lineage otherwise lacking it, provides a powerful opportunity to test hypotheses on selective forces. Territorial defense of an area containing resources (such as food or shelter) is widespread in lizards but not snakes. Our studies on an insular population of Taiwanese kukrisnakes (Oligodon formosanus) show that females of this species actively defend sea turtle nests by repelling conspecifics for long periods (weeks) until the turtle eggs hatch or are consumed. A clutch of turtle eggs comprises a large, long-lasting food resource, unlike the prey types exploited by other types of snakes. Snakes of this species have formidable weaponry (massively enlarged teeth that are used for slitting eggshells), and when threatened, these snakes wave their tails toward the aggressor (an apparent case of head-tail mimicry). Bites to the tail during intraspecific combat bouts thus can have high fitness costs for males (because the hemipenes are housed in the tail). In combination, unusual features of the species (ability to inflict severe damage to male conspecifics) and the local environment (a persistent prey resource, large relative to the snakes consuming it) render resource defense both feasible and advantageous for female kukrisnakes. The (apparently unique) evolution of territorial behavior in this snake species thus provides strong support for the hypothesis that resource defensibility is critical to the evolution of territoriality.

Huang Y.-F.,National Taiwan University | Kuan W.-H.,Ming Chi University of Technology | Chang C.-C.,Ming Chi University of Technology | Tzou Y.-M.,National Chung Hsing University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

Corn stover, which is one of the most abundant agricultural residues around the world, could be converted into valuable biofuels and bio based products by means of microwave pyrolysis. After the reaction at the microwave power level of 500W for the processing time of 30min, the reaction performance under N2 atmosphere was generally better than under CO2 atmosphere. This may be due to the better heat absorbability of CO2 molecules to reduce the heat for stover pyrolysis. Most of the metal-oxide catalysts effectively increased the maximum temperature and mass reduction ratio but lowered the calorific values of solid residues. The gas most produced was CO under N2 atmosphere but CO2 under CO2 atmosphere. Catalyst addition lowered the formation of PAHs and thus made liquid products less toxic. More liquid products and less gas products were generated when using the catalysts possibly due to the existence of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Hsueh S.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Lai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Chiu S.-H.,National Taiwan University
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2010

(Figure Presented) In a flash! A squaraine-based optical molecular switch functions with striking fluorescence signal changes that are visible to the naked eye (see figure). © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Chen P.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Cheng H.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Tang C.-H.,China Medical University at Taichung | Tang C.-H.,Asia University, Taiwan
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2013

Bone metastasis in patient with advanced-stage prostate cancer, the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in Western countries, increases the risk of intractable bone pain. The nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV/CCN3) gene, a member of the CCN gene family, is responsible for the secretion of CCN3, a matrixassociated protein involved in many cellular functions. However, the role of CCN3 in prostate cancer metastasis to bone is poorly understood. CCN3 was found to be highly expressed in bone metastasis patients and positively correlated with malignancy in human prostate cancer cells. Prostate cancer conditioned medium-induced osteoclast differentiation was inhibited by neutralizing antibody against CCN3. Specifically, CCN3 was found to induce osteoclastogenesis through the receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL)-dependent pathway, and the focal adhesion kinase/Akt/p38/NF-?B signal pathway was found to be involved in CCN3-mediated receptor activator of NF-?B expression and RANKL-dependent osteoclastogenesis. In contrast, osteoblasts were observed to play an important role in osteoclast differentiation by paracrine manner, with treatment of osteoblasts with CCN3 found to change the RANKL (osteoclastogenesis):OPG (antiosteoclastogenesis) ratio. Compared with parental PC3 cells, highly invasive PC3-I3 cells markedly enhanced osteoclast activity and bone metastasis in vivo. These results indicate that CCN3 can be used as a novel therapeutic target in the prevention of bone metastasis of prostate cancer. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Wang M.W.,National Taiwan University | Jeng R.J.,National Taiwan University | Lin C.H.,National Chung Hsing University
Macromolecules | Year: 2015

To discuss the mechanism of ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of benzoxazine, a bisphenol A/diaminodiphenylmethane-based polybenzoxazine precursor (PBz-0M), o-dimethylbisphenol A/diaminodiphenylmethane-based polybenzoxazine precursor (PBz-2M), and o-dimethylbisphenol A/o-tetramethyldiaminodiphenylmethane-based polybenzoxazine precursor (PBz-6M) were prepared. Among the polybenzoxazine precursors, free ortho positions to the O of oxazine are available for PBz-0M. No free ortho or para position to the O of oxazine is available for PBz-2M, but free ortho position to the N of oxazine is available. No free ortho positions to the O or N of oxazine are available for PBz-6M. According to DSC, IR, and thermal analysis, we found that the ROP of PBz-2M can be carried out even though no free ortho or para position to the O of oxazine is available. We conclude that the ROP is carried out through the ortho position to the N of oxazine and propose a reaction mechanism to explain the polymerization. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Chang C.-C.,National Taiwan University | Lin L.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Zou X.-W.,National Taiwan University | Zou X.-W.,National Chung Hsing University | And 3 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2015

The mer operon confers bacterial resistance to inorganic mercury (Hg2+) and organomercurials by encoding proteins involved in sensing, transport and detoxification of these cytotoxic agents. Expression of the mer operon is under tight control by the dual-function transcriptional regulator MerR. The metal-free, apo MerR binds to the mer operator/promoter region as a repressor to block transcription initiation, but is converted into an activator upon Hg2+-binding. To understand how MerR interacts with Hg2+ and how Hg2+-binding modulates MerR function, we report here the crystal structures of apo and Hg2+-bound MerR from Bacillus megaterium, corresponding respectively to the repressor and activator conformation of MerR. To our knowledge, the apo-MerR structure represents the first visualization of a MerR family member in its intact and inducer-free form. And the Hg2+-MerR structure offers the first view of a triligated Hg2+-thiolate center in a metalloprotein, confirming that MerR binds Hg2+ via trigonal planar coordination geometry. Structural comparison revealed the conformational transition of MerR is coupled to the assembly/disassembly of a buried Hg2+ binding site, thereby providing a structural basis for the Hg2+-mediated functional switching of MerR. The pronounced Hg2+-induced repositioning of the MerR DNA-binding domains suggests a plausible mechanism for the transcriptional regulation of the mer operon. © 2015 The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

Chen G.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen W.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Yen Y.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Wang C.-W.,National Taiwan University | And 2 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2014

An on-field colorimetric sensing strategy employing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and a paper-based analytical platform was investigated for mercury ion (Hg2+) detection at water sources. By utilizing thymine-Hg 2+-thymine (T-Hg2+-T) coordination chemistry, label-free detection oligonucleotide sequences were attached to unmodified gold nanoparticles to provide rapid mercury ion sensing without complicated and time-consuming thiolated or other costly labeled probe preparation processes. Not only is this strategy's sensing mechanism specific toward Hg2+, rather than other metal ions, but also the conformational change in the detection oligonucleotide sequences introduces different degrees of AuNP aggregation that causes the color of AuNPs to exhibit a mixture variance. To eliminate the use of sophisticated equipment and minimize the power requirement for data analysis and transmission, the color variance of multiple detection results were transferred and concentrated on cellulose-based paper analytical devices, and the data were subsequently transmitted for the readout and storage of results using cloud computing via a smartphone. As a result, a detection limit of 50 nM for Hg2+ spiked pond and river water could be achieved. Furthermore, multiple tests could be performed simultaneously with a 40 min turnaround time. These results suggest that the proposed platform possesses the capability for sensitive and high-throughput on-site mercury pollution monitoring in resource-constrained settings. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Wu C.-C.,National Taiwan University | Li Y.-C.,National Taiwan University | Li Y.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Wang Y.-R.,National Taiwan University | And 3 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2013

Type II topoisomerases (Top2s) alter DNA topology via the formation of an enzyme-DNA adduct termed cleavage complex, which harbors a transient double-strand break in one DNA to allow the passage of another. Agents targeting human Top2s are clinically active anticancer drugs whose trapping of Top2-mediated DNA breakage effectively induces genome fragmentation and cell death. To understand the structural basis of this drug action, we previously determined the structure of human Top2 β-isoform forming a cleavage complex with the drug etoposide and DNA, and described the insertion of drug into DNA cleavage site and drug-induced decoupling of catalytic groups. By developing a post-crystallization drug replacement procedure that simplifies structural characterization of drug-stabilized cleavage complexes, we have extended the analysis toward other structurally distinct drugs, m-AMSA and mitoxantrone. Besides the expected drug intercalation, a switch in ribose puckering in the 3′-nucleotide of the cleavage site was robustly observed in the new structures, representing a new mechanism for trapping the Top2 cleavage complex. Analysis of drug-binding modes and the conformational landscapes of the drug-binding pockets provide rationalization of the drugs' structural-activity relationships and explain why Top2 mutants exhibit differential effects toward each drug. Drug design guidelines were proposed to facilitate the development of isoform-specific Top2-targeting anticancer agents. © 2013 The Author(s).

Rodriguez-Celma J.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lin W.-D.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Fu G.-M.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Abadia J.,Aula Dei Experimental Station Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas | And 4 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

The generally low bioavailability of iron in aerobic soil systems forced plants to evolve sophisticated genetic strategies to improve the acquisition of iron from sparingly soluble and immobile iron pools. To distinguish between conserved and species-dependent components of such strategies, we analyzed iron deficiency-induced changes in the transcriptome of two model species, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and Medicago truncatula. Transcriptional profiling by RNA sequencing revealed a massive upregulation of genes coding for enzymes involved in riboflavin biosynthesis in M. truncatula and phenylpropanoid synthesis in Arabidopsis upon iron deficiency. Coexpression and promoter analysis indicated that the synthesis of flavins and phenylpropanoids is tightly linked to and putatively coregulated with other genes encoding proteins involved in iron uptake. We further provide evidence that the production and secretion of phenolic compounds is critical for the uptake of iron from sources with low bioavailability but dispensable under conditions where iron is readily available. In Arabidopsis, homozygous mutations in the Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase family gene F69H1 and defects in the expression of PLEIOTROPIC DRUG RESISTANCE9, encoding a putative efflux transporter for products from the phenylpropanoid pathway, compromised iron uptake from an iron source of low bioavailability. Both mutants were partially rescued when grown alongside wild-type Arabidopsis or M. truncatula seedlings, presumably by secreted phenolics and flavins. We concluded that production and secretion of compounds that facilitate the uptake of iron is an essential but poorly understood aspect of the reduction-based iron acquisition strategy, which is likely to contribute substantially to the efficiency of iron uptake in natural conditions. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

Huang G.-S.,National Taiwan University | Dai L.-G.,Kuang Tien General Hospital | Dai L.-G.,National Chung Hsing University | Yen B.L.,National Health Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2011

Stem cells can lose their primitive properties during in vitro culture. The culture substrate may affect the behavior of stem cells as a result of cell-substrate interaction. The maintenance of self-renewal for adult human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by a biomaterial substrate, however, has not been reported in literature. In this study, MSCs isolated from human adipose (hADAS) and placenta (hPDMC) were cultured on chitosan membranes and those further modified by hyaluronan (chitosan-HA). It was observed that the MSCs of either origin formed three-dimensional spheroids that kept attached on the membranes. Spheroid formation was associated with the increased MMP-2 expression. Cells on chitosan-HA formed spheroids more quickly and the size of spheroids were larger than on chitosan alone. The expression of stemness marker genes (Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog) for MSCs on the materials was analyzed by the real-time RT-PCR. It was found that formation of spheroids on chitosan and chitosan-HA membranes helped to maintain the expression of stemness marker genes of MSCs compared to culturing cells on polystyrene dish. The maintenance of stemness marker gene expression was especially remarkable in hPDMC spheroids (vs. hADAS spheroids). Blocking CD44 by antibodies prevented the spheroid formation and decreased the stemness gene expression moderately; while treatment by Y-27632 compound inhibited the spheroid formation and significantly decreased the stemness gene expression. Upon chondrogenic induction, the MSC spheroids showed higher levels of Sox9, aggrecan, and collagen type II gene expression and were stained positive for glycosaminoglycan and collagen type II. hPDMC had better chondrogenic differentiation potential than hADAS upon induction. Our study suggested that the formation of adhered spheroids on chitosan and chitosan-HA membranes may sustain the expression of stemness marker genes of MSCs and increase their chondrogenic differentiation capacity. The Rho/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway may be involved in spheroid formation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Hsu S.-H.,National Taiwan University | Chan S.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Chan S.-H.,Taichung Veterans General Hospital | Chiang C.-M.,Taichung Veterans General Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2011

The performance of an asymmetric conduit made of microporous polylactic acid (PLA) in promoting the long-term peripheral nerve regeneration across a 20-mm-long sciatic nerve gap was evaluated by a rabbit sciatic nerve transection model. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was employed to monitor the nerve regeneration process. The extents of nerve regeneration and conduit degradation were quantified by image analysis. Functional and histological analyses were followed to assess nerve reinnervation. MR images showed that the transected nerve was connected at about 4 months. The diameter of the regenerated nerve continued to increase while the conduit was gradually degraded. The conduit was completely degraded in 18 months. The degradation kinetics in vivo was estimated based on MR images. The functional recovery after 18 months was ∼82% based on electrophysiology. The extension range of the operated limb was slowly recuperated to ∼81% at 18 months. Histology showed that nerve bundles were self-assembled after 16-18 months, but the morphologies were still different from those of normal sciatic nerve. This was the first work on the long-term evaluation of peripheral nerve regeneration in a rabbit model, and the first to report the use of MRI to obtain the real-time images of regenerated nerve in a biomaterial conduit as well as to define the degradation rate of the conduit in vivo. The platform established in this study serves to evaluate the regeneration of larger-diameter (>3-mm) nerve across a long-gap bridged by a conduit. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Shih Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | Chen M.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Chen M.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Su Y.-F.,National Taiwan University
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2011

Bimetallic nanoparticles have been used for effective reduction of chlorinated compounds; however, the study of cation effect on degradation is limited. This study examined the effect of three selected cations normally co-present in soil and groundwater contamination sites on the degradation kinetics and removal efficiency of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by Pd/Fe nanoparticles. Degradation of PCP by Pd/Fe nanoparticles was carried out in aqueous solutions containing different cations in sulfate form, Na2SO4, CuSO4, NiSO4, and Fe2(SO4)3, respectively. The observed inhibitory effect of Na2SO4 on degradation of PCP was contributed to the existence of SO4 2- ions. Overcoming the inhibitory effect of SO4 2- ions, Cu2+, Ni2+, and Fe3+ could facilitate the degradation kinetics and efficiencies of PCP by Pd/Fe nanoparticles. XANES absorption spectra were performed to characterize their valences. The enhancement effect of Cu2+ and Ni2+ ions result from the presence of reduced forms of copper and nickel on Pd/Fe surfaces. The presence of reduced forms of copper and nickel on Pd/Fe nanoparticles were confirmed by ICP-MS analysis. The addition of Fe3+ ions caused a decrease in pH and can reasonably account for the enhancement seen in the PCP degradation process. These observations lead to a better understanding of PCP degradation with Pd/Fe nanoparticles and can facilitate the remediation design and prediction of treatment efficiency of PCP at remediation sites. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Sun C.-L.,Chang Gung University | Cheng W.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Hsu T.-K.,Chang Gung University | Chang C.-W.,Chang Gung University | And 2 more authors.
Electrochemistry Communications | Year: 2013

We report here a nonenzymatic glucose sensor based on a CuO/graphene-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (CuOG-SPCE) integrated with flow-injection analysis (FIA). The highly active CuOG-SPCE with well-dispersed CuO nanoparticles on graphene surfaces performed excellent electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose. Under optimal FIA conditions, the proposed biosensor can be employed in the quantification of glucose with the linear range from 0.122 μM to 0.5 mM, the desirable sensitivity up to 2367 μA mM-1 cm-2 and the ultralow detection limit of 34.3 nM (S/N = 3) simultaneously. Good repeatability of 1.92% (n = 30) and less effects of common interfering species including ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine, fructose, lactose and sucrose were also demonstrated. The CuO-SPCE with highly sensitive, selective and stable consecutive monitoring (t = 1 h) of glucose is promising for the development of an advanced nonenzymatic glucose sensor device. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Liu H.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Dai S.A.,National Chung Hsing University | Fu K.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Hsu S.,National Taiwan University
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2010

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are strong bactericidal agents but they are also cytotoxic. Embedding them in a polymer matrix may reduce their cytotoxic effect. In the present study, AgNPs in three average sizes were tested for their antibacterial activities and cytotoxicity. Nanocomposites from a new waterborne polyetherurethane (PEU) ionomer and AgNPs were prepared without the use of any crosslinker. It was observed that the antibacterial activity of AgNPs against Escherichia coli started at the effective concentration of 0.1-1 ppm, while that against Staphylococcus aureus started at higher concentrations of 1-10 ppm. Cytotoxicity of AgNPs was observed at the concentration of 10 ppm. AgNPs with smaller average size showed greater antibacterial activity as well as cytotoxicity. The PEU synthesized in this study showed high tensile strength, and the addition of AgNPs at all sizes further increased its thermal stability. The delicate surface features of nanophases, however, were only observed in nanocomposites with either small- or medium-sized AgNPs. PEU-Ag nanocomposites had a strong bacteriostatic effect on the growth of E. coli and S. aureus. The proliferation of endothelial cells on PEU-Ag nanocomposites was enhanced, whereas the platelet adhesion was reduced. The expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene was upregulated on PEU-Ag containing small-sized AgNPs (30 ppm) or medium-sized AgNPs (60 ppm). This effect was not as remarkable in nanocomposites from large-sized AgNPs. Overall, nanocomposites from the PEU and 60 ppm of the medium-sized (5 nm) AgNPs showed the best biocompatibility and antibacterial activity. Addition of smaller or larger AgNPs did not produce as substantial an effect in PEU, especially for the larger AgNPs. © 2010 Lu et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

Chueh P.J.,National Chung Hsing University | Chueh P.J.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chueh P.J.,Asia University, Taiwan | Liang R.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2014

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) possess unique properties that have been exploited in several medical applications. However, a more comprehensive understanding of the environmental safety of AuNPs is imperative for use of these nanomaterials. Here, we describe the impacts of AuNPs in various mammalian cell models using an automatic and dye-free method for continuous monitoring of cell growth based on the measurement of cell impedance. Several well-established cytotoxicity assays were also used for comparison. AuNPs induced a concentration-dependent decrease in cell growth. This inhibitory effect was associated with apoptosis induction in Vero cells but not in MRC-5 or NIH3T3 cells. Interestingly, cDNA microarray analyses in MRC-5 cells supported the involvement of DNA damage and repair responses, cell-cycle regulation, and oxidative stress in AuNP-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Moreover, autophagy appeared to play a role in AuNPs-induced attenuation of cell growth in NIH3T3 cells. In this study, we present a comprehensive overview of AuNP-induced cytotoxicity in a variety of mammalian cell lines, comparing several cytotoxicity assays. Collectively, these assays offer convincing evidence of the cytotoxicity of AuNPs and support the value of a systematic approach for analyzing the toxicology of nanoparticles. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Li M.-J.,National Taiwan University | Huang C.-H.,National Taiwan University | Lai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Chiu S.-H.,National Taiwan University
Organic Letters | Year: 2012

A cyclotriveratrylene-based molecular cage that favors the formation of a room temperature isolable hemicarceplex with C70, in the presence of C60, has been developed. Significant differences in the association and dissociation kinetics of the molecular cage and buckyballs allowed the isolation of C70 in high purity (≥99.0%) from a commercial fullerene extract without the need for recrystallization or HPLC. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

You Y.-C.,National Taiwan University | Tzeng M.-C.,National Taiwan University | Lai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Lai C.-C.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chiu S.-H.,National Taiwan University
Organic Letters | Year: 2012

A [2]rotaxane undergoes switching of its bis-p-xylyl-[26]crown-6 (BPX26C6) component away from its guanidinium station toward its 2,2′-bipyridyl and carbamate stations upon the addition and removal of Zn 2+ and PO 4 3- ions, respectively. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Ku C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Hu J.-M.,National Taiwan University | Kuo C.-H.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Kuo C.-H.,National Chung Hsing University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Ardisia is a basal asterid genus well known for its medicinal values and has the potential for development of novel phytopharmaceuticals. In this genus of nearly 500 species, many ornamental species are commonly grown worldwide and some have become invasive species that caused ecological problems. As there is no completed plastid genome (plastome) sequence in related taxa, we sequenced and characterized the plastome of Ardisia polysticta to find plastid markers of potential utility for phylogenetic analyses at low taxonomic levels. The complete A. polysticta plastome is 156,506 bp in length and has gene content and organization typical of most asterids and other angiosperms. We identified seven intergenic regions as potentially informative markers with resolution for interspecific relationships. Additionally, we characterized the diversity of asterid plastomes with respect to GC content, plastome organization, gene content, and repetitive sequences through comparative analyses. The results demonstrated that the genome organizations near the boundaries between inverted repeats (IRs) and single-copy regions (SCs) are polymorphic. The boundary organization found in Ardisia appears to be the most common type among asterids, while six other types are also found in various asterid lineages. In general, the repetitive sequences in genic regions tend to be more conserved, whereas those in noncoding regions are usually lineage-specific. Finally, we inferred the whole-plastome phylogeny with the available asterid sequences. With the improvement in taxon sampling of asterid orders and families, our result highlights the uncertainty of the position of Gentianales within euasterids I. © 2013 Ku et al.

Sundaravelpandian K.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Sundaravelpandian K.,National Chung Hsing University | Chandrika N.N.P.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Schmidt W.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | And 2 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2013

Root hair morphogenesis is driven by an amalgam of interacting processes controlled by complex signaling events. Redox processes and transcriptional control are critical for root hair development. However, the molecular mechanisms that integrate redox state and transcription are largely unknown. To elucidate a possible role of transcriptional Mediators in root hair formation, we analyzed the Arabidopsis root hair phenotype of T-DNA insertion lines that harbor homozygous mutations in genes encoding Mediator subunits. Genetic evidence indicates that the Mediator subunits PFT1/MED25 and MED8 are critical for root hair differentiation, but act via separate mechanisms. Transcriptional profiling of pft1 roots revealed that PFT1 activates a subset of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-producing class III peroxidases. pft1 mutants showed perturbed H2O2 and superoxide (O2 ·-) distribution, suggesting that PFT1 is essential to maintain redox homeostasis in the root. Chemical treatments rescued the pft1 mutant phenotype, indicating that correct reactive oxygen species (ROS) distribution is an essential prerequisite for root hair differentiation. In addition, PFT1 positively regulates cell wall remodeling genes that are essential for root hair formation. Our results demonstrate that PFT1 maintains ROS distribution which, in turn, controls root hair differentiation. Thus, our findings reveal a novel mechanism in which the Mediator controls ROS homeostasis by regulating the transcriptional machinery. © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

Lai J.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Ong C.-S.,National Taiwan University
Technovation | Year: 2010

It is imperative for businesses to use network and distributed information technology to integrate resources among organizations, vendors, employees, and suppliers to maximize value-added. Organizations are thus implementing electronic business (e-business) at an accelerating pace, fueling speculation about employee readiness to embrace this new type of firm. Unfortunately, scholarly research on this issue is lacking. Drawing on insights from extant literature and interviews with practitioners, this article first proposes the construct of employee readiness for e-business (EREB) and its conceptualization. Then it describes a program of research undertaken to develop an EREB instrument by defining, operationalizing, and refining the construct to create a multiple-item measurement scale, and assessing the scale's psychometric properties. By strictly iterative processes, a well-validated EREB instrument is constructed. The instrument and its comprehensive model proposed in this paper will be of use to researchers and practitioners interested in designing, implementing, and managing e-business. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chang C.-F.,National Taiwan University | Chuang C.-J.,National Taiwan University | Lai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Liu Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | And 2 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Rings and necklaces: Three [3]catenanes and a five-membered molecular necklace ([5]MN), with up to 60- and 92-membered rings as their centerpieces, respectively, have been synthesized. The synthesis started from the corresponding complexes in which the threaded flexible linear guests were bent at approximately right angles to facilitate kinetically controlled macrocyclizations. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Chan S.-T.,Chung Shan Medical University | Yang N.-C.,Chung Shan Medical University | Huang C.-S.,Asia University, Taiwan | Liao J.-W.,National Chung Hsing University | Yeh S.-L.,Chung Shan Medical University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

This study investigated the effects of quercetin on the anti-tumor effect of trichostatin A (TSA), a novel anticancer drug, in vitro and in vivo and the possible mechanisms of these effects in human lung cancer cells. We first showed that quercetin (5 μM) significantly increased the growth arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells (expressing wild-type p53) induced by 25 ng/mL of (82.5 nM) TSA at 48 h by about 25% and 101%, respectively. However, such enhancing effects of quercetin (5 μM) were not significant in TSA-exposed H1299 cells (a p53 null mutant) or were much lower than in A549 cells. In addition, quercetin significantly increased TSA-induced p53 expression in A549 cells. Transfection of p53 siRNA into A549 cells significantly but not completely diminished the enhancing effects of quercetin on TSA-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that quercetin enhanced TSA-induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Transfection of p53 siRNA abolished such enhancing effects of quercetin. However, quercetin increased the acetylation of histones H3 and H4 induced by TSA in A549 cells, even with p53 siRNA transfection as well as in H1299 cells. In a xenograft mouse model of lung cancer, quercetin enhanced the antitumor effect of TSA. Tumors from mice treated with TSA in combination with quercetin had higher p53 and apoptosis levels than did those from control and TSA-treated mice. These data indicate that regulation of the expression of p53 by quercetin plays an important role in enhancing TSA-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. However, p53-independent mechanisms may also contribute to the enhancing effect of quercetin. © 2013 Chan et al.

Wu K.-D.,National Taiwan University | Lin Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | Lai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Chiu S.-H.,National Taiwan University
Organic Letters | Year: 2014

Threading of di-, tri-, and tetra(ethylene glycol) through the macrocycle BPX26C6 in the presence of templating Na+ ions was proven by the synthesis of the corresponding [2]rotaxanes under solvent-free conditions. Among them, a [2]rotaxane featuring both tetra(ethylene glycol) and carbamate stations behaves as a molecular switch that can be controlled reversibly through the application of the KTFPB/[2.2.2]cryptand reagent pair. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Shih Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | Chou H.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Peng Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | Chang C.-Y.,National Taiwan University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardants. Owing to their toxicity and increasing accumulation in the environment, the fate of PBDEs in nature is of serious concern. The combined effects of microscale zerovalent iron (MZVI) and anaerobic sludge in decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) degradation were investigated. The co-incubation resulted in 63% and 29% enhancement of removal ability when compared to the single component conditions. By-products generated during the entire process followed a stepwise sequence with non-uniform accumulation rates. Microbes hindered the accessibility of MZVI to BDE-209 and reduced the removal ability in the initial stage (<12. h). According to the analysis of the microbial community change, co-incubation with MZVI leads to the enrichment of heterotrophic microbial populations bearing nitrate- or iron-reducing activities. The interaction between MZVI and microbes contributed to the synergistic effect. Our findings provide evidence for this synergistic effect and offer an alternative for developing better remediation strategies. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Hsu S.-H.,National Taiwan University | Chang J.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Cytotechnology | Year: 2010

Dental pulp cells (DPCs) can differentiate into osteoblasts and are deemed a promising cell source for bone regeneration. Static magnetic field (SMF) stimulates osteoblast differentiation but the effect in DPCs remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SMF exposure on the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of rat DPCs in vitro. Cells were continuously exposed to SMF at 290 mT in the presence/absence of osteogenic induction [dexamethasone (Dex)/β-glycerophosphate (β-GP)]. Results showed that SMF alone did not impair the cell cycle and proliferation. On the other hand, obvious condensation in the metachromatic staining of the extracellular matrix with toluidine blue was observed for SMF-exposed cells as well as the Dex/β-GP treated cells. SMF in combination with Dex/β-GP significantly increased the mRNA expression of osteogenic genes, as well as the ALP activity and extracellular calcium concentration at the early stage, followed by obvious calcium deposits later. Besides, SMF exposure increased the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) at 3 h and accelerated the mRNA expression of osteogenic transcription factor, Cbfa1, advancing its activation time from 168 to 72 h under osteogenic induction. In summary, SMF exposure in combination of Dex/β-GP induction could significantly accelerate the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of DPCs. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

Hsu S.-H.,National Taiwan University | Hsu S.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Huang G.-S.,National Taiwan University | Feng F.,Forward Dental Group
Biomaterials | Year: 2012

Literature has different opinions regarding the percentage of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like population in human gingival tissue. Isolation of these cells is thus important for clinical applications. In this study, two typical but distinct types of gingival fibroblasts (GF), GF-A and GF-B, were grown from human gingival biopsies. They were characterized for surface markers by flow cytometry as well as the expressions of stemness and neural crest marker genes by RT-PCR. The two types of GF were slightly different in their surface markers; however, they had dramatic difference in the expression levels of stemness marker genes and neural crest marker genes. They also demonstrated distinct differentiation capacity. Upon the appropriate induction, GF-A were capable of osteogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, and neurogenic differentiation while GF-B only underwent osteogenic differentiation. By culturing either type of GF on chitosan membranes for 24h, we were able to isolate two distinct subpopulations in each type of GF, i.e. cells with spheroid-forming ability (GF-AS and GF-BS) or those remained flat and attached (GF-AN and GF-BN). We further characterized these cells, and determined the common properties shared by the spheroid-forming subpopulation " S" , as well as those shared by the non-spheroid-forming subpopulation " N" The subpopulation " S" was capable of the multilineage differentiation, while the subpopulation " N" was only efficient in osteogenic differentiation. GF-A and GF-B had different proportions of subpopulations. Chitosan as the cell culture substratum up-regulated the N-cadherin expression of the " S" but not " N" subpopulation, which may account for the cell sorting effect. This study showed that chitosan membranes could be used for isolation of the spheroid forming subpopulation in human GF that contained multipotent adult stem cells of which the number varied among donors and sites. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Lin Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | Lai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Chiu S.-H.,National Taiwan University
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2014

Five analogues of the macrocycle BPX26C6 are also capable of recognizing single urea and/or amide functionalities in the presence of templating Na + ions. We have unambiguously confirmed the formation of such [2]pseudorotaxane complexes in solution through syntheses of the corresponding [2]rotaxanes. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Yang W.-M.,National Chung Hsing University | Yao Y.-L.,Asia University, Taiwan
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Acetylation of lysines is a prominent form of modification in mammalian proteins. Deacetylation of proteins is catalyzed by histone deacetylases, traditionally named after their role in histone deacetylation, transcriptional modulation, and epigenetic regulation. Despite the link between histone deacetylases and chromatin structure, some of the histone deacetylases reside in various compartments in the cytoplasm. Here, we review how these cytoplasmic histone deacetylases are regulated, the identification of nonhistone substrates, and the functional implications of their nondeacetylase enzymatic activities. © 2011 Ya-Li Yao and Wen-Ming Yang.

Chung P.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Liu C.-W.,Asia University, Taiwan | Hwang M.-S.,Asia University, Taiwan
International Journal of Network Security | Year: 2014

Attribute-based proxy re-encryption (ABPRE) scheme is one of the proxy cryptography, which can delegate the re-encryption capability to the proxy and re-encrypt the en-crypted data by using the re-encryption key. ABPRE ex-tending the traditional proxy cryptography and attributes plays an important role. In ABPRE, users are identified by attributes, and the access policy is designed to con-trol the user's access. Using ABPRE can have these ad-vantages: (i) The proxy can be delegated to execute the re-encryption operation, which reduces the computation overhead of the data owner; (ii) The authorized user just uses his own secret key to decrypt the encrypted data, and he doesn't need to store an additional decryption key for deciphering; (iii) The sensitive information cannot be re-vealed to the proxy in re-encryption, and the proxy only complies to the data owner's command. In this paper, we survey two various access policy attribute-based proxy re-encryption schemes and analyze these schemes. There-after, we list the comparisons of them by some criteria.

Lu T.-W.,National Taiwan University | Chang C.-F.,National Taiwan University | Lai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Chiu S.-H.,National Taiwan University
Organic Letters | Year: 2013

A [2]rotaxane has been constructed through metal ion-templated pseudorotaxane formation from a weakly interacting host (bis-p-xylyl[26]crown-6) /guest (diphenylurea derivative) complex and post-assembly modification to form another weakly interacting tertiary ammonium ion recognition site for the host. The combination of this pair of weakly interacting components allowed bifunctional (pH, Na+ ions) switching of the crown ether unit, highlighting the potential applicability of weakly associated components within molecular switches. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Rose A.,University of Southern California | Liao S.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Bonneau A.,Cornell University
Earthquake Spectra | Year: 2011

This paper advances the state of the art in the development and application of a computable general equilibrium model to estimate the business interruption impacts of a Verdugo scenario earthquake on the water system serving Los Angeles. The model has been especially designed to incorporate engineering and spatial aspects of this system in the context of the regional economy to include resilience responses at various water outage levels. The Verdugo earthquake scenario and Monte Carlo simulations show that water outages in LA County could result in business interruption losses of several billion dollars withoutany resilience adjustment. However, a reduction of these losses by more than 90% is possible through the application of several types of resilience on the customer side, most prominently rescheduling production, in addition to conservation, input substitution, and storage of water. Allowing the price of water to rise to reflect its scarcity would reduce the losses even further. © 2011, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

Liu C.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Cheng C.-H.,National Taiwan University
Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical | Year: 2012

A multi-degree-of-freedom laser linear encoder that can simultaneously measure the position, straightness, pitch, roll, and yaw errors of a linear stage is developed. The proposed laser encoder uses the phase and spatial information of diffracted light. When the light is reflected from a grating and diffracts, the relative movement makes the orders of diffracted light have both phase and spatial geometric variations. The proposed encoder design makes the ±1 order diffracted light interfere and outputs pure sine and cosine wave signals for linear displacement. The ±2 order diffracted light spots are received by two quadrant photodiode detectors and analyzed to inversely calculate the other motion errors. The experimental results show that the measurement error is ±0.6 μm for straightness, ±0.8 arcsec for angular error, and ±1.2 μm for linear displacement. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Tung S.-T.,National Taiwan University | Lai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Liu Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | Peng S.-M.,National Taiwan University | Chiu S.-H.,National Taiwan University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Take five: Two dialdehydes, two diamines, one Na+ ion have been used to generate a [2]catenane. This simple and efficient synthesis makes use of a Na+ ion as a template to align in an orthogonal manner two diethylene glycol chains between the two amine groups (see scheme, TFPB -=tetrakis(3,5-trifluoromethylphenyl)borate). © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Lin Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | Lai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Liu Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | Peng S.-M.,National Taiwan University | Chiu S.-H.,National Taiwan University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Picking up the thread: The macrocycle bis-p-xylyl[26]crown-6 is capable of forming pseudorotaxane-like structures with single, nonconjugated urea or amide moieties when assisted by templating Na+ ions (see example). By using this approach, rotaxanes were synthesized with glycine residues or the repeating unit of nylon-6,6 as key components in the threadlike units. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Qin C.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology | Chang C.-C.,Feng Chia University | Chang C.-C.,Asia University, Taiwan | Huang Y.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Liao L.-T.,Feng Chia University
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology | Year: 2013

In this paper, we propose a novel prediction-based reversible steganographic scheme based on image inpainting. First, reference pixels are chosen adaptively according to the distribution characteristics of the image content. Then, the image inpainting technique based on partial differential equations is introduced to generate a prediction image that has similar structural and geometric information as the cover image. Finally, by using the two selected groups of peak points and zero points, the histogram of the prediction error is shifted to embed the secret bits reversibly. Since the same reference pixels can be exploited in the extraction procedure, the embedded secret bits can be extracted from the stego image correctly, and the cover image can be restored losslessly. Through the use of the adaptive strategy for choosing reference pixels and the inpainting predictor, the prediction accuracy is high, and more embeddable pixels are acquired. Thus, the proposed scheme provides a greater embedding rate and better visual quality compared with recently reported methods. © 2012 IEEE.

Chen P.-N.,National Taiwan University | Lai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Lai C.-C.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chiu S.-H.,National Taiwan University
Organic Letters | Year: 2011

The one-pot synthesis of a hetero[3]rotaxane, assembled from five different molecular components under solvent-free conditions, through "self-sorting" of the bead and stopper units during the threading and stoppering processes, is reported. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Shih Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | Chou H.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Peng Y.-H.,National Taiwan University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardant additives for many plastic and electronic products. Owing to their ubiquitous distribution in the environment, multiple toxicity to humans, and increasing accumulation in the environment, the fate of PBDEs is of serious concern for public safety. In this study, the degradation of 4-monobrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-3) in anaerobic sludge and the effect of carbon source addition were investigated. BDE-3 can be degraded by two different anaerobic sludge samples. The by-products, diphenyl ether (DE) and bromide ions, were monitored, indicating the reaction of debromination within these anaerobic samples. Co-metabolism with glucose facilitated BDE-3 biodegradation in terms of kinetics and efficiency in the Jhongsing sludge. Through the pattern of amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments in denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), the composition of the microbial community was analyzed. Most of the predominant microbes were novel species. The fragments enriched in BDE-3-degrading anaerobic sludge samples are presumably Clostridium sp. This enrichment coincides with the H 2 gas generation and the facilitation of debromination during the degradation process. Findings of this study provide better understanding of the biodegradation of brominated DEs and can facilitate the prediction of the fate of PBDEs in the environment. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Huang C.-S.,Asia University, Taiwan | Hu M.-L.,National Chung Hsing University
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2011

Epidemiologic studies suggest that lycopene may reduce the risk of certain cancers, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We hereby examined in vivo anticarcinogenic effects of supplemental lycopene on hepatic DNA damage (Comet formation and levels of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-oxo-dG) and human MutT homologue (hMTH1) mRNA expression in Mongolian gerbils injected i.p. with ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe/NTA). Gerbils were pre-treated with two dose (10 and 20. mg/kg BW) of lycopene on alternate morning for 10. d. Six hours after the last lycopene supplementation, the gerbils received Fe/NTA (0.16. mmol/10. mL/kg BW) and were killed 3. h later. We found that the livers of Fe/NTA-treated animals exhibited a 5-fold increase in Comet formation (expressed as tail moment), a 2.6-fold increase in 8-oxo-dG levels and a significant increase in hMTH1 mRNA expression. Supplemental lycopene completely inhibited Comet formation (P<0.001) and significantly suppressed 8-oxo-dG levels and hMTH1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. The expression levels of hMTH1 mRNA are highly correlated with hepatic levels of 8-oxo-dG and tail moment, suggesting that hMTH1 gene expression represents a molecular marker of oxidative DNA damage. These results demonstrate the potential of lycopene as a promising chemopreventive agent against hepatotumorigenesis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Chang C.-C.,National Taiwan University | Wang Y.-R.,National Taiwan University | Chen S.-F.,National Taiwan University | Wu C.-C.,National Taiwan University | And 2 more authors.
Current Opinion in Structural Biology | Year: 2013

Type IIA topoisomerases catalyze the passage of two DNA duplexes across each other to resolve the entanglements and coiling of cellular DNA. The ability of these enzymes to interact simultaneously but differentially with two DNA segments is central to their DNA-manipulating functions: one duplex DNA is bound and cleaved to produce a transient double-strand break through which another DNA segment can be transported. Recent structural analyses have revealed in atomic detail how type IIA enzymes contact DNA and how the enzyme-DNA interactions may be exploited by drugs to achieve therapeutic purposes. This review summarizes these new findings, with a special focus on the assembly and structural features of the enzymes' composite DNA-binding surfaces. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Lan P.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Li W.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Wen T.-N.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Schmidt W.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | And 2 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2012

Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral nutrient for plants, but often it is not available in sufficient quantities to sustain optimal growth. To gain insights into adaptive processes to low Fe availability at the posttranslational level, we conducted a quantitative analysis of Fe deficiency-induced changes in the phosphoproteome profile of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation-labeled phosphopeptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on an LTQ-Orbitrap with collision-induced dissociation and high-energy collision dissociation capabilities. Using a combination of titanium dioxide and immobilized metal affinity chromatography to enrich phosphopeptides, we extracted 849 uniquely identified phosphopeptides corresponding to 425 proteins and identified several not previously described phosphorylation motifs. A subset of 45 phosphoproteins was defined as being significantly changed in abundance upon Fe deficiency. Kinase motifs in Fe-responsive proteins matched to protein kinase A/calcium calmodulin-dependent kinase II, casein kinase II, and proline-directed kinase, indicating a possible critical function of these kinase classes in Fe homeostasis. To validate our analysis, we conducted sitedirected mutagenesis on IAA-CONJUGATE-RESISTANT4 (IAR4), a protein putatively functioning in auxin homeostasis. iar4 mutants showed compromised root hair formation and developed shorter primary roots. Changing serine-296 in IAR4 to alanine resulted in a phenotype intermediate between mutant and wild type, whereas acidic substitution to aspartate to mimic phosphorylation was either lethal or caused an extreme dwarf phenotype, supporting the critical importance of this residue in Fe homeostasis. Our analyses further disclose substantial changes in the abundance of phosphoproteins involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism upon Fe deficiency, complementing the picture derived from previous proteomic and transcriptomic profiling studies. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

Ismayilov R.H.,National Taiwan University | Wang W.-Z.,National Taiwan University | Lee G.-H.,National Taiwan University | Yeh C.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | And 5 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

Nickel′s eleven: A metal chain consisting of four dinuclear mixed-valent Ni2 3+ units linked together by three square-planar Ni2+ units has been prepared (see picture of the real molecular model in the lobby of the chemistry building at National Taiwan University). The electronic and magnetic properties of this linear complex containing 11nickel atoms are reported. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Wang M.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin J.-J.,National Taiwan University | Tseng H.-J.,National Chung Hsing University | Hsu S.-H.,National Taiwan University
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2012

A novel method to exfoliate the montmorillonite clay was developed previously to generate random nanosilicate platelets (NSP), one kind of delaminated clay. To improve their dispersion in a polymer, we modified NSPs by three types of surfactants (cationic Qa, nonionic Qb, and anionic Qc) in this study and used them to prepare nanocomposites with polyurethane (PU). The zeta potential, antimicrobial ability, and biocompatibility of these surfactant-modified NSPs (abbreviated "NSQ") were characterized. It was found that the zeta potential of Qa-modified NSP (NSQa) was positive, whereas those of NSP and the other two NSQs (NSQb and NSQc) were negative. All NSQ presented less cytotoxicity than NSP. NSQa and NSQc showed excellent antimicrobial activities against S. aureus (Gram-positive strain) and E. coli (Gram-negative strain). The nanocomposites of NSQ with PU were then characterized for surface and mechanical properties, cell attachment and proliferation, antimicrobial activity in vitro, and biocompatibility in vivo. A higher surfactant to NSP ratio was found to improve the dispersion of NSQ in PU matrix. The mechanical properties of all PU/NSQ nanocomposites were significantly enhanced. Among various NSQ, only NSQa were observed to migrate to the composite surface. The attachment and proliferation of endothelial cells and fibroblasts in vitro as well as biocompatibility in vivo were significantly better for PU/NSQa containing 1% of NSQa than other materials. The microbiostasis ratios of PU/NSQ nanocomposites containing 1% NSQa or NSQc were >90%. These results proposed the safety and potential antimicrobial applications of surfactant-modified delaminated clays and their nanocomposites with PU polymer. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Weng C.-H.,I - Shou University | Lin Y.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang C.-K.,I - Shou University | Liu N.,Jilin University
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry | Year: 2013

Decolourization of direct azo dye, direct blue 15 (DB15), by an advanced Fenton process coupled with ultrasonic irradiation (Fenton/US) was investigated. Zero-valent iron (ZVI) aggregates were used as the catalyst. A positive synergistic effect occurred when Fenton's reagent was combined with ultrasonic irradiation. Experimental results showed that the optimum conditions for decolourization were pH 3.0, Fe(0) 1 g/L, H2O2 5.15 × 10-3mol/L with ultrasound density of 120 W/L at 60 kHz. These conditions yielded 99% decolouration of 4.7 × 10-5 M DB15 (4130 ADMI) solution within 10 min. DB15 decolouration follows the first-order decolouration kinetics. Although the solutions containing H2CO 3, Cl-, ClO4-, NO3- and SO42- ions did not have a significant effect on the decolouration, the H2PO4- ion did decrease the decolouration rate. High ultrasonic input power accelerated the reaction and increased decolourization efficiency. The cost effectiveness of this process at high ultrasound density could be controlled despite the high electricity costs incurred by the process. ZVI aggregates were reusable; however, an increase in the number of times ZVI was recycled decreased the decolourization rate. This study demonstrates that a Fenton/US process can effectively decolour the direct azo dye DB15 in wastewater. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wu M.-H.,China Medical University at Taichung | Huang C.-Y.,China Medical University at Taichung | Huang C.-Y.,Asia University, Taiwan | Lin J.-A.,China Medical University at Taichung | And 5 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2014

Chondrosarcoma is the second most common sarcoma in bone malignancy and is characterized by a high metastatic potential. Angiogenesis is essential for the cancer metastasis. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. However, the relationship of ET-1 with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. Here, we found that the expression of ET-1 and VEGF were correlated with tumor stage and were significantly higher than that in the normal cartilage. Exogenous ET-1 with chondrosarcoma cells promoted VEGF expression and subsequently increased migration and tube formation in endothelial progenitor cells. ET-1 increased VEGF expression and angiogenesis through ET A R, integrin-linked kinase (ILK), Akt and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling cascades. Knockdown of ET-1 decreased VEGF expression and also abolished chondrosarcoma conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis in vitro as well as angiogenesis effects in the chick chorioallantoic membrane and Matrigel plug nude mice model in vivo. In addition, in the xenograft tumor angiogenesis model, knockdown of ET-1 significantly reduced tumor growth and tumor-associated angiogenesis. Taken together, these results indicate that ET-1 occurs through ET A R, ILK and Akt, which in turn activates HIF-1α, resulting in the activation of VEGF expression and contributing to the angiogenesis and tumor growth of human chondrosarcoma cells. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Hsu S.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Yang C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Hwang M.S.,Asia University, Taiwan
International Journal of Network Security | Year: 2013

Public Key Encryption with Keyword Search (PEKS) scheme enable one to search the encrypted data with a keyword without revealing any information. The concept of a PEKS scheme was proposed by Boneh et al. at 2004 and Baek et al. who extended PEKS scheme into a secure channel free PEKS scheme (SCF-PEKS) which removes the assumption, a secure channel between users and a server. In this paper, we show an overview of six existing security models of PEKS/SCF-PEKS scheme and concludeve security requirements that must satisfy to construct a secure PEKS/SCF-PEKS scheme. Then we compare the security and e±ciency of the security models and discuss the future researches of PEKS/SCF-PEKS.

Chen M.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Teng C.-I.,Chang Gung University
Electronic Commerce Research | Year: 2013

The aim of this study is to identify structural relationships between aspects of online store image and purchase intention. Responses from 211 website visitors were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the research hypotheses. The results demonstrated that enjoyment and familiarity are predictors of ease-of-use and settlement performance, respectively. Settlement performance and usefulness are positively related to purchase intention. The results provide some suggestions for online store owners to help them arrange budget priorities for website design. Moreover, it is important to manage image familiarity for an online store through image-enhancing techniques, such as advertising and publicity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Tsai H.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Su H.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Huang C.-Y.,China Medical University Beigang Hospital | Huang C.-Y.,China Medical University at Taichung | And 4 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2014

Osteosarcoma, the most common primary malignant bone tumor, shows potent capacity for local invasion and distant metastasis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), a secreted protein, binds to integrins, modulates invasive behavior of certain human cancer cells. Effect of CTGF in metastasis of human osteosarcoma is unknown. We found overexpression of CTGF increasing matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and MMP-3 expression as well as promoting cell migration. MicroRNA (miRNA) analysis of CTGF-overexpressed osteosarcoma versus control cells probed mechanisms of CTGF-mediated promotion of migration. Among miRNAs regulated by CTGF, miR-519d was most downregulated after CTGF treatment. Co-transfection with miR-519d mimic reversed CTGF-mediated MMPs expression and cell migration. Also, MEK and ERK inhibitors or mutants reduced CTGF-increased cell migration and miR-519d suppression. By contrast, knockdown of CTGF diminished lung metastasis in vivo. Clinical samples indicate CTGF expression as linked with clinical stage and tumor metastasis. Taken together, data show CTGF elevating MMPs expression and subsequently promoting tumor metastasis in human osteosarcoma, down-regulating miR-519d via MEK and ERK pathways, making CTGF a new molecular therapeutic target in osteosarcoma metastasis.

Tsai H.-P.,National Chung Hsing University | Yang D.-N.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chen M.-S.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chen M.-S.,National Taiwan University
IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering | Year: 2011

Existing object tracking applications focus on finding the moving patterns of a single object or all objects. In contrast, we propose a distributed mining algorithm that identifies a group of objects with similar movement patterns. This information is important in some biological research domains, such as the study of animals' social behavior and wildlife migration. The proposed algorithm comprises a local mining phase and a cluster ensembling phase. In the local mining phase, the algorithm finds movement patterns based on local trajectories. Then, based on the derived patterns, we propose a new similarity measure to compute the similarity of moving objects and identify the local group relationships. To address the energy conservation issue in resource-constrained environments, the algorithm only transmits the local grouping results to the sink node for further ensembling. In the cluster ensembling phase, our algorithm combines the local grouping results to derive the group relationships from a global view. We further leverage the mining results to track moving objects efficiently. The results of experiments show that the proposed mining algorithm achieves good grouping quality, and the mining technique helps reduce the energy consumption by reducing the amount of data to be transmitted. © 2006 IEEE.

Yen T.-M.,National Chung Hsing University | Wang C.-T.,Hualien Forest District Office
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to assess the carbon storage (CS) and mean carbon sequestration (MCS) for natural forests, man-made forests, and bamboo forests. The study site was located in central Taiwan. We predicted the CS and MCS for a natural forest and two man-made forests (Taiwan red cypress and Japanese cedar) and cited the CS and MCS for two bamboo forests (Makino and Moso) from the previous studies. The results showed that the CS and MCS, respectively, were 192.84 Mg ha-1 and 0.67 Mg ha-1 yr -1 for the natural forest; 68.85-96.81 Mg ha-1 and 3.47-4.45 Mg ha-1 yr-1 for the Taiwan red cypress; 101.14-164.80 Mg ha-1 and 2.66-5.23 Mg ha-1 yr -1 for the Japanese cedar; 49.8 Mg ha-1 and 9.89 Mg ha-1 yr-1 for the Makino bamboo; and 40.6 Mg ha -1 and 8.13 Mg ha-1 yr-1 for the Moso bamboo. The natural forest had the highest CS and the lowest MCS; conversely, bamboo forests had the lowest CS and the highest MCS. Moreover, the ratios of MSC to CS (RMCS/CS) were 0.0034, 0.0229-0.0562, and 0.2 for the natural forests, man-made forests, and bamboo forests, respectively. © Taylor & Francis.

Sun C.-L.,Chang Gung University | Lee H.-H.,Chang Gung University | Yang J.-M.,Chang Gung University | Wu C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2011

In this study, a graphene/Pt-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode was created to simultaneously characterize ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) levels via cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). During the preparation of the nanocomposite, size-selected Pt nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 1.7. nm were self-assembled onto the graphene surface. In the simultaneous detection of the three aforementioned analytes using CV, the electrochemical potential differences among the three detected peaks were 185. mV (AA to DA), 144. mV (DA to UA), and 329. mV (AA and UA), respectively. In comparison to the CV results of bare GC and graphene-modified GC electrodes, the large electrochemical potential difference that is achieved via the use of the graphene/Pt nanocomposites is essential to the distinguishing of these three analytes. An optimized adsorption of size-selected Pt colloidal nanoparticles onto the graphene surface results in a graphene/Pt nanocomposite that can provide a good platform for the routine analysis of AA, DA, and UA. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Yang C.-M.,National Chung Hsing University | Yen Y.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Huang C.-S.,Asia University, Taiwan | Hu M.-L.,National Chung Hsing University
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2011

Scope: In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of lycopene against the growth of prostate cancer in vivo. Methods and results: Athymic nude mice were implanted subcutaneously with human androgen-independent prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells. They were supplemented with a low or a high dose of lycopene (4 and 16mg/kg) and a single dose of β-carotene (16mg/kg) twice a week for 7 wk. At the end of the experiment, both lycopene and β-carotene strongly inhibited the tumor growth, as evidenced by the decrease in tumor volume and tumor weight. High-dosage lycopene and β-carotene significantly decreased the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in tumor tissues and increased the levels of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 in plasma. In addition, high-dosage lycopene supplementation significantly decreased the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in plasma. In contrast, β-carotene supplementation significantly increased the VEGF levels, as compared with tumor control group. Conclusion: Lycopene and β-carotene supplementation suppressed the growth of prostate tumor cells, and the effects are likely associated with reduction of proliferation (attenuation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression) and with interference of the insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling (increased plasma insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 levels). Furthermore, the inhibition of VEGF by lycopene suggests that the antitumor mechanisms of lycopene also involve anti-angiogenesis. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Wang E.S.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Wang M.C.-H.,Asia University, Taiwan
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking | Year: 2013

This study explores the relationship between social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction by integrating both online and offline social encounters. A total of 1,642 members of online social communities participated in this research, for which structural equation modeling was used for analysis. The findings show that social support is positively associated with social interaction ties in both online and offline contexts. In addition, online social support and online social interaction ties are positively associated with Internet addiction, whereas offline social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction are negatively associated. This finding has important implications not only for understanding the cause of Internet addiction but also for understanding the diminishing Internet addiction due to social support and social interaction ties. © Copyright 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2013.

Lin T.-P.,National Chung Hsing University | Tsai K.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Liao C.-C.,Chung Cheng Institute of Technology | Huang Y.-C.,National formosa University
Building and Environment | Year: 2013

Outdoor thermal environments influence thermal adaptation, thereby affecting the utilization of space. To determine the effects of thermal comfort and adaptation on attendance regarding different shading levels and activity types, this study conducted field investigations at a public park located in southern Taiwan, using micrometeorological measurements, estimations of park attendance, and questionnaire surveys on thermal comfort. The results indicate that participants' acceptable range of thermal comfort leads to substantial changes in overall park attendance during different seasons, whereas characteristics of thermal adaptations influence the individual differences of utilization in various ways within diverse spaces. In addition, this study reveals that in unshaded areas within parks, the number of visitors increases following rising thermal conditions during cool seasons, whereas the number of visitors decreases during hot seasons. However, the number of visitors to shaded areas increases with rising thermal conditions in both cool and hot seasons. Because of the possibility and effectiveness of personal behavior adjustments (e.g., decreases in the amount of clothing worn, the wearing of hats, or carrying of an umbrella) in decreasing thermal discomfort, people choose to seek adjustments in external environments. That is, they move from unshaded to shaded areas to relieve their perception of thermal discomfort. The results of this study reveal the importance of shading facilities within parks in the hot climate zone of Taiwan, and can be used as references in future park designs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Lan P.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Li W.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lin W.-D.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Santi S.,University of Udine | And 3 more authors.
Genome Biology | Year: 2013

Background: Quantitative information on gene activity at single cell-type resolution is essential for the understanding of how cells work and interact. Root hairs, or trichoblasts, tubular-shaped outgrowths of specialized cells in the epidermis, represent an ideal model for cell fate acquisition and differentiation in plants. Results: Here, we provide an atlas of gene and protein expression in Arabidopsis root hair cells, generated by paired-end RNA sequencing and LC/MS-MS analysis of protoplasts from plants containing a pEXP7-GFP reporter construct. In total, transcripts of 23,034 genes were detected in root hairs. High-resolution proteome analysis led to the reliable identification of 2,447 proteins, 129 of which were differentially expressed between root hairs and non-root hair tissue. Dissection of pre-mRNA splicing patterns showed that all types of alternative splicing were cell type-dependent, and less complex in EXP7-expressing cells when compared to non-root hair cells. Intron retention was repressed in several transcripts functionally related to root hair morphogenesis, indicative of a cell type-specific control of gene expression by alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. Concordance between mRNA and protein expression was generally high, but in many cases mRNA expression was not predictive for protein abundance. Conclusions: The integrated analysis shows that gene activity in root hairs is dictated by orchestrated, multilayered regulatory mechanisms that allow for a cell type-specific composition of functional components. © 2013 Lan et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Sun T.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Hwang M.-S.,Asia University, Taiwan
ICIC Express Letters | Year: 2012

Since cloud storage becomes a major application in cloud computing, many researches have been focusing on how to protect and verify the data stored in the Cloud. There is a problem that the owner does not want the real data stored by the Cloud to be Cloud known. Therefore, the most popular way is to encrypt entire file by using a secret key like Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) [1]; however, it may bring some problems such as secret key change and distribution, key management, and access rights management. So, we propose a hierarchical key management scheme to solve the problems mentioned above. And this scheme is suitable for individuals or enterprise service providers to manage their keys of files, software and services. © 2012 ICIC International.

Wu K.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Tsai C.-J.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen C.-S.,Taiwan Power | Chen H.-W.,Taiwan Power
Applied Energy | Year: 2012

In order to utilize microalgae and their residues as biomass solid fuels for co-firing in the existing pulverized coal-fired power plants, this study is to investigate the properties of fuels from those feedstock prepared by the torrefaction process. The microalgae were cultivated by using flue gas emitted from coal-fired power plants of Taipower Co., and the residue was from extraction of microalgae by hot water. The operating conditions for the torrefaction temperature and residence time were set as 200, 250, 300 and 350 °C, and 30, 60, 120. min, respectively. Also, 30 °C/min and 50 °C/min as the heating rates were chosen to examine the mass yield of solid torrefied biomass from microalgae. After torrefaction, the ultimate analysis, proximate analysis, and higher heating value analysis of the torrefied biomass were carried out. In addition, the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) of microalgal residue and its torrefied solid were measured. The results show that carbon content, ash content, fixed carbon content, higher heating value, and HGI of torrefied biomass increased with increasing the operating temperature and residence time. At the condition of 300 °C and 30. min, the higher heating value of torrefied microalgae and microalgal residue were 25.92. MJ/kg and 26.76. MJ/kg, respectively. Compared to raw materials, the increases were 26.70% and 17.16%, respectively. At the same circumstances, hydrogen content, oxygen content, moisture content and mass yield of solid torrefied biomass decreased with increasing temperature and residence time. After torrefaction at 300 °C, the moisture content were all down to 1%, and the mass yield of solid torrefied biomass under 350 °C by torrefaction were also kept up to 50%. The HGI of torrefied microalgal residue was 48.53, which exceed the sub-bituminous coal when the operation condition temperature was up to 250 °C. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Lan P.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Li W.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Schmidt W.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Schmidt W.,National Chung Hsing University | Schmidt W.,National Taiwan University
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2012

Phosphate (Pi) deficiency impairs plant growth and productivity in many agricultural ecosystems, causing severe reductions in crop yield. To uncover novel aspects in acclimation to Pi starvation, we investigated the correlation between Pi deficiency-induced changes in transcriptome and proteome profiles in Arabidopsis roots. Using exhaustive tandem mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics and whole-genome RNA sequencing to generate a nearly complete catalog of expressed mRNAs and proteins, we reliably identified 13,298 proteins and 24,591 transcripts, subsets of 356 proteins and 3106 mRNAs were differentially expressed during P i deficiency. Most dramatic changes were noticed for genes involved in Pi acquisition and in processes that either liberate Pi or bypass Pi/ATP-consuming metabolic steps, for example during membrane lipid remodeling and glycolytic carbon flux. The concordance between the abundance of mRNA and its encoded protein was generally high for highly up-regulated genes, but the analysis also revealed numerous discordant changes in mRNA/protein pairs, indicative of divergent regulation of transcription and post-transcriptional processes. In particular, a decreased abundance of proteins upon Pi deficiency was not closely correlated with changes in the corresponding mRNAs. In several cases, up-regulation of gene activity was observed solely at the protein level, adding novel aspects to key processes in the adaptation to Pi deficiency. We conclude that integrated measurement and interpretation of changes in protein and transcript abundance are mandatory for generating a complete inventory of the components that are critical in the response to environmental stimuli. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Shaikh T.M.,National Chung Hsing University | Shaikh T.M.,Vel Technology University | Hong F.-E.,National Chung Hsing University
Tetrahedron | Year: 2013

An efficient, mild, and simple protocol is presented for the oxidation of aldehydes and diols to carboxylic acids utilizing 70% aq TBHP as oxidant and t-BuOK as additive. The oxidation of aldehydes could be achieved by two methods under aqueous medium. Excellent yields of products were obtained in short reaction times. Notably, the products were isolated by simple filtration technique and do not involve chromatographic separation. These reactions may prove to be valuable alternatives to traditional metal-mediated oxidations. Oxidation does not require any transition metals or organic solvents in reaction, making this protocol green. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Juang C.-F.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.-H.,Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company | Jhan Y.-H.,National Chung Hsing University
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2015

This paper proposes the use of evolutionary fuzzy control for a wall-following hexapod robot. The data-driven fuzzy controller (FC) is learned through an adaptive group-based differential evolution (AGDE) algorithm, which avoids the explicit usage of the robot mathematical model and time-consuming manual design effort. In the wall-following task, the inputs of the FC are measurements of three infrared distance sensors mounted on the hexapod robot. The FC controls the swing angle changes of the left- and right-middle legs of the hexapod robot for proper turning performance while simultaneously moving forward. To automate the design of the FC and to improve the performance of control, an AGDE algorithm is proposed. In the AGDE-designed FC, a cost function is defined to quantitatively evaluate the learning performance of an FC based on data generated online. In the AGDE, the solution vectors in a population are adaptively clustered into different groups based on their performances at each iteration. To improve optimization performance, the AGDE adaptively selects components from either the group-based mutant vector or a typical population-based mutant vector in the mutation operation. Simulated and experimental results are gathered to verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the data-driven AGDE-based learning approach. © 2014 IEEE.

Chein R.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.-C.,National United University | Chang C.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Chung J.N.,University of Florida
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2010

The hydrogen production from NH 3 decomposition for fuel cell applications using packed Ni-Pt/Al 2O 3 particles as the catalyst is theoretically and numerically predicted. The results show that by adopting the chemical reaction model for a packed-bed reactor used in the methanol-steam reforming with ZnO/Al 2O 3 as the catalyst, the numerical model predicted satisfactory results on the NH 3 decomposition efficiency as compared with the experimental data. For various catalyst bed porosities and particle sizes, the numerical results indicated that porosity and permeability of the catalyst bed produce an insignificant effect on the NH 3 decomposition. Based on this finding, a one-dimensional plug flow model is developed and the predicted species molar fraction variations and NH 3 decomposition efficiency are found in good agreement with the numerical simulations. From the numerical and theoretical results, it is found that the NH 3 volumetric flow rate fed into the reactor is an important factor that determines the reaction temperature and decomposition efficiency in addition to the catalyst. Because of a longer NH 3 residence time inside the reactor, lower reaction temperature can be employed for a high decomposition efficiency when the NH 3 flow rate is low. © 2009 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu.

Juang C.-F.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang Y.-C.,Mmilitary Service | Hsiao C.-M.,Mmilitary Service
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2011

This paper proposes a new learning approach for evolving dynamic gaits of a hexapod robot. The controller that coordinates the leg movements consists of fully connected recurrent neural networks (FCRNNs). To automate the FCRNN parameter design, a symbiotic species-based particle swarm optimization (SSPSO) algorithm is proposed. There are multiple swarms in the SSPSO, where a swarm only optimizes the relevant parameters to a single node. The number of swarms is equal to the number of nodes in an FCRNN. The symbiotic behavior of particles from different swarms corresponds to the symbiotic structure of different nodes in an FCRNN. For a particle update, particles in different swarms update independently using a local version of particle swarm optimization (PSO) based on speciation. In each swarm, species are formed adaptively in each iteration according to both particle distance and performance. The design of FCRNNs using the SSPSO for temporal sequence generation and hexapod robot dynamic gait evolution for forward movement is conducted. For the latter, a multiple-FCRNN controller is first designed using a simulated hexapod robot. The designed controller is then successfully applied to a real hexapod robot gait control. The SSPSO is compared with the genetic algorithm and different PSO algorithms to verify its efficiency and effectiveness. © 2006 IEEE.

Nguyen T.,University of Leicester | Su W.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Gajic Z.,Rutgers University
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2012

A variable structure system can be studied using the singular perturbation theory. The discontinuous control that leads to a finite-time reaching of the sliding surface creates fast-time transients analogous to the stable boundary layer dynamics of a singularly perturbed system. As the sliding mode is attained, the slow-time dynamics prevails, just as that of a singularly perturbed system after the boundary layer dynamics fades away. In this technical note, the problem of sliding mode control for singularly perturbed systems in the presence of matched bounded external disturbances is investigated. A composite sliding surface is constructed from solutions of algebraic Lyapunov equations which are derived from both the fast and the slow subsystems. The resultant sliding motion ensures Lyapunov stability with disturbance rejection. Two proposed schemes that ensure the asymptotic stability of the system are presented. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is demonstrated in a numerical example of a magnetic tape control system. © 2011 IEEE.

Chein R.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.-C.,National United University | Chung J.N.,University of Florida
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2012

The methanol-steam reforming (MSR) performance in micro-scale tubular reformers made by various materials is numerically studied. The physical domain considered includes an inlet section for methanol-steam mixture supply, a reformer section packed with CuO/ZnO/Al 2O 3 catalyst particles and an outlet section for reformed gas collection. The heat transfer effect with three different heat supply mechanisms on the MSR performance is addressed. For heat supplies from the applied heat fluxes at the reformer outer wall surface and from internal heat generation in the reformer wall, it is found that the axial conduction plays an important role in both heat transfer characteristics and MSR performance. It is suggested that the reformer have a small axial conduction parameter for high MSR performance which can be achieved by designing the reformer with low wall thermal conductivity, thin wall thickness and a small reactants feed rate. It is also found that an excess heat supply can be obtained when the axial conduction parameter is small. This excess heat supply enhances the MSR performance compared with the infinitely-thin walled reformer. For the reformer with a constant wall outer surface temperature, the wall material effect on the MSR performance is insignificant due to uniformly distributed reformer wall temperature. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nguyen T.,Rutgers University | Su W.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Gajic Z.,Rutgers University
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2010

We address the output feedback sliding mode control problem for a sampled data linear system with external disturbances of the matching type. By taking into account the disturbance compensation, a deadbeat high gain output feedback control strategy with additional dynamics is able to attenuate the disturbances. In the framework of singular perturbation analysis, it is shown that the closed loop system exhibits good robustness against exogenous disturbances. © 2006 IEEE.

Chein R.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.-C.,National United University | Chen J.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Chung J.N.,University of Florida
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2012

This study presents a designed and tested integrated miniature tubular quartz-made reactor for hydrogen (H2) production. This reactor is composed of two concentric tubes with an overall length of 60 mm and a diameter of 17 mm. The inner tube was designed as the combustor using Pt/Al 2O3 as the catalyst. The gap between the inner and outer tubes is divided into three sections: a liquid methanol-water vaporizer, a methanol-steam reformer using RP-60 as the catalyst and a carbon monoxide (CO) methanator using Ru/Al2O3 as the catalyst. The experimental measurements indicated that this integrated reactor works properly as designed. The methanol conversion, hydrogen production rate and CO concentration were found to increase with an increasing methanol/air flow rate in the combustor and decreases with an increasing methanol/water feed rate to the reformer. The methanator experimental results indicated that the CO conversion and H2 consumption can be enhanced by increasing the Ru loading. It was also found that the CO methanation depends greatly on the reaction temperature. With a higher reaction temperature, the CO methanation, carbon dioxide (CO2) methanation, and reversed water gas shift reactions took place simultaneously. CO conversion was found to decrease while H2 consumption was found to increase. At a lower reaction temperature both the CO conversion and H2 consumption were found to increase indicating that only CO methanation took place. From the experimental results the maximum methanol conversion, hydrogen yield, and CO conversion achieved were 97%, 2.38, and 70%, respectively. The actual lowest CO concentration and maximum power density based on the reactor volume were 90 ppm and 0.8 kW/L, respectively. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights.

Chein R.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.-C.,National United University | Chung J.N.,University of Florida
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2012

We numerically investigate hydrogen production based on methanol-steam reforming (MSR) using a micro-scale cylindrical packed bed reformer. The reformer wall is included in the physical model. The heat required for the reforming reaction is supplied either internally using a heating rod placed along the center of the reformer or externally by a heat flux applied at the reformer outer wall. Our results show that the thermal resistance from the heat source to the reformer environment plays an important role in the reformer performance. This thermal resistance depends on the reformer geometry, wall material and heat transfer coefficients inside the catalyst bed and outside the reformer. Based on our numerical results, it is suggested that better methanol conversion and hydrogen yield can be obtained using reformer wall material with low thermal conductivity and thin thickness. For both internal and external heating under the same heat rate supply, no significant difference in reformer performance was found. A water gas shift (WGS) reaction model was included in the present numerical model. In the reformer low-temperature zone the forward WGS reaction was clearly demonstrated, resulting in a decrease in carbon monoxide (CO) selectivity. In the high temperature zone the backward WGS reaction was also clearly demonstrated in which CO selectivity increases with the increase in temperature. For both internal and external heating under the same heat rate supply, our results indicated that CO selectivity is about thirty times lower when the WGS reaction is neglected. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chein R.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.-C.,National United University | Chung J.N.,University of Florida
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2013

This study presents numerical studies of hydrogen production performance via water gas shift reaction in membrane reactor. The pre-exponential factor in describing the hydrogen permeation flux is used as the main parameter to account for the membrane permeance variation. The operating pressure, temperature and H2O/CO molar ratio are chosen in the 1-20 atm, 400-600 °C and 1-3 ranges, respectively. Based on the numerical simulation results three distinct CO conversion regimes exist based on the pre-exponential factor value. For low pre-exponential factors corresponding to low membrane permeance, the CO conversion approaches to that obtained from a conventional reactor without hydrogen removal. For high pre-exponential factor, high CO conversion and H 2 recovery with constant values can be obtained. For intermediate pre-exponential factor range both CO conversion and H2 recovery vary linearly with the pre-exponential factor. In the high membrane permeation case CO conversion and H2 recovery approach limiting values as the operating pressure increases. Increasing the H2O/CO molar ratio results in an increase in CO conversion but decrease in H2 recovery due to hydrogen permeation driving force reduction. As the feed rate increases in the reaction side both the CO conversion and hydrogen recovery decrease because of decreased reactant residence time. The sweep gas flow rate has a significant effect on hydrogen recovery. Low sweep gas flow rate results in low CO conversion H2 recovery while limiting CO conversion and hydrogen recovery can be reached for the high membrane permeance and high sweep gas flow rate cases. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC.

Hsu C.-L.,Chung Shan Medical University | Lin Y.-J.,National Chung Hsing University | Ho C.-T.,Rutgers University | Yen G.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Food and Function | Year: 2012

The aim of this work was to study the effects of garcinol and pterostilbene on cell proliferation and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. The results showed that garcinol and pterostilbene decreased the cell population growth and caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. During adipocyte differentiation, both garcinol and pterostilbene had inhibitory effects on fat droplet formation and triacylglycerol accumulation. The data indicated that garcinol and pterostilbene could inhibit the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity by 97.8 and 61.5%, respectively, as compared to the control. Both garcinol and pterostilbene significantly attenuated the protein expressions of PPARγ and C/EBPα during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, garcinol and pterostilbene caused an inhibition of lipid accumulation in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation phase. Garcinol and pterostilbene also significantly up-regulated the gene expression of adiponectin as well as down-regulated the gene expressions of leptin, resistin, and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, garcinol significantly down-regulated the protein expressions of PPARγ and FAS as well as up-regulated the protein expressions of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and adiponectin. Garcinol also significantly up-regulated the gene expression of adiponectin as well as down-regulated the gene expressions of leptin and FAS. These results suggest that garcinol and pterostilbene have anti-adipogenic effects on preadipocytes and adipocytes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Chein R.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.-C.,National United University | Chang C.-M.,National Chung Hsing University | Chung J.N.,University of Florida
Applied Energy | Year: 2013

A miniature plate-type hydrogen production reactor using methanol as fuel was designed and tested. This reactor is composed of a catalytic combustor, vaporizer, reformer, and methanator. All components were fabricated on one piece of rectangular quartz glass plate 50mm×44mm×7mm in size. The combustor was fabricated on one side of the glass plate with a Swiss-roll type channel in which the Pt/Al2O3 particles were loaded in segmented form to catalyze the combustion. A spiral channel was fabricated on the other side of the plate and divided into three sections: a vaporizer for liquid methanol-water mixture vaporization, a reformer for methanol-steam reforming catalyzed by CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 particles and a methanator for carbon monoxide (CO) removal catalyzed by Ru/Al2O3 particles.The test results indicated that this reactor successfully produced H2 and had thermal efficiency ranging from 13% to 35%. The reactor performance depends on the feed rates to the combustor and reformer, respectively. High methanol conversion can be obtained from either a low feed rate to the reformer or a high feed rate to the combustor. However, both cases also produce high CO concentrations. The CO methanation reaction was used to reduce the CO concentration. It was found that the methanation reaction depends greatly on the reactor temperature with high temperature not being favorable to this reaction. High CO conversion and low H2 consumption with low methanol conversion result when the reaction temperature is low. Thermal management for producing suitable temperature and catalyst activity improvement in high reaction temperature for the methanator are both needed in the integrated reactor design to reduce the CO concentration down to acceptable levels for fuel cell operation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Chein R.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.-C.,National United University | Chung J.N.,University of Florida
Applied Energy | Year: 2013

This study presents the numerical simulation on the performance of mini-scale reactors for hydrogen production coupled with liquid methanol/water vaporizer, methanol/steam reformer, and methanol/air catalytic combustor. These reactors are designed similar to tube-and-shell heat exchangers. The combustor for heat supply is arranged as the tube or shell side. Based on the obtained results, the methanol/air flow rate through the combustor (in terms of gas hourly space velocity of combustor, GHSV-C) and the methanol/water feed rate to the reformer (in terms of gas hourly space velocity of reformer, GHSV-R) control the reactor performance. With higher GHSV-C and lower GHSV-R, higher methanol conversion can be achieved because of higher reaction temperature. However, hydrogen yield is reduced and the carbon monoxide concentration is increased due to the reversed water gas shift reaction. Optimum reactor performance is found using the balance between GHSV-C and GHSV-R. Because of more effective heat transfer characteristics in the vaporizer, it is found that the reactor with combustor arranged as the shell side has better performance compared with the reactor design having the combustor as the tube side under the same operating conditions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Yang S.L.,University of Florida | Yu P.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Chung K.-R.,University of Florida | Chung K.-R.,National Chung Hsing University
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2016

The ability to detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) is critical for pathogenicity in the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata. We report a glutathione peroxidase 3 (AaGPx3) involved in the complex signalling network that is essential for the detoxification of cellular stresses induced by ROS and for A.alternata pathogenesis in citrus. AaGPx3 deletion mutants displayed increased sensitivity to H2O2 and many ROS-generating compounds. AaGPx3 is required for correct fungal development as the AaGPx3 mutant strains showed a severe reduction in conidiation. AaGPx3 mutants accumulated higher chitin content than the wild-type and were less sensitive to the cell wall-targeting compounds calcofluor white and Congo red, as well as the fungicides fludioxonil and vinclozolin, suggesting a role of the glutathione systems in fungal cell wall construction. Virulence assays revealed that AaGPx3 is required for full virulence. The expression of AaGPx3 was downregulated in fungal strains carrying defective NADPH oxidase (Nox) or the oxidative stress responsive regulators YAP1 and HOG1, all implicated in ROS resistance. These results further support the important role of ROS detoxification during A.alternata pathogenesis in citrus. Overall, our study provides genetic evidence to define the central role of AaGPx3 in the biological and pathological functions of A.alternata. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

National Chung Hsing University and Taiwan Leader Biotech Corporation | Date: 2011-12-12

A polyacetylenes and application thereof. The polyacetylenes is isolated from an extract of the sporophores of Antrodia Cinnamomea and has a function of inhibiting the production of nitric oxide. Therefore, the polyacetylenes can be used for preparing a pharmaceutical composition for anti-inflammation. The present invention also teaches the representative metabolites of the sporophores of Antrodia Cinnamomea, which can be used to evaluate the quality thereof.

Rajanbabu V.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Rajanbabu V.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen J.-Y.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Peptides | Year: 2011

The antimicrobial and immunomodulatory functions of the antimicrobial peptide, tilapia hepcidin (TH)2-3, were previously studied. Herein, we report the differential modulation of protein kinase C (PKC)-associated proteins by TH2-3, and the PKC activator, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), in RAW264.7 macrophages. Treatment with TH2-3 at 40 or 80 μg/ml did not affect the cell morphology, but TH2-3 at 120 μg/ml produced morphological changes similar to those after treatment with PMA in RAW264.7 cells. The coexistence of the PKC inhibitor, Ro-31-8220, prevented morphological changes induced by either PMA or 120 μg/ml TH2-3 in RAW264.7 cells. Since PMA is known to induce expression of the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, activation of the TNF-α promoter in response to TH2-3 and PMA treatments in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells was compared. In LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, TNF-α promoter activity was significantly suppressed by TH2-3, but not by PMA. In addition, PMA activated prostaglandin synthase-associated cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 proteins on the cell surface, while the presence of TH2-3 inhibited its expression. Western blotting demonstrated that the expressions of PKC-μ, phosphorylated (p)-PKCμ at serine (S)-744, and p-PKCδ were activated by PMA, but were suppressed by TH2-3. In addition, p-PKC at S-916 was activated by TH2-3 and inhibited by PMA. In conclusion, the differential regulation of PKC isoforms by PMA and TH2-3 may influence morphological changes and regulation of TNF-α in RAW264.7 cells. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Chang C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Hsieh M.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin J.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang T.-C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Biomaterials | Year: 2012

Three binary molecule conjugates were designed and synthesized by conjugating a chromophore (3, 6-bis-(1-methyl-4-vinylpyridinium)-carbazole diiodide, BMVC) to mono-, bis. - and trishydroxyl photosensitizers, respectively. BMVC plays the role of cancer cells recognizer; AIEE (aggregation-induced emission enhancement) generator and FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer) donor. The self assembling properties of these binary conjugates result in different degrees of AIEE and then achieve the formations of FONs (fluorescent organic nanoparticles), which present efficient FRET and singlet oxygen generations. Biologically, FONs-photosensitizers from these compounds were much more phototoxicities to cancer cell than to normal cell without significant dark toxicity. In addition, their intracellular fluorescent colors switching upon photo-excitation are expected to be used for further cell death biomarker applications. This improved photodynamic activity might be due to the aggregation of compounds in the cell that form FONs which can promote PDT (photodynamic therapy) and are observed in cancer cell but not normal cell. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Yen D.C.,Miami University Ohio | Wu C.-S.,Tunghai University | Cheng F.-F.,National Chung Hsing University | Huang Y.-W.,Wufeng University
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2010

This paper reported the results of a survey study and provided evidences of empirically testing a model that integrates both technology acceptance model (TAM) and task-technology fit (TTF) model in understanding the determinants of users' intention to use wireless technology in organizations. Questionnaires were distributed to organizations that bring mobile commerce into practice through the wireless handheld devices. The results indicated that both technology acceptance model and task-technology fit model are robust models by themselves. First, both perceived usefulness and ease of use significantly influence users' behavior intention to utilize wireless technology. Perceived ease of use has significant effect on perceived usefulness. Second, characteristics of technology and task significantly predict the fit between these two constructs. Significant effect of characteristics of technology on perceived ease of use and usefulness were observed. Finally, significant relationships between TAM and TTF model were also observed. Task-technology fit is a significant direct predictor of technology adoption intention. Overall, users' intention to adopt wireless technology in organizations was determined directly by fit between characteristics of task and technology as well as users' perceived ease of use and usefulness. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Fu H.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Fu H.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin Y.-L.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lin Y.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Fatimababy A.S.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2010

Ubiquitin/26S proteasome-mediated proteolysis controls the half-life of numerous critical regulatory proteins and is an intimate regulatory component for nearly all aspects of cellular processes. In addition to ubiquitin conjugation, an additional level of substrate specificity is regulated at the step of proteasomal recognition of ubiquitylated substrates, which serves as an important mechanistic and regulatory component to connect the substrate from the conjugation machinery to the 26S proteasome. In this review, we discuss current knowledge and future challenges relevant to understanding the mechanism, regulation, functions and substrate specificity of proteasomal recognition mediated by a multitude of ubiquitin receptors. The mechanistic details of major recognition pathways for ubiquitylated substrates are clearly divergent within and across species, which implies functional differentiation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Ku C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chung W.-C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chen L.-L.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Kuo C.-H.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Kuo C.-H.,National Chung Hsing University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus in the family Apocynaceae) is an important medicinal plant and is the source of several widely marketed chemotherapeutic drugs. It is also commonly grown for its ornamental values and, due to ease of infection and distinctiveness of symptoms, is often used as the host for studies on phytoplasmas, an important group of uncultivated plant pathogens. To gain insights into the characteristics of apocynaceous plastid genomes (plastomes), we used a reference-assisted approach to assemble the complete plastome of C. roseus, which could be applied to other C. roseus-related studies. The C. roseus plastome is the second completely sequenced plastome in the asterid order Gentianales. We performed comparative analyses with two other representative sequences in the same order, including the complete plastome of Coffea arabica (from the basal Gentianales family Rubiaceae) and the nearly complete plastome of Asclepias syriaca (Apocynaceae). The results demonstrated considerable variations in gene content and plastome organization within Apocynaceae, including the presence/absence of three essential genes (i.e., accD, clpP, and ycf1) and large size changes in non-coding regions (e.g., rps2-rpoC2 and IRb-ndhF). To find plastome markers of potential utility for Catharanthus breeding and phylogenetic analyses, we identified 41 C. roseus-specific simple sequence repeats. Furthermore, five intergenic regions with high divergence between C. roseus and three other euasterids I taxa were identified as candidate markers. To resolve the euasterids I interordinal relationships, 82 plastome genes were used for phylogenetic inference. With the addition of representatives from Apocynaceae and sampling of most other asterid orders, a sister relationship between Gentianales and Solanales is supported. © 2013 Ku et al.

Lin J.-S.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Ma L.-S.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Ma L.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Lai E.-M.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lai E.-M.,National Chung Hsing University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widely distributed in pathogenic Proteobacteria. Sequence and structural analysis of T6SS reveals a resemblance to the T4 bacteriophage tail, in which an outer sheath structure contracts an internal tube for injecting nucleic acid into bacterial cells. However, the molecular details of how this phage tail-like T6SS structure is assembled in vivo and executed for exoprotein or effector secretion remain largely unknown. Here, we used a systematic approach to identify T6SS machinery and secreted components and investigate the interaction among the putative sheath and tube components of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We showed that 14 T6SS components play essential roles in the secretion of the T6SS hallmark exoprotein Hcp. In addition, we discovered a novel T6SS exoprotein, Atu4347, that is dispensable for Hcp secretion. Interestingly, Atu4347 and the putative tube components, Hcp and VgrG, are mainly localized in the cytoplasm but also detected on the bacterial surface. Atu4342 (TssB) and Atu4341 (TssC41) interact with and stabilize each other, which suggests that they are functional orthologs of the sheath components TssB (VipA) and TssC (VipB), respectively. Importantly, TssB interacts directly with the three exoproteins (Hcp, VgrG, and Atu4347), in which Hcp also interacts directly with VgrG-1 on co-purification from Escherichia coli. Further co-immunoprecipitation and pulldown assays revealed these subcomplex(es) in A. tumefaciens and thereby support T6SS functioning as a contractile phage tail-like structure. © 2013 Lin et al.

Huang P.-H.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Lee J.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Precision Engineering | Year: 2010

Current algorithm system of the Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) widely adopts the least-squares (LS) method for form error quality inspections. This LS algorithm provides an approximate solution for form error evaluation only, with possible actual error overestimation and further leading some of acceptable mechanical components to be rejected. Moreover, the existing method for the evaluation of conicity error is actually infrequent. Thus, the paper elaborates a heuristic approach using an umbrella-shaped mechanical model for precisely evaluating the minimum zone conicity error based on minimum potential energy principle. The umbrella-shaped mechanical model consists of two coaxial and equal-vertex-angle conical surfaces by a fictitious spring connection. All measured data points are enclosed within two conical surfaces which are mathematically determined by the coordinates of 7 active data points. To allow the error assessment being conducted precisely, the non-linear model provides seven degrees of freedom to handle various possible situations. The shrinking spring reduces simulated mechanical system potential energy, yielding two new coaxial cones with smaller normal separation and new contact points on conical surfaces. The system eventually reaches a stable state with a minimum elastic potential energy. The normal separation between such two conical surfaces is minimum zone of conical form error. A direct searching technique based on the derived minimum zone criterion is demonstrated, and a fast and flexible computational algorithm is also proposed. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Hung C.-M.,National Taiwan Normal University | Shaner P.-J.L.,National Taiwan Normal University | Zink R.M.,University of Minnesota | Liu W.-C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014

To assess the role of human disturbances in species' extinction requires an understanding of the species population history before human impact. The passenger pigeon was once the most abundant bird in the world, with a population size estimated at 3-5 billion in the 1800s; its abrupt extinction in 1914 raises the question of how such an abundant bird could have been driven to extinction in mere decades. Although human exploitation is often blamed, the role of natural population dynamics in the passenger pigeon's extinction remains unexplored. Applying high-throughput sequencing technologies to obtain sequences from most of the genome, we calculated that the passenger pigeon's effective population size throughout the last million years was persistently about 1/10,000 of the 1800' s estimated number of individuals, a ratio 1,000-times lower than typically found. This result suggests that the passenger pigeon was not always super abundant but experienced dramatic population fluctuations, resembling those of an "outbreak" species. Ecological niche models supported inference of drastic changes in the extent of its breeding range over the last glacial-interglacial cycle. An estimate of acorn-based carrying capacity during the past 21,000 y showed great year-to-year variations. Based on our results, we hypothesize that ecological conditions that dramatically reduced population size under natural conditions could have interacted with human exploitation in causing the passenger pigeon's rapid demise. Our study illustrates that even species as abundant as the passenger pigeon can be vulnerable to human threats if they are subject to dramatic population fluctuations, and provides a new perspective on the greatest human-caused extinction in recorded history.

Lin W.-Y.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lin W.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Huang T.-K.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Huang T.-K.,National Chung Hsing University | And 2 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2013

Members of the Arabidopsis thaliana PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER1 (PHT1) family are key players in acquisition of Pi from the rhizosphere, and their regulation is indispensable for the maintenance of cellular Pi homeostasis. Here, we reveal posttranslational regulation of Pi transport through modulation of degradation of PHT1 proteins by the RING-type ubiquitin E3 ligase, NITROGEN LIMITATION ADAPTATION (NLA). Loss of function of NLA caused high Pi accumulation resulting from increases in the levels of several PHT1s at the protein rather than the transcript level. Evidence of decreased endocytosis and ubiquitination of PHT1s in nla mutants and interaction between NLA and PHT1s in the plasma membranes suggests that NLA directs the ubiquitination of plasma membrane-localized PHT1s, which triggers clathrin-dependent endocytosis followed by endosomal sorting to vacuoles. Furthermore, different subcellular localization of NLA and PHOSPHATE2 (PHO2; a ubiquitin E2 conjugase) and the synergistic effect of the accumulation of PHT1s and Pi in nla pho2 mutants suggest that they function independently but cooperatively to regulate PHT1 protein amounts. Intriguingly, NLA and PHO2 are the targets of two Pi starvation-induced microRNAs, miR827 and miR399, respectively. Therefore, our findings uncover modulation of Pi transport activity in response to Pi availability through the integration of a microRNA-mediated posttranscriptional pathway and a ubiquitin-mediated posttranslational regulatory pathway. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists.

Yang C.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Chin K.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Chuah M.L.-C.,Nanyang Technological University | Liang Z.-X.,Nanyang Technological University | And 3 more authors.
Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography | Year: 2011

Cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a key signalling molecule involved in regulating many important biological functions in bacteria. The synthesis of c - di-GMP is catalyzed by the GGDEF-domain-containing diguanylate cyclase (DGC), the activity of which is regulated by the binding of product at the allosteric inhibitory (I) site. However, a significant number of GGDEF domains lack the RxxD motif characteristic of the allosteric I site. Here, the structure of XCC4471 GGDEF, the GGDEF domain of a DGC from Xanthomonas campestris, in complex with c-di-GMP has been solved. Unexpectedly, the structure of the complex revealed a GGDEF-domain dimer cross-linked by two molecules of c-di-GMP at the strongly conserved active sites. In the complex (c - di-GMP) 2 adopts a novel partially inter-calated form, with the peripheral guanine bases bound to the guanine-binding pockets and the two central bases stacked upon each other. Alteration of the residues involved in specific binding to c-di-GMP led to dramatically reduced K d values between XCC4471 GGDEF and c-di-GMP. In addition, these key residues are strongly conserved among the many thousands of GGDEF-domain sequences identified to date. These results indicate a new product-bound form for GGDEF-domain-containing proteins obtained via (c-di-GMP)2 binding at the active site. This novel XCC4471 GGDEF-c-di-GMP complex structure may serve as a general model for the design of lead compounds to block the DGC activity of GGDEF-domain-containing proteins in X. campestris or other microorganisms that contain multiple GGDEF-domain proteins. © 2011 International Union of Crystallography.

Tsai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Huang H.-C.,Hungkuang University | Lin S.-C.,National Chin - Yi University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2010

This paper presents an adaptive control using radial-basis-function neural networks (RBFNNs) for a two-wheeled self-balancing scooter. A mechatronic system structure of the scooter driven by two dc motors is briefly described, and its mathematical modeling incorporating two frictions between the wheels and the motion surface is derived. By decomposing the overall system into two subsystems (yaw motion and mobile inverted pendulum), one proposes two adaptive controllers using RBFNN to achieve self-balancing and yaw control. The performance and merit of the proposed adaptive controllers are exemplified by conducting several simulations and experiments on a two-wheeled self-balancing scooter. © 2010 IEEE.

Chen P.P.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Nagababu P.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Yu S.S.-F.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chan S.I.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan
ChemCatChem | Year: 2014

Following recent progress towards understanding the structure of the particulate methane monooxygenase in methanotrophic bacteria, it is now possible to attempt the development of laboratory catalysts for the conversion of methane into MeOH under ambient conditions. To this end, a class of tricopper complexes that are capable of efficiently oxidizing small hydrocarbon substrates at room temperature has recently been developed. In this Minireview, we describe the development of a tricopper cluster to accomplish the catalytic conversion of methane into MeOH, as well as a number of small n-alkanes into their corresponding alcohols and ketones, with high efficiencies. The properties of this robust catalytic system are discussed. Three and easy: A class of tricopper complexes has been developed as mimics of the catalytic site of particulate methane monooxygenase. These CuICuICu I clusters are capable of the efficient oxidation of methane into MeOH upon activation by O2 at room temperature. The conversion is catalytic if H2O2 is used to drive the turnover. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Li C.-Y.,Chung Yuan Christian University | Liu D.-C.,Chung Yuan Christian University | Ko B.-T.,National Chung Hsing University
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2013

New aluminium complexes containing bis-BTP ligands (BTP = N,O-bidentate benzotriazole phenoxide) were synthesized and structurally characterized. Amine elimination of Al(NMe2)3 with RBTP-H ligands (CMe2PhBTP-H = 2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-bis(1-methyl-1- phenylethyl)phenol, t-BuBTP-H = 2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-di-tert- butylphenol and TMClBTP-H = 2-tert-butyl-6-(5-chloro-2H-benzotriazol- 2-yl)-4-methylphenol) (2.0 mol equiv.) in toluene or hexane afforded the penta-coordinated single-site amidoaluminium complexes [(RBTP) 2Al(NMe2)] (R = CMe2Ph for 1; R = t-Bu for 2; R = TMCl for 3) in satisfactory yields. With the addition of H2O (0.5 molar equiv.), the hydrolysis of Al amides 2 and 3 in a mixed solvent of THF/toluene at 25 °C produced oxo-bridged bimetallic aluminium complexes [{( RBTP)2Al}2(μ-O)] (R = t-Bu for 4 and R = TMCl for 5) in ≥70% yield. According to single crystal X-ray diffraction studies, complex 2 shows a monomeric Al(iii) amide with bis(t-BuBTP) ligands and one -NMe2 group, whereas alumoxane 4 is a dinuclear species, in which the bonding mode of the Al-O-Al moiety from μ2-oxo assumes a linear type. Catalysis for ring-opening polymerization of lactide (LA) and CO2/propylene oxide (PO) coupling was systematically studied. Single-site Al amide 3 is an efficient initiator for LA polymerizations with a living character; the polymerization displays a first-order dependence on the concentration of l-LA. Bimetallic BTP-ligated alumoxane 5 is an active catalyst (TOF: 120 h-1) for the coupling of CO2 with PO in the presence of n-Bu4NBr to give propylene carbonate under mild conditions. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Tsai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Huang H.-C.,Hungkuang University | Lin S.-C.,National Chin - Yi University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2011

This paper presents a coarse-grain parallel deoxyribonucleic acid (PDNA) algorithm for optimal configurations of an omnidirectional mobile robot with a five-link robotic arm. This efficient coarse-grain PDNA is proposed to search for the global optimum of the redundant inverse kinematics problem with minimal movement, thereby showing better population diversity and avoiding premature convergence. Moreover, the pipelined hardware implementation, hardware/software co-design, and System-on-a-Programmable-Chip (SoPC) technology on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) chip are employed to realize the proposed PDNA in order to significantly shorten its processing time. Simulations and experimental results are conducted to illustrate the merit and superiority of the proposed FPGA-based PDNA algorithm in comparison with conventional genetic algorithms (GAs) for omnidirectional mobile robot performing fire extinguishment. © 2010 IEEE.

Liu T.-Y.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lin W.-Y.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Huang T.-K.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Huang T.-K.,National Chung Hsing University | And 2 more authors.
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2014

Phosphate (Pi), which is indispensable for the structural and metabolic needs of plants, is acquired and translocated by Pi transporters. Deciphering the regulatory network of Pi signaling and homeostasis that involves the control of Pi transporters trafficking to, and their activity at, the plasma membrane provides insight into how plants adapt to environmental changes in Pi availability. Here, we review recent studies that revealed the involvement of microRNA399-PHOSPHATE 2 (PHO2) and microR827-NITROGEN LIMITATION ADAPTATION (NLA) modules in mediating the ubiquitination and degradation of PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER 1 (PHT1) and/or PHOSPHATE 1 (PHO1). These discoveries show that miRNAs are an effective way for plants to monitor the turnover of Pi transporters in the membrane system by modulating the functioning of the membrane-associated ubiquitin machinery. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Chang C.-I.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Chang C.-I.,National Chung Hsing University
IEEE Sensors Journal | Year: 2010

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is a widely used evaluation tool in signal processing and communications, and medical diagnosis for performance analysis. It utilizes 2-D curves plotted by detection rate (PD) against false alarm rate ({PF) to assess effectiveness of a detector, sensor/device for detection. However, PD and Pf are actually dependent parameters resulting from a more crucial but implicit parameter hidden in the ROC curves, threshold τ , which is determined by the cost of implementing a detector or sensor/device, except only the case that when the Bayes theory is used for detection, τ is completely determined by the Bayes cost. This paper extends the traditional ROC analysis for single-signal detection to detection and classification of multiple signals. It also explores relationships among the three parameters, P D, PF, and τ , and further develops a new concept of multiparameter ROC analysis, which uses 3-D ROC curves plotted by three parameters, PD, PF, and τ, to evaluate effectiveness of detection performance based on interrelationship among PD, P F, and τ, rather then only PD and PF used by 2-D ROC analysis. As a result of a 3-D ROC curve, three 2-D ROC curves can be also derived: the conventional 2-D ROC curve plotted by PD versus PF and two new 2-D ROC curves plotted based on PD versus τ and PF versus τ. In order to demonstrate the utility of 3-D ROC analysis, four applications are considered: hyperspectral target detection, medical diagnosis, chemical/biological agent detection, and biometric recognition. © 2010 IEEE.

Lo J.-W.,National Taichung Institute of Technology | Hwang M.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Liu C.-H.,Wufeng University
Information Sciences | Year: 2011

The employees of an organization are usually divided into different security classes to authorize the information retrieval, and the number of leaf classes is substantially larger than the number of non-leaf classes. Additionally, the alternations in leaf classes are more frequent than in non-leaf classes. We proposed a new key assignment scheme for controlling the access right in a large POSET (partially ordered set) hierarchy to reduce the required computation for key generation and derivation with the storage amount of data decreased. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Lin S.-C.,National Chin - Yi University of Technology | Tsai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Huang H.-C.,Hungkuang University
Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems: Theory and Applications | Year: 2011

This paper presents adaptive robust regulation methods for self-balancing and yaw motion of a two-wheeled human transportation vehicle (HTV) with varying payload and system uncertainties. The proposed regulators are aimed at providing consistent driving performance for the HTV with system uncertainties and parameter variations caused by different drivers. By decomposing the overall system into the yaw motion subsystems and the wheeled inverted pendulum, two proposed adaptive robust regulators are synthesized to achieve self-balancing and yaw motion control. Numerical simulations and experimental results on different terrains show that the proposed adaptive robust controllers are capable of achieving satisfactory control actions to steer the vehicle. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Liu C.-H.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Liu C.-H.,University of Bonn | Lee D.T.,National Chung Hsing University | Lee D.T.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Proceedings of the Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms | Year: 2013

We investigate the higher-order Voronoi diagrams of n point sites with respect to the geodesic distance in a simple polygon with h > 0 polygonal holes and c corners. Given a set of n point sites, the kth-order Voronoi diagram partitions the plane into several regions such that all points in a region share the same k nearest sites. The nearest-site (first-order) geodesic Voronoi diagram has already been well-studied, and its total complexity is O(n+c). On the other hand, Bae and Chwa [3] recently proved that the total complexity of the farthest-site ((n - 1)st-order) geodesic Voronoi diagram and the number of faces in the diagram are Θ(nc) and Θ(nh), respectively. It is of high interest to know what happens between the first-order and the (n - 1)st-order geodesic Voronoi diagrams. In this paper we prove that the total complexity of the kth-order geodesic Voronoi diagram is Θ(k(n - k) + kc), and the number of faces in the diagram is Θ(k(n - k) + kh). Our results successfully explain the variation from the nearest-site to the farthest-site geodesic Voronoi diagrams, i.e., from k = 1 to k = n - 1, and also illustrate the formation of a disconnected Voronoi region, which does not occur in many commonly used distance metrics, such as the Euclidean, L1, and city metrics. We show that the kth-order geodesic Voronoi diagram can be computed in O(k 2(n+c) log(n+c)) time using an iterative algorithm. Copyright © SIAM.

Lin I.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Yang C.-W.,National Chin - Yi University of Technology | Tsaur S.-C.,National Chin - Yi University of Technology
International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control | Year: 2010

RFID application brings huge conveniences, but low-cost tags were not designed to have much access control mechanism. The tag's information is easily read, by anyone. So far, there are many schemes proposed, to protect the user privacy for using RFID. In general, user privacy includes data, privacy and, location privacy. Most of the proposed, schemes just provide the protection for data, privacy. Recently, the scheme proposed, by Lee can protect both data, privacy and, location privacy. Our scheme is based, on the scheme proposed, by Lee, and, we improve Lee's weakness and, make it can apply on someone sells his RFID system, in security, to make our scheme achieves the property of ownership transfer. © 2010 ISSN.

Chen H.-B.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Li W.-T.,National Chung Hsing University
Order | Year: 2014

Consider families of subsets of [n]: = {1,2,...,n} that do no contain a given poset P as a subposet. Let La(n, P) denote the largest size of such families and h(P) denote the height of P. The best known general upper bound for La(n, P) is (Formula presented.), due to Bursi and Nagy (2012). This paper provides an improved upper bound (Formula presented.), where m can be any positive integer less than (Formula presented.). © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Alazem M.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Alazem M.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin K.-Y.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lin N.-S.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lin N.-S.,National Chung Hsing University
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions | Year: 2014

Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in modulating plant responses to different biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the effect of ABA on virus infection is not fully understood. Here, we describe the effects of the ABA pathway on the accumulation of Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in two different hosts: Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana. We report that ABA2 plays a critical role in the accumulation of BaMV and CMV. Mutants downstream of ABA2 (aao3, abi1-1, abi3-1, and abi4-1) were susceptible to BaMV, indicating that the ABA pathway downstream of ABA2 is essential for BaMV resistance. The aba2-1 mutant decreased the accumulation of BaMV (+)RNA, (-)RNA, and coat protein, with the most dramatic effect being observed for (-)RNA. These findings were further validated by the use of virus-induced gene silencing and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in N. benthamiana. In addition, infecting N. benthamiana with BaMV or CMV increased ABA contents and activated the SA and ABA pathways, thereby disrupting the antagonism between these two cascades. Our findings uncover a novel role for ABA2 in supporting BaMV and CMV accumulation, distinct from the opposing role of its downstream genes. © 2014 The American Phytopathological Society.

Chuang H.-J.,National Chung Hsing University | Su Y.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Ko B.-T.,Chung Yuan Christian University | Lin C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Inorganic Chemistry Communications | Year: 2012

Four NNO-tridentate ketiminate derivatives ( HL-H, FL-H, OMeL-H and tBuL-H) were prepared through the condensation reaction of 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-(4-X-benzoyl)-3-methyl-1H- pyrazol-5(4H)-one (X = H, F, OMe, tBu) with N,N-dimethylenediamine (1.1 molar equiv) under reflux condition. Further reaction of AlMe 3 (1.2 molar equiv) with HL-H, FL-H, OMeL-H and tBuL-H, respectively, affords penta-coordinated mono-adduct aluminum complexes [( HL)AlMe 2] (1), [( FL)AlMe 2] (2), [( OMeL)AlMe 2] (3), and [( tBuL)AlMe 2] (4) in high yield. Experimental results indicate complexes 1-4 are active catalysts for ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide (l-LA) in the presence of benzyl alcohol (BnOH). Al complex 2 catalyzes efficiently not only in a "living" fashion but also an "immortal" manner, giving polymers with the expected molecular weights and narrow PDIs. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Schaefke B.,National Yang Ming University | Schaefke B.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Emerson J.J.,University of California at Irvine | Wang T.-Y.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Gene expression evolution can be caused by changes in cis-or trans-regulatory elements or both. As cis and trans regulation operate through different molecular mechanisms, cis and trans mutations may show different inheritance patterns and may be subjected to different selective constraints. To investigate these issues, we obtained and analyzed gene expression data from two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and their hybrid, using high-throughput sequencing. Our data indicate that compared with other types of genes, those with antagonistic cis-trans interactions are more likely to exhibit over-or underdominant inheritance of expression level. Moreover, in accordance with previous studies, genes with trans variants tend to have a dominant inheritance pattern, whereas cis variants are enriched for additive inheritance. In addition, cis regulatory differences contribute more to expression differences between species than within species, whereas trans regulatory differences show a stronger association between divergence and polymorphism. Our data indicate that in the trans component of gene expression differences genes subjected to weaker selective constraints tend to have an excess of polymorphism over divergence compared with those subjected to stronger selective constraints. In contrast, in the cis component, this difference between genes under stronger and weaker selective constraint is mostly absent. To explain these observations, we propose that purifying selection more strongly shapes trans changes than cis changes and that positive selection may have significantly contributed to cis regulatory divergence. © 2013 The Author.

Nagaraj Kumar M.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Nagaraj Kumar M.,National Chung Hsing University | Jane W.-N.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Verslues P.E.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Verslues P.E.,National Chung Hsing University
Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

The molecular basis of plant osmosensing remains unknown. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Histidine Kinase1 (AHK1) can complement the osmosensitivity of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) osmosensor mutants lacking Synthetic Lethal of N-end rule1 and SH3-containing Osmosensor and has been proposed to act as a plant osmosensor. We found that ahk1 mutants in either the Arabidopsis Nossen-0 or Columbia-0 background had increased stomatal density and stomatal index consistent with greater transpirational water loss. However, the growth of ahk1 mutants was not more sensitive to controlled moderate low water potential (Ψw) or to salt stress. Also, ahk1 mutants had increased, rather than reduced, solute accumulation across a range of low Ψw severities. ahk1 mutants had reduced low Ψw induction of Δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthetase1 (P5CS1) and 9-cis- Epoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase3, which encode rate-limiting enzymes in proline and abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis, respectively. However, neither Pro nor ABA accumulation was reduced in ahk1 mutants at low Ψw. P5CS1 protein level was not reduced in ahk1 mutants. This indicated that proline accumulation was regulated in part by posttranscriptional control of P5CS1 that was not affected by AHK1. Expression of AHK1 itself was reduced by low Ψw, in contrast to previous reports. These results define a role of AHK1 in controlling stomatal density and the transcription of stress-responsive genes. These phenotypes may be mediated in part by reduced ABA sensitivity. More rapid transpiration and water depletion can also explain the previously reported sensitivity of ahk1 to uncontrolled soil drying. The unimpaired growth, ABA, proline, and solute accumulation of ahk1 mutants at low Ψw suggest that AHK1 may not be the main plant osmosensor required for low Ψw tolerance.

Hwang P.-P.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lee T.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin L.-Y.,National Taiwan Normal University
American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology | Year: 2011

Fish encounter harsh ionic/osmotic gradients on their aquatic environments, and the mechanisms through which they maintain internal homeostasis are more challenging compared with those of terrestrial vertebrates. Gills are one of the major organs conducting the internal ionic and acid-base regulation, with specialized ionocytes as the major cells carrying out active transport of ions. Exploring the iono/osmoregulatory mechanisms in fish gills, extensive literature proposed several models, with many conflicting or unsolved issues. Recent studies emerged, shedding light on these issues with new opened windows on other aspects, on account of available advanced molecular/cellular physiological approaches and animal models. Respective types of ionocytes and ion transporters, and the relevant regulators for the mechanisms of NaCl secretion, Na+ uptake/acid secretion/NH4 + excretion, Ca2+ uptake, and Cl- uptake/base secretion, were identified and functionally characterized. These new ideas broadened our understanding of the molecular/cellular mechanisms behind the functional modification/regulation of fish gill ion transport during acute and long-term acclimation to environmental challenges. Moreover, a model for the systematic and local carbohydrate energy supply to gill ionocytes during these acclimation processes was also proposed. These provide powerful platforms to precisely study transport pathways and functional regulation of specific ions, transporters, and ionocytes; however, very few model species were established so far, whereas more efforts are needed in other species. © 2011 the American Physiological Society.

Bhaskara G.B.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Bhaskara G.B.,National Chung Hsing University | Nguyen T.T.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Verslues P.E.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Verslues P.E.,National Chung Hsing University
Plant Physiology | Year: 2012

Six Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) clade A protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs) have established abscisic acid (ABA) signaling roles; however, phenotypic roles of the remaining three "HAI" PP2Cs, Highly ABA-Induced1 (HAI1), AKT1-Interacting PP2C1/ HAI2, and HAI3, have remained unclear. HAI PP2C mutants had enhanced proline and osmoregulatory solute accumulation at low water potential, while mutants of other clade A PP2Cs had no or lesser effect on these drought resistance traits. hai1-2 also had increased expression of abiotic stress-associated genes, including dehydrins and late embryogenesis abundant proteins, but decreased expression of several defense-related genes. Conversely, the HAI PP2Cs had relatively less impact on several ABA sensitivity phenotypes. HAI PP2C single mutants were unaffected in ABA sensitivity, while double and triple mutants were moderately hypersensitive in postgermination ABA response but ABA insensitive in germination. The HAI PP2Cs interacted most strongly with PYL5 and PYL7 to -10 of the PYL/RCAR ABA receptor family, with PYL7 to -10 interactions being relatively little affected by ABA in yeast two-hybrid assays. HAI1 had especially limited PYL interaction. Reduced expression of the main HAI1-interacting PYLs at low water potential when HAI1 expression was strongly induced also suggests limited PYL regulation and a role of HAI1 activity in negatively regulating specific drought resistance phenotypes. Overall, the HAI PP2Cs had greatest effect on ABA-independent low water potential phenotypes and lesser effect on classical ABA sensitivity phenotypes. Both this and their distinct PYL interaction demonstrate a new level of functional differentiation among the clade A PP2Cs and a point of cross talk between ABA-dependent and ABA-independent drought-associated signaling. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

Huang N.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Huang N.-C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Jane W.-N.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chen J.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Yu T.-S.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Plant Journal | Year: 2012

Floral initiation is orchestrated by systemic floral activators and inhibitors. This remote-control system may integrate environmental cues to modulate floral initiation. Recently, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) was found to be a florigen. However, the identity of systemic floral inhibitor or anti-florigen remains to be elucidated. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana CENTRORADIALIS homologue (ATC), an Arabidopsis FT homologue, may act in a non-cell autonomous manner to inhibit floral initiation. Analysis of the ATC null mutant revealed that ATC is a short-day-induced floral inhibitor. Cell type-specific expression showed that companion cells and apex that express ATC are sufficient to inhibit floral initiation. Histochemical analysis showed that the promoter activity of ATC was mainly found in vasculature but under the detection limit in apex, a finding that suggests that ATC may move from the vasculature to the apex to influence flowering. Consistent with this notion, Arabidopsis seedling grafting experiments demonstrated that ATC moved over a long distance and that floral inhibition by ATC is graft transmissible. ATC probably antagonizes FT activity, because both ATC and FT interact with FD and affect the same downstream meristem identity genes APETALA1, in an opposite manner. Thus, photoperiodic variations may trigger functionally opposite FT homologues to systemically influence floral initiation. © 2012 The Authors.

Ku C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lo W.-S.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lo W.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen L.-L.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | And 2 more authors.
Genome Biology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Spiroplasma is a genus of wall-less, low-GC, Gram-positive bacteria with helical morphology. As commensals or pathogens of plants, insects, ticks, or crustaceans, they are closely related with mycoplasmas and form a monophyletic group (Spiroplasma-Entomoplasmataceae-Mycoides) with Mycoplasma mycoides and its relatives. In this study, we report the complete genome sequences of Spiroplasma chrysopicola and S. syrphidicola from the Chrysopicola clade. These species form the sister group to the Citri clade, which includes several well-known pathogenic spiroplasmas. Surprisingly, these two newly available genomes from the Chrysopicola clade contain no plectroviral genes, which were found to be highly repetitive in the previously sequenced genomes from the Citri clade. Based on the genome alignment and patterns of GC-skew, these two Chrysopicola genomes appear to be relatively stable, rather than being highly rearranged as those from the Citri clade. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the susceptibility to plectroviral invasion probably originated in the common ancestor of the Citri clade or one of its subclades. This susceptibility may be attributed to the absence of antiviral systems found in the Chrysopicola clade. Using the virus-free genomes of the Chrysopicola clade as references, we inferred the putative viral integration sites in the Citri genomes. Comparisons of syntenic regions suggest that the extensive viral invasion in the Citri clade promoted genome rearrangements and expansions. More importantly, the viral invasion may have facilitated horizontal gene transfers that contributed to adaptation in the Citri clade. © The Author(s) 2013.

Lin R.-J.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen H.-L.,Chinese Culture University | Ju S.-P.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Li F.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen H.-T.,Chung Yuan Christian University
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2012

We have studied the mechanism of the water-gas shift reaction (WGS, CO + H 2O → CO 2 + H 2) catalyzed by nanosized gold particles by using density functional theory calculations. The molecular structures and adsorbate/substrate interaction energies of H 2O/ Au 38, CO/Au 38, HO/Au 38, and H/Au 38 configurations were predicted. Several adsorption sites on the Au 38 nanoparticle were considered in this study and characterized as top, bridge, hollow, and hcp sites. A potential energy surface for WGS reaction on the Au 38 nanoparticle has been constructed using the nudged elastic band method. It was found that water dissociation (H 2O → H + OH) is the rate-limiting step, with an energy barrier of 31.41 kcal/mol. The overall reaction CO + H 2O + Au 38 → CO 2 + H 2 + Au 38 is exothermic by 16.18 kcal/mol. To gain insights into the high catalytic activity of the gold nanoparticles, the nature of the interaction between adsorbate and substrate is also analyzed by the detailed electronic local density of states. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Wu S.-H.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Wu S.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Liu M.-J.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Liu M.-J.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen H.-M.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Molecular Systems Biology | Year: 2012

Environmental 'light' has a vital role in regulating plant growth and development. Transcriptomic profiling has been widely used to examine how light regulates mRNA levels on a genome-wide scale, but the global role of translational regulation in the response to light is unknown. Through a transcriptomic comparison of steady-state and polysome-bound mRNAs, we reveal a clear impact of translational control on thousands of genes, in addition to transcriptomic changes, during photomorphogenesis. Genes encoding ribosomal protein are preferentially regulated at the translational level, which possibly contributes to the enhanced translation efficiency. We also reveal that mRNAs regulated at the translational level share characteristics of longer half-lives and shorter cDNA length, and that transcripts with a cis-element, TAGGGTTT, in their 5ĝ€2 untranslated region have higher translatability. We report a previously neglected aspect of gene expression regulation during Arabidopsis photomorphogenesis. The identities and molecular signatures associated with mRNAs regulated at the translational level also offer new directions for mechanistic studies of light-triggered translational enhancement in Arabidopsis. © 2012 EMBO and Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Shanmugam V.,National Chung Hsing University | Shanmugam V.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Tsednee M.,National Chung Hsing University | Tsednee M.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | And 2 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2012

Zinc is an essential micronutrient for plants, but it is toxic in excess concentrations. In Arabidopsis, additional iron (Fe) can increase Zn tolerance. We isolated a mutant, zinc tolerance induced by iron 1, designated zir1, with a defect in Fe-mediated Zn tolerance. Using map-based cloning and genetic complementation, we identified that zir1 has a mutation of glutamate to lysine at position 385 on γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GSH1), the enzyme involved in glutathione biosynthesis. The zir1 mutant contains only 15% of the wild-type glutathione level. Blocking glutathione biosynthesis in wild-type plants by a specific inhibitor of GSH1, buthionine sulfoximine, resulted in loss of Fe-mediated Zn tolerance, which provides further evidence that glutathione plays an essential role in Fe-mediated Zn tolerance. Two glutathione-deficient mutant alleles of GSH1, pad2-1 and cad2-1, which contain 22% and 39%, respectively, of the wild-type glutathione level, revealed that a minimal glutathione level between 22 and 39% of the wild-type level is required for Fe-mediated Zn tolerance. Under excess Zn and Fe, the recovery of shoot Fe contents in pad2-1 and cad2-1 was lower than that of the wild type. However, the phytochelatin-deficient mutant cad1-3 showed normal Fe-mediated Zn tolerance. These results indicate a specific role of glutathione in Fe-mediated Zn tolerance. The induced accumulation of glutathione in response to excess Zn and Fe suggests that glutathione plays a specific role in Fe-mediated Zn tolerance in Arabidopsis. We conclude that glutathione is required for the cross-homeostasis between Zn and Fe in Arabidopsis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Rajanbabu V.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Rajanbabu V.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen J.-Y.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chen J.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2011

Antimicrobial peptides, small cysteine-rich molecules, play vital roles in host defense mechanisms against pathogen infection. Recently, tilapia hepcidin (TH)1-5, was characterized, and its antimicrobial functions against several pathogens were reported. Herein, we investigated the antiviral functions of TH1-5 against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE)-214 cells. The presence of TH1-5 enhanced the survival of CHSE-214 cells infected with IPNV. Additionally, the number of plaques formed by the cytopathic effect of IPNV in CHSE-214 cells decreased when IPNV was preincubated with TH1-5. This observation demonstrates the antiviral function of TH1-5. Real-time PCR studies showed the modulation of interleukin, annexin, and other viral-responsive gene expressions by TH1-5. When TH1-5 and IPNV were used to co-treat CHSE-214 cells, then cells were re-challenged with IPNV at 24. h, the cells did not survive the IPNV infection. This shows that in the absence of TH1-5, viral re-challenge killed CHSE-214 cells. In conclusion TH1-5 protected CHSE-214 cells against IPNV by direct antimicrobial and immunomodulatory functions. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Chen P.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Chu L.,National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction | McCarl B.,Texas A&M University
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2015

This paper evaluates the global economic damage arising from the effects of climate change and associated carbon dioxide concentrations on the loss of coral reefs. We do this by first estimating the effects of sea surface temperature and carbon dioxide concentrations on coral cover. We develop a statistical relationship between coral coverage and sea surface temperature that indicates that the effects are dependent on the temperature range. For example, we find that increasing sea surface temperature causes coral coverage to decrease when sea surface temperature is higher than 26.85. °C, with the estimated reduction being 2.3% when sea surface temperature increases by 1%. In addition, we find that a 1% carbon dioxide increase induces a 0.6% reduction in global coral coverage. We also estimate the resultant loss in economic value based on a meta-analysis of the recreational and commercial value of reef coverage and a crude proportional approach for other value factors. The meta-analysis shows that the coral reef value decreases by 3.8% when coral cover falls by 1%. By combining these two steps we find that the lost value in terms of the global coral reef value under climate change scenarios ranges from US$3.95 to US$23.78 billion annually. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Chang Y.-M.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chen C.K.-M.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Hou M.-H.,National Chung Hsing University
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2012

Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is an optical technique that measures the difference in the absorption of left and right circularly polarized light. This technique has been widely employed in the studies of nucleic acids structures and the use of it to monitor conformational polymorphism of DNA has grown tremendously in the past few decades. DNA may undergo conformational changes to B-form, A-form, Z-form, quadruplexes, triplexes and other structures as a result of the binding process to different compounds. Here we review the recent CD spectroscopic studies of the induction of DNA conformational changes by different ligands, which includes metal derivative complex of aureolic family drugs, actinomycin D, neomycin, cisplatin, and polyamine. It is clear that CD spectroscopy is extremely sensitive and relatively inexpensive, as compared with other techniques. These studies show that CD spectroscopy is a powerful technique to monitor DNA conformational changes resulting from drug binding and also shows its potential to be a drug-screening platform in the future. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Chang H.L.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Chen Y.C.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Tan F.J.,National Chung Hsing University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative properties of a chitosan-glucose Maillard reaction product (CG-MRP), and its effect on pork qualities during refrigerated storage. Chitosan (1%), which was dissolved in acetic acid (1%) with 1.0%, 1.5%, or 2.0% glucose, pH adjusted to 6.0, autoclaved (121°C, 15. min) and cooled, was prepared. The results showed that the 2,2-dipheny1-1-picrylhydrazy1 (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, ferrous ion chelating abilities, and reducing powers of various CG-MRP solutions were not significantly different. Pork loins soaked in the CG-MRP solutions or deionized water for 10. min and without dipping were stored at 4°C for 7. days. Little influence was observed on the L*, a*, and b* colour values of the samples. Dipping in CG-MRP tended to retard the increases in volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, and resulted in lower microbial counts during storage. No detrimental influence on the sensory characteristics was found. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Chu W.-S.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Huang C.-R.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen C.-S.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Information Sciences | Year: 2013

Rough face alignments result in suboptimal performance of face identification. In this study, we present an approach for identifying the gender based on facial images without proper face alignments. Instead of just using only the detected face patch for identification, a set of patches is randomly cropped around the face detection region. Each patch set is represented by a linear subspace and compared with other linear subspaces by measuring their canonical correlations. A similarity matrix comprised of the canonical correlations is then incorporated into an indefinite-kernel Support Vector Machine (SVM) formulation. The number of support vectors, which we call support subspaces, can be decided automatically, hence, we can avoid the dimension selection problem observed in our previous work. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms state-of-the-art methods. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Chang C.-Y.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chang C.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin W.-D.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Tu S.-L.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Tu S.-L.,National Chung Hsing University
Plant Physiology | Year: 2014

Plant growth and development are constantly influenced by temperature fluctuations. To respond to temperature changes, different levels of gene regulation are modulated in the cell. Alternative splicing (AS) is a widespread mechanism increasing transcriptome complexity and proteome diversity. Although genome-wide studies have revealed complex AS patterns in plants, whether AS impacts the stress defense of plants is not known. We used heat shock (HS) treatments at nondamaging temperature and messenger RNA sequencing to obtain HS transcriptomes in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Data analysis identified a significant number of novel AS events in the moss protonema. Nearly 50% of genes are alternatively spliced. Intron retention (IR) is markedly repressed under elevated temperature but alternative donor/acceptor site and exon skipping are mainly induced, indicating differential regulation of AS in response to heat stress. Transcripts undergoing heat-sensitive IR are mostly involved in specific functions, which suggests that plants regulate AS with transcript specificity under elevated temperature. An exonic GAG-repeat motif in these IR regions may function as a regulatory cis-element in heat-mediated AS regulation. A conserved AS pattern for HS transcription factors in P. patens and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) reveals that heat regulation for AS evolved early during land colonization of green plants. Our results support that AS of specific genes, including key HS regulators, is fine-tuned under elevated temperature to modulate gene regulation and reorganize metabolic processes. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Tsednee M.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Tsednee M.,National Chung Hsing University | Yang S.-C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lee D.-C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | And 2 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2014

Hyperaccumulators tolerate and accumulate extraordinarily high concentrations of heavy metals. Content of the metal chelator nicotianamine (NA) in the root of zinc hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri is elevated compared with nonhyperaccumulators, a trait that is considered to be one of the markers of a hyperaccumulator. Using metabolite-profiling analysis of root secretions, we found that excess zinc treatment induced secretion of NA in A. halleri roots compared with the nonhyperaccumulator Arabidopsis thaliana. Metal speciation analysis further revealed that the secreted NA forms a stable complex with Zn(II). Supplying NA to a nonhyperaccumulator species markedly increased plant zinc tolerance by decreasing zinc uptake. Therefore, NA secretion from A. halleri roots facilitates zinc hypertolerance through forming a Zn(II)-NA complex outside the roots to achieve a coordinated zinc uptake rate into roots. Secretion of NA was also found to be responsible for the maintenance of iron homeostasis under excess zinc. Together our results reveal root-secretion mechanisms associated with hypertolerance and hyperaccumulation. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Li Y.-T.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen S.-Y.,National Cheng Kung University | Wang C.-R.,National Cheng Kung University | Liu M.-F.,National Cheng Kung University | And 4 more authors.
Arthritis and Rheumatism | Year: 2012

Objective. MicroRNA (miRNA) plays a role in autoimmune diseases. MiRNA-223 (miR-223) is upregulated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is involved in osteoclastogenesis, which contributes to erosive disease. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of using lentiviral vectors expressing the miR-223 target sequence (miR-223T) to suppress miR- 223 activity as a therapeutic strategy in a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Methods. Levels of miR-223 in the synovial tissue of patients with RA or osteoarthritis (OA), as well as in the ankle joints of mice with CIA, were determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Lentiviral vectors expressing miR- 223T (LVmiR-223T) or luciferase short hairpin RNA (LVshLuc) as a control vector were injected intraperitoneally into mice with CIA. Treatment responses and disease-related bone mineral density were monitored. Levels of nuclear factor 1A (NF-1A), a direct target of miR-223, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR), which is critical for osteoclastogenesis, were measured by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. Osteoclasts were assessed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Results. MiR-223 expression was significantly higher in the synovium of RA patients and in the ankle joints of mice with CIA as compared to OA patients and normal mice. LVmiR-223T treatment reduced the arthritis score, histologic score, miR-223 expression, osteoclastogenesis, and bone erosion in mice with CIA. Down-regulation of miR-223 with concomitant increases in NF-1A levels and decreases in M-CSFR levels was detected in the synovium of LVmiR-223T-treated mice. Conclusion. This study is the first to demonstrate that lentivirus-mediated silencing of miR-223 can reduce disease severity of experimental arthritis. Furthermore, our results indicate that inhibition of miR-223 activity should be further explored as a therapeutic strategy in RA. © 2012, American College of Rheumatology.

Kuo W.-S.,National Cheng Kung University | Chang C.-N.,National Cheng Kung University | Chang Y.-T.,National Cheng Kung University | Yang M.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | And 3 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2010

(Figure Presented) The best of three worlds: Cold nanorods coated with poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (see picture; pink), the photosensitizer indocyanine green (black), and antibodies (green "Y") serve not only as photodynamic therapy and hyperthermia agents to destroy malignant cells, but they also act as optical contrast agents to simultaneously to monitor cells by imaging in the near-IR region. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Yen S.M.-F.,National Cheng Kung University | Hsu Y.-L.,National Chung Hsing University
Decision Support Systems | Year: 2010

Based on the SPA test (test for superior predictive ability), Sortino and reversed Sortino ratios, we examined the profitability of a universe of 8061 technical trading rules in ten futures markets including five financial and five commodity underlying assets. We tested whether the best performing rule really beats its buy-and-hold benchmark strategy in bullish and bearish markets, respectively, during the in-sample testing period. The best rules' performance relative to the benchmark is also tested during the one-year out-of-sample period for all ten sets of data. A novel set of multi-indicator rules, MFI-RSI, and four popular categories of single-indicator rules, filter rules, moving averages, on-balance volume averages and momentum strategy in volume, were employed to form our universe of trading rules. The results on the SPA test suggest market efficiency in nine of the ten futures markets, while the results on the Sortino and reversed Sortino ratios reveal persistent outperformance of the best 'downside' and 'upside' rules relative to the buy-and-hold benchmark across time in four and three futures markets, respectively. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ho H.J.,Tunghai University | Pyne S.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Lin T.I.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin T.I.,China Medical University at Taichung
Statistics and Computing | Year: 2012

This paper deals with the problem of maximum likelihood estimation for a mixture of skew Student-t-normal distributions, which is a novel model-based tool for clustering heterogeneous (multiple groups) data in the presence of skewed and heavy-tailed outcomes. We present two analytically simple EM-type algorithms for iteratively computing the maximum likelihood estimates. The observed information matrix is derived for obtaining the asymptotic standard errors of parameter estimates. A small simulation study is conducted to demonstrate the superiority of the skew Student-t-normal distribution compared to the skew t distribution. The proposed methodology is particularly useful for analyzing multimodal asymmetric data as produced by major biotechnological platforms like flow cytometry. We provide such an application with the help of an illustrative example. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Tang C.-W.,Cheng Shiu University | Chen H.-J.,National Chung Hsing University | Wang S.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Spaulding J.,Hydraulic Press Brick Company
Cement and Concrete Composites | Year: 2011

The paper reports the investigation of rotary kiln manufactured lightweight aggregates (LWA) using fine sediment deposits dredged from the Shihmen Reservoir in Taiwan. The physical and mechanical properties of the sedimentary, synthetic LWA were assessed as well as the engineering properties of the lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) made from the LWA. The physical properties of the concrete masonry units (CMU) made from the LWA were then measured. The investigation revealed the sediments contain all the necessary elements to enable the bloating and calcining processes within the commercial kiln. When exposed to the high heat of the kiln, the extruded sedimentary material undergoes dramatic changes, developing a hard ceramic shell and a porous core comprised of non-interconnected capillaries. The particle densities of the synthetic LWA produced from the kilning process range from 1010 to 1380 kg/m3. LWAC designs using the synthetic LWA produce compressive strengths comparable to normal density concretes and were 29-35% lighter. The test strengths and densities of the LWAC satisfied the requirements of ACI 318 code for structural lightweight concrete. Additionally, sedimentary LWA could be incorporated in automated production facilities to produce high performance CMUs complying with the requirements of the Chinese National Standards (CNS). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chen S.-L.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen G.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.-N.,National Cheng Kung University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

Entanglement plays a central role in the field of quantum information science. It is well known that the degree of entanglement cannot be increased under local operations. Here, we show that the concurrence of a bipartite entangled state can be increased under the local PT-symmetric operation. This violates the property of entanglement monotonicity. We also use the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt and steering inequalities to explore this phenomenon. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Chang C.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | McAleer M.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | McAleer M.,Tinbergen Institute | McAleer M.,Kyoto University | Tansuchat R.,Maejo University
Energy Economics | Year: 2011

The paper examines the performance of several multivariate volatility models, namely CCC, VARMA-GARCH, DCC, BEKK and diagonal BEKK, for the crude oil spot and futures returns of two major benchmark international crude oil markets, Brent and WTI, to calculate optimal portfolio weights and optimal hedge ratios, and to suggest a crude oil hedge strategy. The empirical results show that the optimal portfolio weights of all multivariate volatility models for Brent suggest holding futures in larger proportions than spot. For WTI, however, DCC, BEKK and diagonal BEKK suggest holding crude oil futures to spot, but CCC and VARMA-GARCH suggest holding crude oil spot to futures. In addition, the calculated optimal hedge ratios (OHRs) from each multivariate conditional volatility model give the time-varying hedge ratios, and recommend to short in crude oil futures with a high proportion of one dollar long in crude oil spot. Finally, the hedging effectiveness indicates that diagonal BEKK (BEKK) is the best (worst) model for OHR calculation in terms of reducing the variance of the portfolio. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Chang C.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | McAleer M.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | McAleer M.,Tinbergen Institute | Tansuchat R.,Maejo University
Energy Economics | Year: 2010

Crude oil price volatility has been analyzed extensively for organized spot, forward and futures markets for well over a decade, and is crucial for forecasting volatility and Value-at-Risk (VaR). There are four major benchmarks in the international oil market, namely West Texas Intermediate (USA), Brent (North Sea), Dubai/Oman (Middle East), and Tapis (Asia-Pacific), which are likely to be highly correlated. This paper analyses the volatility spillover and asymmetric effects across and within the four markets, using three multivariate GARCH models, namely the constant conditional correlation (CCC), vector ARMA-GARCH (VARMA-GARCH) and vector ARMA-asymmetric GARCH (VARMA-AGARCH) models. A rolling window approach is used to forecast the 1-day ahead conditional correlations. The paper presents evidence of volatility spillovers and asymmetric effects on the conditional variances for most pairs of series. In addition, the forecast conditional correlations between pairs of crude oil returns have both positive and negative trends. Moreover, the optimal hedge ratios and optimal portfolio weights of crude oil across different assets and market portfolios are evaluated in order to provide important policy implications for risk management in crude oil markets. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Lo Y.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen C.-Y.,National Cheng Kung University | Lee C.-M.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang J.-S.,National Cheng Kung University
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2010

Dark fermentation, photo fermentation, and autotrophic microalgae cultivation were integrated to establish a high-yield and CO2-free biohydrogen production system by using different feedstock. Among the four carbon sources examined, sucrose was the most effective for the sequential dark (with Clostridium butyricum CGS5) and photo (with Rhodopseudomonas palutris WP3-5) fermentation process. The sequential dark-photo fermentation was stably operated for nearly 80 days, giving a maximum H2 yield of 11.61 mol H2/mol sucrose and a H2 production rate of 673.93 ml/h/l. The biogas produced from the sequential dark-photo fermentation (containing ca. 40.0% CO2) was directly fed into a microalga culture (Chlorella vulgaris C-C) cultivated at 30 °C under 60 μmol/m2/s illumination. The CO2 produced from the fermentation processes was completely consumed during the autotrophic growth of C. vulgaris C-C, resulting in a microalgal biomass concentration of 1999 mg/l composed mainly of 48.0% protein, 23.0% carbohydrate and 12.3% lipid. © 2009 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hwang M.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Chong S.-K.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen T.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Systems and Software | Year: 2010

In this paper, we provide a defense mechanism to Kim-Lee-Yoo's ID-based password authentication scheme, which is vulnerable to impersonation attacks and resource exhaustion attacks. Mutual authentication and communication privacy are regarded as essential requirements in today's client/server-based architecture; therefore, a lightweight but secure mutual authentication method is introduced in the proposed scheme. Once the mutual authentication is successful, the session key will be established without any further computation. The proposed defense mechanism not only accomplishes the mutual authentication and the session key establishment, but also inherits the security advantages of Kim-Lee-Yoo's scheme, e.g. it is secure against password guessing attacks and message replay attacks. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Stambekova K.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin H.-M.,Far East University of Taiwan | Uan J.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2012

This study experimentally investigates the surface modification of 5083 Al alloy by the electrical discharge alloying (EDA) process with a Si-Fe alloy as an electrode. Samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-hardness and corrosion resistance tests. The micro-hardness of EDA alloyed layer was evidently higher than that of the base metal (5083 Al alloy). The TEM results show that the matrix of the alloyed layer has an amorphous-like structure; the matrix contains fine needle-like Si particles, block-like Si particles and nano-size Al 4.5FeSi and Al 13Fe 4 particles. The TEM results support experimental results for the high hardness of the alloyed layer. Moreover, the EDA alloyed layer with composite microstructures has good corrosion resistance in NaCl aqueous solution. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gangula S.,Western Kentucky University | Suen S.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Conte E.D.,Western Kentucky University
Microchemical Journal | Year: 2010

A current literature review, consisting of 42 publications, is provided on the topic of using admicelle/hemimicelle formations on solids for the analytical scale preconcentration of a variety of organic analytes. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lo Y.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen C.-Y.,National Cheng Kung University | Lee C.-M.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang J.-S.,National Cheng Kung University
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

Engineering strategies were applied to promote the phototrophic H 2 production of an indigenous purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP3-5 using major components (i.e., acetate, butyrate, and lactate) of dark fermentation effluents as carbon sources. First, performance of cell growth and photo-H2 production on each carbon source was examined individually. It appeared that acetate was the most effective carbon source for photo-H2 production, giving an overall H2 production rate and H2 yield of 12.68 ml/h/l and 67.1%, respectively. Next, the effect of substrate concentration of each carbon source on photo-hydrogen production was investigated. Kinetic models were developed to describe the correlation between maximum specific growth rate/specific H 2 production rate and the substrate concentration. The results show that using acetate and lactate as the carbon source, the kinetics for the cell growth and photo-hydrogen production can be described by Monod-type and Michaelis-Menten models, respectively, whereas substrate inhibition occurred when using butyrate as the carbon source. The continuous cultures were also conducted at a hydraulic retention time of 96 h using synthetic dark fermentation soluble metabolites (with a 5 and 10 fold dilution) as the influent. The phototrophic H2 production efficiency was stably maintained for over 30 days with an overall H2 yield 10.30 and 11.97 mol H2/mol sucrose, when using 5-fold and 10-fold diluted dark fermentation effluent, respectively, as the substrate for dark fermentation. This demonstrates the feasibility of using the sequential dark and photo fermentation for high-yield biohydrogen production. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chen C.-K.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.-W.,National Cheng Kung University | Lin C.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin H.-P.,National Cheng Kung University | Lee C.-F.,National Chung Hsing University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2010

Novel CuO on mesoporous silica is prepared under a convenient approach, and has been shown to be an efficient catalyst for cross-coupling reactions of thiols with aryl iodides with only 1.0-5.0 mol% catalyst loading. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Chan P.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Chan P.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen H.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen H.-C.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chen H.-C.,National Cheng Kung University
Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Ras genes are the most common targets for somatic gain-of-function mutations in human cancers. In this study, we found a high incidence of correlation between Ras oncogenic mutations and c-Src activation in human cancer cells. We showed that oncogenic Ras induces c-Src activation mainly on the Golgi complex and endoplasmic reticulum. Moreover, we identified p120RasGAP as an effector for oncogenic Ras to activate c-Src. The recruitment of p120RasGAP to the Golgi complex by oncogenic Ras facilitated its interaction with c-Src, thereby leading to c-Src activation, and this p120RasGAP-mediated activation of c-Src was important for tumor invasion induced by oncogenic Ras. Collectively, our findings unveil a relationship between oncogenic Ras, p120RasGAP, and c-Src, suggesting a critical role for c-Src in cancers evoked by oncogenic mutations in Ras genes. ©2012 AACR.

Liao M.-Y.,National Cheng Kung University | Lai P.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Yu H.-P.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin H.-P.,National Cheng Kung University | Huang C.-C.,National Yang Ming University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2012

This work presents the development of a facile ligand-assisted hydrothermal reaction for the preparation of NIR-activated Fe 3O 4 nanostructures that can directly upgrade the iron oxide with MR contrast ability to be a MRI/photothermal theranostic agent. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Tu Y.-J.,National Cheng Kung University | Chang C.-K.,National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences | You C.-F.,National Cheng Kung University | Wang S.-L.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012

Complete removal of heavy metal from complex heavy-metal wastewater (CHMW) requires advanced technology. This study investigated the feasibility of a multi-staged ferrite process (MSFP) for treating CHMW, containing Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, Ag, Hg, Ni, Sn and Mn. Our experimental results showed that most of the supernatants after conventional single-step ferrite process could conform to the effluent standard of Environmental Protection Administration in Taiwan. However, the sludge could not satisfy the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limits due to high Cd, Cu, and Pb concentrations. The performance of MSFP in removing heavy metals from wastewater was subsequently investigated and the parameters of three treating steps in MSFP were optimized under 70°C and 90°C at pH 9, and 80°C at pH 10. After the three-staged procedures, all heavy metals in supernatant and sludge could fulfill the contamination levels regulated by law. In addition, the sludge generated from the MSFP was examined by XRD and forms a stable spinel structure, which could be effectively separated by external magnetic field. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Nakatsuji T.,University of California at San Diego | Nakatsuji T.,San Diego Healthcare Center | Chiang H.-I.,University of California at San Diego | Chiang H.-I.,National Chung Hsing University | And 5 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

Commensal microbes on the skin surface influence the behaviour of cells below the epidermis. We hypothesized that bacteria or their products exist below the surface epithelium and thus permit physical interaction between microbes and dermal cells. Here to test this hypothesis, we employed multiple independent detection techniques for bacteria including quantitative PCR, Gram staining, immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization. Bacteria were consistently detectable within the dermis and dermal adipose of normal human skin. Sequencing of DNA from dermis and dermal adipose tissue identified bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA reflective of a diverse and partially distinct microbial community in each skin compartment. These results show the microbiota extends within the dermis, therefore, enabling physical contact between bacteria and various cells below the basement membrane. These observations show that normal commensal bacterial communities directly communicate with the host in a tissue previously thought to be sterile. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Hwang M.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Chong S.-K.,National Cheng Kung University | Ou H.-H.,Hwa Hsia University of Technology
European Transactions on Telecommunications | Year: 2011

In this paper, we propose a practical and secure authentication and key agreement (AKA) scheme for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS). The paper introduces a new requirement, 'home network should be partially trusted in an authentication scheme' to the UMTS. The scheme integrates symmetric and public key cryptosystem. Issues such as kinds of 'subscriber identity/location confidential' and 'non-repudiation services' are solved in the scheme. The paper provides computational analysis, messages transmission length analysis to the proposed scheme. Furthermore, comparisons with other schemes are also given. The results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is practical and secure. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Cheng P.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Li C.-L.,National Cheng Kung University | Chang Y.-F.,National Cheng Kung University | Tsai S.-J.,National Cheng Kung University | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2013

Huntington disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dysregulation of various genes. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be involved in this dysregulation, suggesting that manipulation of appropriate miRNA regulation may have a therapeutic benefit. Here, we report the beneficial effects of miR-196a (miR196a) on HD in cell, transgenic mouse models, and human induced pluripotent stem cells derived from one individual with HD (HD-iPSCs). In the in vitro results, a reduction of mutant HTT and pathological aggregates, accompanying the overexpression of miR-196a, was observed in HD models of human embryonic kidney cells and mouse neuroblastoma cells. In the in vivo model, HD transgenic mice overexpressing miR-196a revealed the suppression of mutant HTT in the brain and also showed improvements in neuropathological progression, such as decreases of nuclear, intranuclear, and neuropil aggregates and late-stage behavioral phenotypes. Most importantly, miR-196a also decreased HTT expression and pathological aggregates when HD-iPSCs were differentiated into the neuronal stage. Mechanisms of miR-196a in HD might be through the alteration of ubiquitin-proteasome systems, gliosis, cAMP response element-binding protein pathway, and several neuronal regulatory pathways in vivo. Taken together, these results show that manipulating miR-196a provides beneficial effects in HD, suggesting the potential therapeutical role of miR-196a in HD. © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics.

Cheng F.-F.,National Chung Hsing University | Wu C.-S.,Tunghai University
Decision Support Systems | Year: 2010

This study reports on an experiment that examined the effect of message framing on the Internet buyers' attitude and purchase intention. The effect of two possible moderators in framing effect including warning about the possibilities of bias and the subjects' level of involvement were considered in the experiment. In addition, the influence of the individual decision makers' involvement level on the joint effect of warning and framing was also examined to understand the individual differences in sensitivity to warning messages. The experimental results suggested a significant framing effect that participants in positive condition revealed more favorable responses than their counterparts in negative condition. Further, the debiasing effect of prompting the warning instructions was observed. Differences between responses in positive and negative conditions were significant when no warning message was prompted, and the magnitude of framing effect was attenuated and eliminated in weak and strong warning conditions respectively. In addition, the effect of framing messages on people's responses was moderated by their level of involvement. Less involved participants were more susceptible to framing effect than more involved subjects. Finally, the debiasing effect of warning on message framing depended upon the subjects' level of involvement. The framing effect is diminished when high involvement participants were prompted with either weak or strong warning messages. For less involved participants, the prompt of weak warning message is not an effective debiasing mechanism to prevent the occurrence of framing effect. Only when they were exposed to strong warning messages can the framing effect be eliminated. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Huang C.-H.,Dahan Institute of Technology | Lin S.-K.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang C.-S.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Chen H.-J.,National Chung Hsing University
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

Two types of Class F fly ash with 4.6% and 7.8% loss on ignition were used for an experimental investigation dealing with concrete incorporating very high volumes of Class F fly ash (HVFA). A rational mix design method was developed for concrete with 20-80% fly ash replacement for cement. Tests were performed for fresh and hardened concrete properties. Test results indicated that the setting times and the air content of fly-ash concrete increased as the fly ash replacement level increased. The compressive and flexural strength of the HVFA concrete mixtures demonstrated continuous and significant improvement at late ages of 91 and 365 days. Relation was formulated for flexural and compressive strength for all grades of HVFA concrete. The concrete mixture containing low-LOI fly ash exhibited superior mechanical properties than those of the corresponding mixture containing high-LOI fly ash. These results confirm the feasibility that up to 80% of Class F fly ash can be suitably used as cement replacement in concrete by using a rational mixture proportions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Blamires S.J.,Tunghai University | Wu C.-L.,Industrial Technology Research Institute of Taiwan | Tso I.-M.,Tunghai University | Tso I.-M.,National Chung Hsing University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: It is energetically expensive to synthesize certain amino acids. The proteins (spidroins) of spider major ampullate (MA) silk, MaSp1 and MaSp2, differ in amino acid composition. Glutamine and proline are prevalent in MaSp2 and are expensive to synthesize. Since most orb web spiders express high proline silk they might preferentially attain the amino acids needed for silk from food and shift toward expressing more MaSp1 in their MA silk when starved. Methodology/Principal Findings: We fed three spiders; Argiope aetherea, Cyrtophora moluccensis and Leucauge blanda, high protein, low protein or no protein solutions. A. aetherea and L. blanda MA silks are high in proline, while C. moluccesnsis MA silks are low in proline. After 10 days of feeding we determined the amino acid compositions and mechanical properties of each species' MA silk and compared them between species and treatments with pre-treatment samples, accounting for ancestry. We found that the proline and glutamine of A. aetherea and L. blanda silks were affected by protein intake; significantly decreasing under the low and no protein intake treatments. Glutmaine composition in C. moluccensis silk was likewise affected by protein intake. However, the composition of proline in their MA silk was not significantly affected by protein intake. Conclusions: Our results suggest that protein limitation induces a shift toward different silk proteins with lower glutamine and/or proline content. Contradictions to the MaSp model lie in the findings that C. moluccensis MA silks did not experience a significant reduction in proline and A. aetherea did not experience a significant reduction in serine on low/no protein. The mechanical properties of the silks could not be explained by a MaSp1 expressional shift. Factors other than MaSp expression, such as the expression of spidroin-like orthologues, may impact on silk amino acid composition and spinning and glandular processes may impact mechanics. © 2012 Blamires et al.

Hung C.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang Y.-T.,Soochow University of Taiwan | Chang Y.-J.,University of Taipei
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

Anaerobic fermentative biohydrogen production, the conversion of organic substances especially from organic wastes to hydrogen gas, has become a viable and promising means of producing sustainable energy. Successful biological hydrogen production depends on the overall performance (results of interactions) of bacterial communities, i.e., mixed cultures in reactors. Mixed cultures might provide useful combinations of metabolic pathways for the processing of complex waste material ingredients, thereby supporting the more efficient decomposition and hydrogenation of biomass than pure bacteria species would. Therefore, understanding the relationships between variations in microbial composition and hydrogen production efficiency is the first step in constructing more efficient hydrogen-producing consortia, especially when complex and non-sterilized organic wastes are used as feeding substrates. In this review, we describe recent discoveries on bacterial community composition obtained from dark fermentation biohydrogen production systems, with emphasis on the possible roles of microorganisms that co-exist with common hydrogen producers. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Yeh C.-T.,National Health Research Institute | Wu C.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Yen G.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2010

Metastasis is one of the most important factors related to breast cancer therapeutic efficacy. Ursolic acid, a naturally occurring triterpenoid, has various anticancer activities. In this study, we first observed that ursolic acid exerted a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on the migration and invasion of highly metastatic breast MDAMB231 cells at non-cytotoxic concentrations. This effect was associated with reduced activities of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and u-PA, which correlated with enhanced expression of tissue inhibitor of MMP-2 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, respectively. Ursolic acid suppressed the phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase, Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin, but had no effect on the phosphorylation of ERK and p38. Ursolic acid also strongly reduced the levels of NFkB p65, c-Jun and c-Fos proteins in the nucleus of MDAMB231 cells. A time-dependent inhibition of the protein levels of Rho-like GTPases, growth factor receptor-bound protein 2, Ras and vascular endothelial growth factor in cytosol by ursolic acid treatment was also observed. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the anti-invasive effects of ursolic acid on MDAMB231 cells might be through the inhibition of Jun N-terminal kinase, Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin phosphorylation and a reduction of the level of NFkB protein in the nucleus, ultimately leading to downregulation of MMP-2 and u-PA expression. These results suggest that ursolic acid has potential as a chemopreventive agent for metastatic breast cancer. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.

Wu C.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Yeh C.-T.,National Health Research Institute | Yen G.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to determine whether low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-bound epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) attenuates LDL oxidation and glycation under high-glucose (HG) conditions mimicking diabetes. Pooled plasma was preincubated with EGCG for three hours, followed by sequential ultracentrifugation and extensive dialysis to isolate LDL. The kinetics of α-tocopherol and EGCG consumption in LDL were measured by a solid-phase extraction system with HPLC-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) upon oxidation. EGCG enrichment effectively increased the resistance of LDL to oxidation caused by HG/Cu 2+. A dose-dependent inhibition of HG-mediated long-term glycation of LDL was also observed by LDL-bound EGCG. Data from HPLC-DAD demonstrated that EGCG was able to bind lipoproteins and to facilitate the antioxidant and antiglycation properties of LDL. This study suggests that loading plasma with EGCG is an efficient way to increase the content of this phytochemical in LDL, which may imply favourable in vivo activity of EGCG in diabetes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Leung C.S.,City University of Hong Kong | Wang H.-J.,China University of Technology | Sum J.,National Chung Hsing University
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks | Year: 2010

The weight-decay technique is an effective approach to handle overfitting and weight fault. For fault-free networks, without an appropriate value of decay parameter, the trained network is either overfitted or underfitted. However, many existing results on the selection of decay parameter focus on fault-free networks only. It is well known that the weight-decay method can also suppress the effect of weight fault. For the faulty case, using a test set to select the decay parameter is not practice because there are huge number of possible faulty networks for a trained network. This paper develops two mean prediction error (MPE) formulae for predicting the performance of faulty radial basis function (RBF) networks. Two fault models, multiplicative weight noise and open weight fault, are considered. Our MPE formulae involve the training error and trained weights only. Besides, in our method, we do not need to generate a huge number of faulty networks to measure the test error for the fault situation. The MPE formulae allow us to select appropriate values of decay parameter for faulty networks. Our experiments showed that, although there are small differences between the true test errors (from the test set) and the MPE values, the MPE formulae can accurately locate the appropriate value of the decay parameter for minimizing the true test error of faulty networks. © 2006 IEEE.

Farhadi R.,University of Tehran | Allahyari H.,University of Tehran | Chi H.,National Chung Hsing University
Biological Control | Year: 2011

The life history and predation rate of variegated lady beetle, Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), fed on the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli, were studied under laboratory conditions. Developmental, survival, fecundity, and predation rate data were analyzed using the age-stage, two-sex life table and the traditional age-specific female life table. Means and standard errors of population growth parameters were calculated using the jackknife method. Using the age-stage, two-sex life table, the intrinsic rate of increase (r), net reproductive rate (R0), mean generation time (T) and finite rate of increase (λ) were 0.2031d-1, 389.0 offspring, 29.4d, and 1.2252d-1, respectively. The population parameters r, R0, T, and (λ) calculated using the female age-specific life table were 0.2045d-1, 387.6 offspring, 29.16d, and 1.2269d-1, respectively. Although no statistically significant differences were found between population parameters of the two methods, the female age-specific life table could not include the male population and its contribution to predation, nor was it possible to describe the stage differentiation. The net predation rate (C0) using the age-stage, two-sex life table was 1127.1 aphids, and 1503.1 aphids when using the female age-specific life table. The higher net predation obtained when using the female age-specific life table was an overestimation caused by ignoring the male population. Our results demonstrate that by using the age-stage, two-sex life table we can accurately describe the survival, development, and predation capacity of the predator. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Lin P.-L.,Providence University | Huang P.-W.,National Chung Hsing University | Lee C.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Wu M.-T.,Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital | Wu M.-T.,National Yang Ming University
Pattern Recognition | Year: 2013

Perfusion computed tomography (CT) method has been used to differentiate malignant pulmonary nodules from benign nodules based on the assessment for the change of the CT attenuation value within the pulmonary nodules. Instead of using the change of the CT attenuation value, a set of fractal features based on fractional Brownian motion model is proposed in this paper to automatically distinguish malignant nodules from benign nodules. In a set of 107 CT images from 107 different patients with each image containing a solitary pulmonary nodule, our experimental results obtained from a support vector machine classifier show that the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and the area under the ROC curve are 83.11%, 90.92%, 71.70%, 80.05%, 87.52%, and 0.8437, respectively, by using the proposed fractal-based feature set. Such a result outperforms the conventional method of using the change of the CT attenuation value as the feature for classification. When combining this conventional method with our proposed fractal-based method, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and the area under the ROC curve can be promoted to 88.82%, 93.92%, 82.90%, 87.30%, 90.20%, and 0.9019, respectively. In other words, a high performance of pulmonary nodule classification can be achieved with a single post-contrast CT scan. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Wu C.-S.,Tunghai University | Cheng F.-F.,National Chung Hsing University
Electronic Commerce Research and Applications | Year: 2011

This article reports on an experiment that examines the influence of message framing and anchor points, and the joint effect of these two information cues on Internet consumers' judgments regarding attitude, purchase intention and willingness to pay. The role of participants' subjective knowledge is also evaluated. The experimental results suggest that message framing, which describes a product's attribute in positive or negative terms, significantly influences participants' attitude toward and their intention to buy the product. In addition, participants' willingness to pay was significantly influenced by the presentation of anchors embedded in banner advertisements. Further, a significant interaction effect for message framing and anchor points indicate that their congruence enhances the effects of information presentation on people's responses. Specifically, describing a product attribute in positive terms along with a high anchor point induces more favorable response than any other framing and anchoring combinations. Finally, online shoppers who are low in product knowledge are more susceptible to framing and anchoring influences. The findings provide guidance for designing appropriate product and price cues to induce Internet consumer responses that favor online retailers. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chang Y.-J.,National Chung Hsing University | Tsai K.-L.,Tunghai University | Tsai H.-J.,National Chung Hsing University
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers | Year: 2013

Ternary content-addressable memory (TCAM) is a popular hardware device for fast routing lookup and an attractive solution for applications such as packet forwarding and classification. However, the high cost and power consumption are limiting its popularity and versatility. In this paper, a low leakage power TCAM architecture which uses two-side self power gating technique is proposed to reduce the leakage power dissipation of the mask SRAM cells. The TCAM mask cells are divided into several segments, and the mask bits of one segment are the same except for the boundary segment. In this design, the boundary segment is activated and the others are disabled so that the leakage power can be reduced. The experimental results show that average 26% leakage power can be reduced by using UMC 90 nm CMOS process with 1.0 V supply voltage when compared with the traditional TCAM architecture. © 2004-2012 IEEE.

Huang J.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Liao I.-E.,National Chung Hsing University | Chung Y.-F.,Tunghai University | Chen K.-T.,National Chung Hsing University
Information Sciences | Year: 2013

Wireless sensor nodes are congenitally limited by insufficient hardware resources, such as memory size and battery life. These factors influence the lifespan of wireless sensor networks and pose numerous challenges regarding the addition of security mechanisms to protect sensor nodes. As the number of applications using wireless sensor networks increases, protecting sensor nodes from malicious attacks becomes ever more important. In this paper, we propose a new intrusion detection system called the Markovian IDS, to protect sensor nodes from malicious attacks. The Markovian IDS incorporates game theory with anomaly and misuse detection to determine the best defense strategies. It also employs Markov decision processes with an attack-pattern-mining algorithm to predict future attack patterns and implement appropriate measures. Experimental results show that the proposed Markovian IDS has a higher defense success rate than game theory or Markov decision processes alone.