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National Chung Hsing University , colloquially known in Chinese as Xingda ,is a research-led comprehensive university in South District, Taichung, Taiwan. According to Ministry of Education rankings, it is the best university in central Taiwan.Currently, NCHU is among the four universities of Taiwan's Public Ivy - the Taiwan Comprehensive University System. Wikipedia.


Lee M.H.,National Taiwan Normal University | Chang S.T.,National Chung Hsing University | Wu T.-H.,National Taiwan Normal University | Tseng W.-N.,National Taiwan Normal University
IEEE Electron Device Letters | Year: 2011

The experimental investigation carried out the strained Ge (110) p-type tunneling field-effect transistor, and it resulted in the current enhancement of ×2.9 BTBT in the 112 direction, as compared with Si 110/(100) due to a small band gap. In addition, the high on/off current ratio, with an on current ∼1 μA/μm and an off current ∼ 10 pA/μm, and the well control for leakage current without SOI substrate were obtained. The anisotropic effect of tunneling directions for strained Ge on (110) orientation was discussed and explained as due to effective reduced mass. © 2011 IEEE.


Lin T.-I.,National Chung Hsing University
Statistics and Computing | Year: 2010

This paper presents a robust mixture modeling framework using the multivariate skew t distributions, an extension of the multivariate Student's t family with additional shape parameters to regulate skewness. The proposed model results in a very complicated likelihood. Two variants of Monte Carlo EM algorithms are developed to carry out maximum likelihood estimation of mixture parameters. In addition, we offer a general information-based method for obtaining the asymptotic covariance matrix of maximum likelihood estimates. Some practical issues including the selection of starting values as well as the stopping criterion are also discussed. The proposed methodology is applied to a subset of the Australian Institute of Sport data for illustration. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Hsu S.-P.,National Chung Hsing University
IET Control Theory and Applications | Year: 2011

This study introduces the notion of safety for the controlled Markov chains in the continuous-time horizon. The concept is a non-trivial extension of safety control for stochastic systems modelled as discrete-time Markov decision processes, where the safety means that the probability distributions of the system states will not visit the given forbidden set at any time. In this paper study a unit-interval-valued vector that serves as an upper bound on the state probability distribution vector characterises the forbidden set. A probability distribution is then called safe if it does not exceed the upper bound. Under mild conditions the author derives two results: (i) the necessary and sufficient conditions that guarantee the all-time safety of the probability distributions if the starting distribution is safe, and (ii) the characterisation of the supreme set of safe initial probability vectors that remain safe as time passes. In particular, study the paper identifies an upper bound on time and shows that if a distribution is always safe before that time, the distribution is safe at all times. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the two results. © 2011 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.


Chang H.-C.,Tungnan University | Tsai H.-P.,National Chung Hsing University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

The RFM model provides an effective measure for customers' consumption behavior analysis, where three variables, namely, consumption interval, frequency, and money amount are used to quantify a customer's loyalty and contribution. Based on the RFM value, customers can be clustered into different groups and the group information is very useful in market decision making. However, most previous works completely left out important characteristics of purchased products, such as their prices and lifetimes, and apply the RFM measure on all of a customer's purchased products. This renders the calculation of the RFM value unreasonable or insignificant for customer analysis. In this paper, we propose a new framework called GRFM (for group RFM) analysis to alleviate the problem. The new measure method takes into account the characteristics of the purchased items so that the calculated the RFM value for the customers are strongly related to their purchased items and can correctly reflect their actual consumption behavior. Moreover, GRFM employs a constrained clustering method PICC (for Purchased Items-Constrained Clustering) that could base on a cleverly designed purchase pattern table to adjust original purchase records to satisfy various clustering constraints as well as to decrease re-clustering time. The GRFM allows a customer to belong to different clusters, and thus to be associated with different loyalties and contributions with respect to different characteristics of purchased items. Finally, the clustering result of PICC contains extra information about the distribution status inside each cluster that could help the manager to decide when is most proper to launch a specific sales promotion campaign. Our experiments have confirmed the above observations and suggest that GRFM can play an important role in building a personalized purchasing management system and an inventory management system. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Huang C.-H.,Dahan Institute of Technology | Wang S.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

This study assesses the possible use of water treatment sludge for the production of lightweight aggregate (LWA), and focuses on the engineering properties of concrete made from this LWA. The experiments in this study involve 10 sludges from ten water treatment plants in Taiwan. All sludges can be used to manufacture LWAs in the laboratory, and exhibit a particle density (ρa) of 0.65-2.05 g/cm3 and water absorption of 0.5-15%. Five sludges are suitable for manufacturing both structural LWA (ρa = 1.2-1.8 g/cm3) and non-structural LWA (ρa < 1.0 g/cm3), and the other five sludges are only suitable for manufacturing structural LWA. The sludge collected from the Hsing-Zu plant was successfully used to produce both structural and non-structural LWA on a large scale using a commercial rotary kiln. The resulting aggregates possessed a particle density of 1.35 g/cm3 or 0.98 g/cm3 and a bulk density of 726 kg/m3 or 518 kg/m3 for the structural LWA and non-structural LWA, respectively. The structural LWA meets the ASTM C330 requirements, with a bulk density less than 880 kg/m3 for light coarse aggregate, and is a suitable LWA for structural concrete. The engineering properties of the concrete made from the structural LWA comply with the requirements of structural lightweight concrete. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Blamires S.J.,Tunghai University | Wu C.-L.,Industrial Technology Research Institute of Taiwan | Tso I.-M.,Tunghai University | Tso I.-M.,National Chung Hsing University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: It is energetically expensive to synthesize certain amino acids. The proteins (spidroins) of spider major ampullate (MA) silk, MaSp1 and MaSp2, differ in amino acid composition. Glutamine and proline are prevalent in MaSp2 and are expensive to synthesize. Since most orb web spiders express high proline silk they might preferentially attain the amino acids needed for silk from food and shift toward expressing more MaSp1 in their MA silk when starved. Methodology/Principal Findings: We fed three spiders; Argiope aetherea, Cyrtophora moluccensis and Leucauge blanda, high protein, low protein or no protein solutions. A. aetherea and L. blanda MA silks are high in proline, while C. moluccesnsis MA silks are low in proline. After 10 days of feeding we determined the amino acid compositions and mechanical properties of each species' MA silk and compared them between species and treatments with pre-treatment samples, accounting for ancestry. We found that the proline and glutamine of A. aetherea and L. blanda silks were affected by protein intake; significantly decreasing under the low and no protein intake treatments. Glutmaine composition in C. moluccensis silk was likewise affected by protein intake. However, the composition of proline in their MA silk was not significantly affected by protein intake. Conclusions: Our results suggest that protein limitation induces a shift toward different silk proteins with lower glutamine and/or proline content. Contradictions to the MaSp model lie in the findings that C. moluccensis MA silks did not experience a significant reduction in proline and A. aetherea did not experience a significant reduction in serine on low/no protein. The mechanical properties of the silks could not be explained by a MaSp1 expressional shift. Factors other than MaSp expression, such as the expression of spidroin-like orthologues, may impact on silk amino acid composition and spinning and glandular processes may impact mechanics. © 2012 Blamires et al.


Han P.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics and Image Science, and Vision | Year: 2015

The free-space near-field diffraction of a transmissive periodic structure is studied with Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction formula. A new effect named Talbot spectra is proposed theoretically from the results, showing that under some conditions the spectra of an incident coherent polychromatic light can be completely restored after the diffraction. It can be contrasted with its monochromatic counterpart, Talbot images, which rebuild the images of a periodic structure at specific places in the near field. Taking a sinusoidal amplitude grating as an example for illustrating the idea, the general conditions and specific locations to find the restored spectra are obtained. The spectral switches involved are also presented. © 2015 Optical Society of America.


Nguyen T.,University of Leicester | Su W.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Gajic Z.,Rutgers University
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2012

A variable structure system can be studied using the singular perturbation theory. The discontinuous control that leads to a finite-time reaching of the sliding surface creates fast-time transients analogous to the stable boundary layer dynamics of a singularly perturbed system. As the sliding mode is attained, the slow-time dynamics prevails, just as that of a singularly perturbed system after the boundary layer dynamics fades away. In this technical note, the problem of sliding mode control for singularly perturbed systems in the presence of matched bounded external disturbances is investigated. A composite sliding surface is constructed from solutions of algebraic Lyapunov equations which are derived from both the fast and the slow subsystems. The resultant sliding motion ensures Lyapunov stability with disturbance rejection. Two proposed schemes that ensure the asymptotic stability of the system are presented. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is demonstrated in a numerical example of a magnetic tape control system. © 2011 IEEE.


The Cymindis (Pinacodera) limbata species group (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini) is a precinctive New World taxon with ranges extended from portions of temperate southeastern Canada and the U.S.A. through the montane regions of Mexico, south to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The group is distinguishable from all other members of the subgenus Pinacodera by males possessing a distinctive sclerite (endophallic plate) at the apex of the endophallus. In the past, a lack of material and misunderstandings of range of variation within species have contributed to confusion about how many species there really are. This revision of the limbata species group includes a classification, a key to groups within the subgenus Pinacodera and species within the limbata group, descriptions of species, re-rankings and new synonymies. In total 10 taxa are treated, with 6 new synonyms proposed, 1 new combination introduced and 1 new species described: Cymindis (Pinacodera) rufostigma (type locality: Archbold Biological Station, Highlands County, Florida, U.S.A.). Each taxon is characterized in terms of structural features of adults, habitat, geographical distribution, and chorological affinities. Available ecological information and treatments of variation are included. © Wesley M. Hunting et al.


Lo J.-W.,National Taichung Institute of Technology | Hwang M.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Liu C.-H.,Wufeng University
Information Sciences | Year: 2011

The employees of an organization are usually divided into different security classes to authorize the information retrieval, and the number of leaf classes is substantially larger than the number of non-leaf classes. Additionally, the alternations in leaf classes are more frequent than in non-leaf classes. We proposed a new key assignment scheme for controlling the access right in a large POSET (partially ordered set) hierarchy to reduce the required computation for key generation and derivation with the storage amount of data decreased. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Kim M.,Duke University | Wang C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Benedetti F.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Rabbi M.,Duke University | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2011

A new strategy is reported for creating protein-based nanomaterials by genetically fusing large polypeptides to monomeric streptavidin and exploiting the propensity of streptavidin monomers(SM) to self-assemble into stable tetramers. We have characterized the mechanical properties of streptavidin-linked structures and measured, for the first time, the mechanical strength of streptavidin tetramers themselves. Using streptavidin tetramers as molecular hubs offers a unique opportunity to create a variety of well-defined, self-assembled protein-based (nano)materials with unusual mechanical properties. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Chang T.-C.,National Taiwan University | Lin H.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Wang S.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang S.-T.,National Taiwan University
Polymer Degradation and Stability | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition mechanisms of light-induced wood radicals by Acacia confusa heartwood extracts (AcE). Wood radical scavenging analysis was determined by ESR spectroscopy. The results obtained demonstrated that wood radicals could be inhibited through UV absorption of AcE. According to results of AcE photooxidation derivative analyses detected by HPLC-DAD, HPLC-MS/MS and FTIR spectroscopy, o-quinones, peroxides and other oxidation derivatives were yielded from flavonols (such as melanoxetin and transilitin) in AcE; okanin (chalcone) might be formed from 7,8,3′,4′-tetrahydroxyflavanone (flavanone); 7,8,3′,4′- tetrahydroxyflavone and 7,3′,4′-trihydroxyflavone (flavones) would transform to flavanone. On the basis of GPC analysis results, proanthocyanidins and derivatives of higher molecular weight might be polymerized from melacacidin (flavan-3,4-diol). Taken together, these results clearly demonstrated that A. confusa heartwood extract can absorb UV light and form photooxidation derivatives. Accordingly, wood radicals induced by UV light were inhibited and consequently wood photodegradation was retarded. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Li C.-T.,Tainan University of Technology | Hwang M.-S.,National Chung Hsing University
International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control | Year: 2010

In this article, we propose an online (t,n) threshold secret sharing scheme, in which the system, will disperse a, primary secret sharing key K for n users, and, at least t users together can reconstruct the secret K. The security of our scheme is based, on biometric verification and threshold password authentication. Therefore, the scheme is not only secure against several common attacks, but is also appropriate to be applied, to other applications such as entrance guard, systems and, treasury management systems. © 2010 ISSN.


Kishida T.,University of California at Berkeley | Tsai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering | Year: 2014

Equivalent number of cycles (Ncyc) is a significant factor in assessing liquefaction potential during earthquakes. However, the effects of Ncyc are considered a deterministic value by using a magnitude scaling factor, and the uncertainties of these effects have not been included in the current design practice. This paper calculates Ncyc within the soil mass by deconvolution analysis as a function of the period of soil layer from the ground surface (Ts) and the soil property (b) using a wide range of acceleration time histories. The predictive model of Ncyc is developed as variable dependent on earthquake magnitude, peak ground acceleration (PGA), and ratio of spectral acceleration, Ts and b. Then, the Ncyc model is combined with the ground-motion prediction equation of PGA and the prediction equation of seismic shear-stress reduction coefficient (rd) to obtain the prediction equation of the seismic demand of the liquefaction potential (K1cyc). The standard deviation of K1cyc is also modeled on the basis of the aleatory variability of PGA, rd, and Ncyc with correlations between these residuals. This predictive model of K1cyc is implemented in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) to show the impact of these uncertainties on design practice. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Tsai Y.-L.,National Chung Hsing University
Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena | Year: 2015

Maxwell's conjecture on three point charges states that the number of non-degenerate equilibrium points of the electrostatic field generated by them in R3 is at most four. We prove the conjecture in the cases when three point charges have equal magnitudes and show the number of isolated equilibrium points can only be zero, two, three, or four. Specifically, fixing positions of two positive charges in R3, we know exactly where to place the third positive charge to have two, three, or four equilibrium points. All equilibrium points are isolated and there are no other possibilities for the number of isolated equilibrium points. On the other hand, if both two of the fixed charges have negative charge values, there are always two equilibrium points except when the third positive charge lies in the line segment connecting the two negative charges. The exception cases are when the field contains only a curve of equilibrium points. In this paper, computations assisted by computer involve symbolic and exact integer computations. Therefore, all the results are proved rigorously. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Chen C.-H.,Changhua Christian Hospital | Chen C.-H.,Hungkuang University | Huang C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Enterobacter cloacae (E.cloacae) bloodstream infection (EcBSI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, with an increasing incidence in our hospital. We wanted to elucidate the risk factors of mortality among patients with ESBL-positive EcBSI in central Taiwan.Methods: We ordered the clinical and microbiological data of cases with diagnosis of EcBSI, and analyzed the isolates by using antibiotyping, detection of ESBL, detection of class 1 integron and genomic fingerprinting by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).Results: Seventy episodes of EcBSI from 70 patients (56 hospital-acquired infections) were enrolled. Significant differences were found between ESBL-positive and ESBL-negative isolates with regard to risk factors, including the diseases severity (p = 0.03), category of health care-associated infection (p = 0.04), prior use of antibiotics (p = 0.023), and prior use of a ventilator (p = 0.037). A significant difference in mortality between two groups (p = 0.004) was determined using the chi-square test, and a trend in mortality between two groups (p = 0.006, OR = 4.750, 95% C.I.=1.573-14.344) was determined using univariate logistic regression analysis. The predominant clone in ESBL-positive strains was associated with a higher mortality rate but not with the presence of the integron.Conclusions: The study disclosed four types of clinical characteristics to obtain ESBL-positive EcBSI, and there was a trend in mortality too. We suggested the need to review antibiotic prescription practices, and the possible need to consider ESBL-positive strains in empirical treatment of bloodstream infection. © 2013 Chen and Huang; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Chen C.-J.,National Chung Hsing University
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2016: Watershed Management, Irrigation and Drainage, and Water Resources Planning and Management - Papers from Sessions of the Proceedings of the 2016 World Environmental and Water Resources Congress | Year: 2016

Issuing seasonal outlooks of hydro-climatic variables (e.g., precipitation and temperature) has become the mission of such meteorological service agencies as the Climate Prediction Center, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, and Taiwan's Central Weather Bureau. Most of their seasonal prediction products are available in the form of tercile (i.e., above-normal, near-normal, and below-normal) probabilities. Even though tercile probabilistic forecasts can possibly be translated into numerical values, without being disaggregated to daily (or finer) series, these monthly to seasonal forecasts cannot be used by a typical hydrological model to correctly simulate the rainfall-runoff and routing processes in a watershed. Popular temporal disaggregation schemes include historical analogues and weather generation tools. While the former resamples historical daily observations whose aggregated values bear the highest resemblance (e.g., shortest Euclidean distance) to the seasonal forecasts, the latter relies on the Markov Chain and Monte Carlo techniques to generate new data series preserving the same statistical characteristics as the observed data. This study aims to investigate the impacts of different temporal disaggregation schemes on seasonal streamflow forecasting. We developed a lumped, continuous hydrological model for a representative reservoir watershed in Taiwan for the above investigation. We found that none of the temporal disaggregation schemes can be effective without accounting for the spatial coherence of precipitation in a simultaneous fashion.


Yen S.M.-F.,National Cheng Kung University | Hsu Y.-L.,National Chung Hsing University
Decision Support Systems | Year: 2010

Based on the SPA test (test for superior predictive ability), Sortino and reversed Sortino ratios, we examined the profitability of a universe of 8061 technical trading rules in ten futures markets including five financial and five commodity underlying assets. We tested whether the best performing rule really beats its buy-and-hold benchmark strategy in bullish and bearish markets, respectively, during the in-sample testing period. The best rules' performance relative to the benchmark is also tested during the one-year out-of-sample period for all ten sets of data. A novel set of multi-indicator rules, MFI-RSI, and four popular categories of single-indicator rules, filter rules, moving averages, on-balance volume averages and momentum strategy in volume, were employed to form our universe of trading rules. The results on the SPA test suggest market efficiency in nine of the ten futures markets, while the results on the Sortino and reversed Sortino ratios reveal persistent outperformance of the best 'downside' and 'upside' rules relative to the buy-and-hold benchmark across time in four and three futures markets, respectively. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Tsou C.-Y.,Kyoto University | Feng Z.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Chigira M.,Kyoto University
Geomorphology | Year: 2011

Typhoon Morakot induced the catastrophic and deadly Shiaolin landslide in southern Taiwan on 9 August 2009, resulting in more than 400 casualties. We undertook a geological and geomorphological investigation with the aim of reconstructing the events leading up to this landslide and to clarify factors that contributed to its development. Cumulative rainfall reached up to 1676.5mm in about three days under the influence of the typhoon, and the Shiaolin landslide, with a volume of 25×106m3, occurred one day after the peak in rainfall intensity. The landslide occurred on a dip slope overlying late Miocene to early Pliocene sedimentary rocks consisting of silty shale, massive mudstone, and sandstone. It started as a rockslide in the upper third of the landslide area and transformed into a rock avalanche that crossed a series of terraces and displaced or buried the village below. It buried the riverbed of the Chishan River and ran up the opposite slope, creating a landslide dam 60m high, which was breached about 1h and 24min later, flooding the village. The velocity of the landslide is estimated to have been 20.4 to 33.7ms-1 and its apparent friction angle was 14°, which indicates its high mobility. The detachments in the source area consist of combinations of bedding planes and joints or faults. The landslide was preceded by gravitational deformation, which appeared as hummocky landforms before the landslide and as buckle folds exposed after the event. The landslide deposits consist of fragments of mudstone, shale, and sandstone, as well as clayey material at its base. This clayey material, consisting of illite, chlorite, quartz, feldspar, and calcite, is assumed to have strongly influenced the long, rapid runout. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Chiang P.-J.,National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences | Chiang Y.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters | Year: 2010

We propose a new pseudospectral frequency-domain (PSFD) formulation within the modified perfectly matched layer (MPML) for absorbing both radiation losses and evanescent waves. By applying the improved PSFD method on Chebyshev- Gauss-Lobatto mesh points, both guided and leaky modes of optical waveguides can be solved from Helmholtz's equations for the transverse-magnetic components. To ensure the global accuracy of the PSFD-MPML method, new and appropriate boundary conditions are derived at each subdomain in the MPML region. By comparing the analytic solution of a step-index single-mode fiber and the results by adopting our method, the convergence behavior of the proposed method on the guided modes is examined. To demonstrate the validity and usefulness of our method on the leaky modes, the one-ring triangular holey fiber is taken as another example. © 2006 IEEE.


Lin P.-C.,National Chung Cheng University | Wang D.-A.,National Chung Hsing University
International Journal of Solids and Structures | Year: 2010

In this paper, the stress intensity factor solutions for spot welds in U-shape specimens are investigated by finite element analyses. Three-dimensional finite element models are developed for U-shape specimens to obtain accurate stress intensity factor solutions. In contrast to the existing investigations of the stress intensity factor solutions based on the finite element analyses, various ratios of the sheet thickness, half specimen width, half specimen length, and corner radius to the nugget radius are considered in this investigation. The computational results confirm the functional dependence on the nugget radius and sheet thickness of Zhang's analytical solutions. The computational results provide a geometric function in terms of the normalized half specimen width, normalized half specimen length, and normalized corner radius to Zhang's analytical solutions. The computational results also provide a geometric function in terms of the aspect ratio of the specimen to complete Lin and Pan's analytical solution. Finally, based on the analytical and computational results, the dimensions of U-shape specimens are suggested. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chang C.M.,National Chung Hsing University | Jalbout A.F.,University of Sonora
Thin Solid Films | Year: 2010

In this work we detail the mechanism by which alkali metal encapsulation inside an armchair (9,9) single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) can affect external amino acid interactions. Based on our analysis, several configurations revealed that the physical properties of the SWNT systems are modified by using an internally situated Li atom. Density-functional theory calculations reveal that the most favorable interactions of the SWNT system is with tryptophan, threonine and proline that can be directly correlated to the backbone geometry of the amino acid species. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Chen M.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Electronic Commerce Research | Year: 2016

This study proposes to fill a research gap by testing the moderating effect that two factors (type of effort requirement and belief in personal good luck) can have on the relationships between reward type and evaluations of an online lucky draw. The study design is a 3 (the type of reward: hedonic vs. utilitarian vs. mystery) × 2 (the type of effort requirement: interesting vs. boring) × 2 (belief in personal good luck: high vs. low) between-subjects design, where belief in personal good luck is a measured chronic personality trait. Evaluation of an online lucky draw campaign is regarded as a dependent variable. The results show that when respondents comply with a boring requirement or have a lesser belief in personal good luck, the provision of hedonic rewards will lead to a more positive evaluation of an online lucky draw than will the provision of utilitarian or mystery rewards. In contrast, when respondents comply with an interesting requirement or have a higher belief in personal good luck, the provision of a mystery reward will lead to a more positive evaluation of an online lucky draw than would be the case for known rewards (i.e., hedonic and utilitarian). With an understanding of how online shoppers evaluate their participation in an online lucky draw campaign, marketers in e-commerce can better understand not only when to use this promotional tactic more effectively, but also how to better allocate their budget for online sales promotions.


You Y.-C.,National Taiwan University | Tzeng M.-C.,National Taiwan University | Lai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Lai C.-C.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chiu S.-H.,National Taiwan University
Organic Letters | Year: 2012

A [2]rotaxane undergoes switching of its bis-p-xylyl-[26]crown-6 (BPX26C6) component away from its guanidinium station toward its 2,2′-bipyridyl and carbamate stations upon the addition and removal of Zn 2+ and PO 4 3- ions, respectively. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Jeng B.-W.,National Taichung University of Education | Wang Y.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Chien C.-S.,Chien Hsin University of Science and Technology
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2013

We describe an efficient two-parameter continuation algorithm combined with spectral collocation methods for computing the ground state and central vortex state solutions of rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices, where the first kind and second kind Chebyshev polynomials are used as the basis functions for the trial function space. By treating the chemical potential and angular velocity as the continuation parameters simultaneously under the additional constraint of normalization condition, the proposed algorithm can effectively compute numerical solutions for a rich variety of physical phenomena observed in physical experiments with very little cost. Comparisons with various numerical methods on some sample test problems are reported. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Li C.-Y.,Chung Yuan Christian University | Liu D.-C.,Chung Yuan Christian University | Ko B.-T.,National Chung Hsing University
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2013

New aluminium complexes containing bis-BTP ligands (BTP = N,O-bidentate benzotriazole phenoxide) were synthesized and structurally characterized. Amine elimination of Al(NMe2)3 with RBTP-H ligands (CMe2PhBTP-H = 2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-bis(1-methyl-1- phenylethyl)phenol, t-BuBTP-H = 2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-di-tert- butylphenol and TMClBTP-H = 2-tert-butyl-6-(5-chloro-2H-benzotriazol- 2-yl)-4-methylphenol) (2.0 mol equiv.) in toluene or hexane afforded the penta-coordinated single-site amidoaluminium complexes [(RBTP) 2Al(NMe2)] (R = CMe2Ph for 1; R = t-Bu for 2; R = TMCl for 3) in satisfactory yields. With the addition of H2O (0.5 molar equiv.), the hydrolysis of Al amides 2 and 3 in a mixed solvent of THF/toluene at 25 °C produced oxo-bridged bimetallic aluminium complexes [{( RBTP)2Al}2(μ-O)] (R = t-Bu for 4 and R = TMCl for 5) in ≥70% yield. According to single crystal X-ray diffraction studies, complex 2 shows a monomeric Al(iii) amide with bis(t-BuBTP) ligands and one -NMe2 group, whereas alumoxane 4 is a dinuclear species, in which the bonding mode of the Al-O-Al moiety from μ2-oxo assumes a linear type. Catalysis for ring-opening polymerization of lactide (LA) and CO2/propylene oxide (PO) coupling was systematically studied. Single-site Al amide 3 is an efficient initiator for LA polymerizations with a living character; the polymerization displays a first-order dependence on the concentration of l-LA. Bimetallic BTP-ligated alumoxane 5 is an active catalyst (TOF: 120 h-1) for the coupling of CO2 with PO in the presence of n-Bu4NBr to give propylene carbonate under mild conditions. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Chiu C.-H.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study is to establish the feasibility of adopting the back-propagation neural network (BPNN) to predict fitness category. In this study, 2218 healthy Taiwanese females aged 20 to 65 participated. Data collected included five parameters required for the physical fitness (PF) passport: subject's age, body mass index (BMI), performance in the sit-and-reach test, 1 -min bent-leg curl-ups, and cardiorespiratory endurance. The network structure of BPNN adopted here consisted of three layers: input layer (5 neurons), hidden layer (5 neurons), and output layer (4 neurons). To prove the ability of BPNN in categorizing PF accurately and speedily, its learning effect must be confirmed. To achieve this purpose, the samples were divided randomly into two parts: training samples (n = 1218) and testing samples (n = 1000). Thereafter, learning algorithms of the BPNN were executed. The learning rate was assumed to be 0.75, and 1000 learning cycles were run. The results demonstrated that the root mean square (RMS) for the training samples was 0.059, while the RMS for the testing samples was 0.065. Such small RMS is evidence that the BPNN converged well and had a good learning effect. On the other hand, the mean degree of accuracy of the BPNN was 96.83% in identifying body composition, 98.41% for muscular flexibility, 94.39% for muscular strength and endurance, and 97.25% for cardiorespiratory capacity. The mean degree of accuracy for these four items was as high as 96.72%. Overall, the mean relative error for categorizing PF was 3.28%, which was within the acceptable range. Therefore, the results confirmed the reliability of the BPNN for categorizing PF. BPNN can be converted into software to assess the subject's PF in a precise and speedy manner, thus eliminating the need to refer to a chart of the modular standard to decide the fitness category.


Chern C.-M.,Taipei Veterans General Hospital | Liao J.-F.,National Yang Ming University | Wang Y.-H.,Hungkuang University | Shen Y.-C.,National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine | Shen Y.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2012

Melatonin has many protective effects against ischemic stroke, but the underlying neuroprotective mechanisms are not fully understood. Our aim was to explore the relationship between melatonin's neuroprotective effects and activation of the MT2 melatonin receptor in a murine ischemic-stroke model. Male ICR mice were subjected to a transient middle cerebral ischemic/reperfusional injury, and melatonin (5 and 10 mg/kg, ip) was administrated once daily starting 2 h after ischemia. More than 80% of the mice died within 5 days after stroke without treatment. Melatonin treatment significantly improved the survival rates and neural functioning with modestly prolonged life span of the stroke mice by preserving blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity via a reduction in the enormous amount of stroke-induced free radical production and significant gp91 phox cell infiltration. These protective effects of melatonin were reversed by pretreatment with MT2 melatonin receptor antagonists (4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin (4P-PDOT) and luzindole). Moreover, treatment with melatonin after stroke dramatically enhanced endogenous neurogenesis (doublecortin positive) and cell proliferation (ki67 positive) in the peri-infarct regions. Most ki67-positive cells were nestin-positive and NG2-positive neural stem/progenitor cells that coexpressed two neurodevelopmental proteins (adam11 and adamts20) and the MT2 melatonin receptor. RT-PCR revealed that the gene expression levels of doublecortin, ki67, adamts20, and adam11 are markedly reduced by stroke, but are restored by melatonin treatment; furthermore, pretreatment with 4P-PDOT and luzindole antagonized melatonin's restorative effect. Our results support the hypothesis that melatonin is able to protect mice against stroke by activating MT2 melatonin receptors, which reduces oxidative/inflammatory stress. This results in the preservation of BBB integrity and enhances endogenous neurogenesis by upregulating neurodevelopmental gene/protein expression. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Tang F.-Y.,China Medical University at Taichung | Pai M.-H.,Taipei Medical University | Chiang E.P.I.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Epidemiologic studies suggest that intake of high-fat diet (HFD) promotes colon carcinogenesis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inflammation play important roles during tumor progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Oncogenic pathways such as phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK signaling cascades induce EMT and inflammation in cancer. No experimental evidence has been demonstrated regarding HFD-mediated tumor progression including EMT in CRC so far. Our results demonstrated that HFD consumption could induce tumor growth and progression, including EMT and inflammation, in a mouse xenograft tumor model. The molecular mechanisms were through activation of MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. HFD induced up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2, cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen proteins concomitant with increases in expression of nuclear factor-κB p65 (RelA) and β-catenin proteins. Surprisingly, HFD consumption could suppress p21CIP1/WAF1 expression through increases in nuclear histone deacetylase complex (HDAC). Moreover, HFD could mediate the disassembly of E-cadherin adherent complex and the up-regulation of Vimentin and N-cadherin proteins in tumor tissues. Taken together, our novel findings support evidence for HFD-mediated modulation of HDAC activity and activation of oncogenic cascades, which involve EMT and inflammation in CRC, playing important roles in tumor growth and progression in a mouse xenograft model. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Chiang S.-S.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Chiang S.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Pan T.-M.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Osteoporosis is a major skeletal disease associated with loss of estrogen in postmenopausal women. In this study, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 (NTU 101F) and Lactobacillus plantarum NTU 102 (NTU 102F) were used as starters to ferment soy skim milk. This was then used as a nutritional supplement for 8 weeks to ovariectomized (OVX) mice. This study reveals that soy skim milk fermented with lactobacilli can increase the contents of aglycone isoflavones, soluble calcium, and vitamin D 3. The trabecular bone volumes and trabecular number of the distal femur in mice fed NTU 101F increased by a factor of 1.48 and 1.74 compared with the OVX group. The bone network density and thickness of the distal metaphyseal trabecular in mice fed NTU 101F and Fosamax was significantly greater than that of OVX mice. These results suggest that fermented soy skim milk can attenuate bone loss in OVX mice and lower the risk of osteoporosis. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Chen J.-K.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Zhou G.-Y.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Huang C.-F.,National Chung Hsing University | Ko F.-H.,National Chiao Tung University
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2013

In this study, we fabricated nanopillar arrays of silicon oxide for use as two-dimensional periodic relief gratings (2DPRGs) on Si surfaces. We deposited antibodies onto the pillar surfaces of 2DPRGs modified with protein G to obtain optical detectors that were specific for the targeted antigen; the antigen units that filled the spaces between the nanopillars of the 2DPRG lead to a dramatic change in the pillar scale. The effective refractive index (neff) of the 2DPRGs was related to the pillar scale of the 2DPRG; after coupling of the antigen, a color change from pure green to orange was observable. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.


Chiang S.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Pan T.-M.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Phytoestrogens are a class of bioactive compounds derived from plants and exert various estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects. Estrogen deficiency osteoporosis has become a serious problem in elderly women. The use of ovariectomized (OVX) rat or mice models to simulate the postmenopausal condition is well established. This review aimed to clarify the sources, biochemistry, absorption, metabolism, and mode of action of phytoestrogens on bone health in intervention studies. In vitro, phytoestrogens promote protein synthesis, osteoprotegerin/receptor activation of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand ratio, and mineralization by osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1). In the OVX murine model, administration of phytoestrogens can inhibit differentiation and activation of osteoclasts, expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and secretion of pyridinoline compound. Phytoestrogens also enhance bone formation and increase bone mineral density and levels of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and α1(I) collagen. Results of mechanistic studies have indicated that phytoestrogens suppress the rate of bone resorption and enhance the rate of bone formation. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Tang F.-Y.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chiang E.-P.,National Chung Hsing University | Pai M.-H.,Taipei Medical University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. Human non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) accounts for almost 80% of lung cancer cases. Aberrant phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways play important roles and have been widely observed in the development of NSCLC. Previous studies indicated that garlic extracts such as diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) could inhibit the proliferation of several types of cancer in vitro. However, the inhibitory effects of S-allylcysteine (SAC) on the growth of NSCLC have not been demonstrated yet. Therefore, this study investigated whether consumption of SAC could prevent the growth of NSCLC in both in vitro and in vivo models. It was found that SAC significantly inhibited the proliferation of human NSCLC A-549 cells in vitro. Treatment of the NF-κB inhibitor, Bay-11-7082, could significantly inhibit the proliferation of NSCLC A-549 cells. The results demonstrated that SAC significantly suppressed the activation of mTOR, NF-κB, and cyclin D1 molecules in vitro. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that consumption of SAC significantly inhibited the growth of highly metastatic human NSCLC cells in tumorbearing mice. Bioluminescence imaging and pathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining results also indicated that SAC could effectively suppress the growth and malignant progression of human NSCLC in vivo. The chemopreventive effects of SAC were associated with suppression of mTOR and NF-κB molecules in vivo. These results suggested that SAC could act as an effective agent against the malignant progression of human NSCLC in both in vitro and in vivo models. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Su Y.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Ho C.-L.,Taiwan Forestry Research Institute
Records of Natural Products | Year: 2013

This study investigated the chemical composition, and antimicrobial and anti wood-decay fungal activities of the essential oil isolated from the leaf of Litsea acuminata (Blume) Kurata from Taiwan. The essential oil from the fresh leaves of L. acuminata was isolated using hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus, and characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 48 compounds were identified, representing 100% of the oil. The main components identified were β-caryophyllene (13.0%), τ-cadinol (11.1%), α-cadinol (8.6%), α-humulene (7.5%), α-pinene (7.0%), globulol (6.6%), and (β-eudesmol (6.1%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was tested by the disc diffusion method and micro-broth dilution method against ten microbial species, respectively. The oil exhibited strong growth suppression against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast with inhibition zones of 45~50 mm to MIC values of 31.25~62.5 (μg/mL, respectively. The anti-wood-decay fungal activity of the oil was also evaluated. Results showed that the oil demonstrated excellent activity against four wood-decay-fungi species. For the antimicrobial and anti-wood-decay fungal activities of the oil, the active source compounds were determined to be τ-cadinol, α-cadinol, and β-eudesmol. © 2013 Reproduction is free for scientific studies.


Hsu S.-H.,National Taiwan University | Chan S.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Chiang C.-M.,Taichung Veterans General Hospital | Chi-Chang Chen C.,Taichung Veterans General Hospital | Jiang C.-F.,I - Shou University
Biomaterials | Year: 2011

The performance of an asymmetric conduit made of microporous polylactic acid (PLA) in promoting the long-term peripheral nerve regeneration across a 20-mm-long sciatic nerve gap was evaluated by a rabbit sciatic nerve transection model. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was employed to monitor the nerve regeneration process. The extents of nerve regeneration and conduit degradation were quantified by image analysis. Functional and histological analyses were followed to assess nerve reinnervation. MR images showed that the transected nerve was connected at about 4 months. The diameter of the regenerated nerve continued to increase while the conduit was gradually degraded. The conduit was completely degraded in 18 months. The degradation kinetics in vivo was estimated based on MR images. The functional recovery after 18 months was ∼82% based on electrophysiology. The extension range of the operated limb was slowly recuperated to ∼81% at 18 months. Histology showed that nerve bundles were self-assembled after 16-18 months, but the morphologies were still different from those of normal sciatic nerve. This was the first work on the long-term evaluation of peripheral nerve regeneration in a rabbit model, and the first to report the use of MRI to obtain the real-time images of regenerated nerve in a biomaterial conduit as well as to define the degradation rate of the conduit in vivo. The platform established in this study serves to evaluate the regeneration of larger-diameter (>3-mm) nerve across a long-gap bridged by a conduit. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Hung C.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang Y.-T.,Soochow University of Taiwan | Chang Y.-J.,University of Taipei
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

Anaerobic fermentative biohydrogen production, the conversion of organic substances especially from organic wastes to hydrogen gas, has become a viable and promising means of producing sustainable energy. Successful biological hydrogen production depends on the overall performance (results of interactions) of bacterial communities, i.e., mixed cultures in reactors. Mixed cultures might provide useful combinations of metabolic pathways for the processing of complex waste material ingredients, thereby supporting the more efficient decomposition and hydrogenation of biomass than pure bacteria species would. Therefore, understanding the relationships between variations in microbial composition and hydrogen production efficiency is the first step in constructing more efficient hydrogen-producing consortia, especially when complex and non-sterilized organic wastes are used as feeding substrates. In this review, we describe recent discoveries on bacterial community composition obtained from dark fermentation biohydrogen production systems, with emphasis on the possible roles of microorganisms that co-exist with common hydrogen producers. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Huang C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Optics Express | Year: 2012

Numerical mode solver using a pseudospectral scheme is developed for solving various nonlinear dielectric and plasmonic waveguides with arbitrary nonlinear media. Two nonlinear iterative approaches that use this scheme are implemented; these approaches assign the mode power and effective index as extracted eigenvalues. However, to obtain the complete power dispersion curve including the stable and unstable modal solutions, assigning the mode power as an eigenvalue for a given effective index is required. Moreover, the biaxial feature of the nonlinear refractive index is considered for solving the transverse magnetic (TM) modes in materials of practical interest. Furthermore, the proposed scheme solves the problem of nonlinear surface plasmons guided by a thin metal film with nonlinear cladding, and the mode characteristics of longand short-range surface plasmon polaritons are analyzed. We also apply the proposed scheme to a 2D strip waveguide with a nonlinear saturation substrate. ©2012 Optical Society of America.


Huang Y.-F.,National Taiwan University | Kuan W.-H.,Ming Chi University of Technology | Chang C.-C.,Ming Chi University of Technology | Tzou Y.-M.,National Chung Hsing University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

Corn stover, which is one of the most abundant agricultural residues around the world, could be converted into valuable biofuels and bio based products by means of microwave pyrolysis. After the reaction at the microwave power level of 500W for the processing time of 30min, the reaction performance under N2 atmosphere was generally better than under CO2 atmosphere. This may be due to the better heat absorbability of CO2 molecules to reduce the heat for stover pyrolysis. Most of the metal-oxide catalysts effectively increased the maximum temperature and mass reduction ratio but lowered the calorific values of solid residues. The gas most produced was CO under N2 atmosphere but CO2 under CO2 atmosphere. Catalyst addition lowered the formation of PAHs and thus made liquid products less toxic. More liquid products and less gas products were generated when using the catalysts possibly due to the existence of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Yang C.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University
Plant Signaling and Behavior | Year: 2014

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been reported to trigger signaling pathways that interact with other signaling pathways mediated by nitric oxide, lipid messengers, and plant hormones. In a previous study, we demonstrated that ethylene was involved in hypoxia signaling to regulate the expression of downstream genes such as AtERF73/HRE1 and ADH1. Furthermore, H2O2 and ethylene interplay has an effect on AtERF73/ HRE1 and ADH1 expression during the early stages of hypoxia signaling. Here, we propose a model for the main transcription factor AtERF73/HRE1, which is controlled by 3 pathways during hypoxia. These include an ethylenedependent pathway, an ethyleneindependent/ H2O2-dependent pathway, and an ethylene and H2O2-independent pathway involved in hypoxia signaling to modulate AtERF73/HRE 1. © 2014 Landes Bioscience.


Wang D.-A.,National Chung Hsing University
International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology | Year: 2016

Ultrasonic bonding has a great potential for manufacturing of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) of fuel cells (FCs) due to its short process cycle time and low energy consumption. Before introduction of the bonding process into the industry, a detailed and elaborate investigation of the effects of the processing parameters on the bonding quality is necessary. We develop a finite element model of the ultrasonic bonding for MEAs of FCs. The model can be used as a computational framework for initial evaluation of the effectiveness of ultrasonic boding for MEAs of FCs.


Yen T.M.,National Chung Hsing University
Annals of Forest Research | Year: 2015

Taiwan red cypress (Chamaecyparis formosensis Matsum) is an indigenous and important cypress conifer with a broad area of natural forests and plantations in Taiwan. Because of the high economic value and multiple uses of the species, numerous researchers have studied its growth and yield within plantation forests. However, few studies have examined how the crown characteristics of the tree respond to different thinning regimes, particularly in the long run. The crown is a dominant outline of aboveground component of a tree that can sensitively reflect competitions from trees located nearby. This study evaluated the crown form of Taiwan red cypress at three different growth stages with different thinning intensities over 20 years. The study began in 1982, when the three plantations examined were aged 7, 15, and 21 years, and when thinning treatments began. In 2002, crown form parameters (CFPs) and crown profile equations (CPEs) were used to analyze the thinning effects at the tree level. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that age class influenced most CFPs and that thinning treatments influenced all CFPs, indicating that both factors could simultaneously affect the CFPs. Moreover, the CPEs fit the observed data well for all age classes, demonstrating that the equation had a high capacity for predicting crown form. The CPEs were used to determine the mean crown shape profile for each thinning treatment and age class. According to the mean crown profile predicted by CPEs, we found that crown length and width increased with thinning intensity for all aged trees, especially after a heavy thinning treatment. © 2015, Editura Silvica. All rights reserved.


Cheng F.-F.,National Chung Hsing University | Wu C.-S.,Tunghai University
Decision Support Systems | Year: 2010

This study reports on an experiment that examined the effect of message framing on the Internet buyers' attitude and purchase intention. The effect of two possible moderators in framing effect including warning about the possibilities of bias and the subjects' level of involvement were considered in the experiment. In addition, the influence of the individual decision makers' involvement level on the joint effect of warning and framing was also examined to understand the individual differences in sensitivity to warning messages. The experimental results suggested a significant framing effect that participants in positive condition revealed more favorable responses than their counterparts in negative condition. Further, the debiasing effect of prompting the warning instructions was observed. Differences between responses in positive and negative conditions were significant when no warning message was prompted, and the magnitude of framing effect was attenuated and eliminated in weak and strong warning conditions respectively. In addition, the effect of framing messages on people's responses was moderated by their level of involvement. Less involved participants were more susceptible to framing effect than more involved subjects. Finally, the debiasing effect of warning on message framing depended upon the subjects' level of involvement. The framing effect is diminished when high involvement participants were prompted with either weak or strong warning messages. For less involved participants, the prompt of weak warning message is not an effective debiasing mechanism to prevent the occurrence of framing effect. Only when they were exposed to strong warning messages can the framing effect be eliminated. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


This study uses a full vector pseudospectral scheme in the frequency domain to investigate the mode characteristics of surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) waveguides. The wave equations solved in this study are based on the transverse magnetic field components, and thus the spurious modes are removed due to the constraint of divergence-free magnetic vector. The waveguide dimension dependences on the mode confinement and propagation length of the dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide (DLSPPW) are extensively studied and characterized. The numerical results of the DLSPPW show that the proposed scheme is highly efficient and yields accurate complex effective indices while requiring much less memory than the commonly used finite element method. This study also analyzes the propagation characteristics and figures of merit of an inverted metal slot waveguide (IMSW) in detail. The IMSW achieves a propagation loss an order of magnitude lower than nanoparticle chains with comparable degrees of lateral confinement. © 2010 Optical Society of America.


Ho H.J.,Tunghai University | Pyne S.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Lin T.I.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin T.I.,China Medical University at Taichung
Statistics and Computing | Year: 2012

This paper deals with the problem of maximum likelihood estimation for a mixture of skew Student-t-normal distributions, which is a novel model-based tool for clustering heterogeneous (multiple groups) data in the presence of skewed and heavy-tailed outcomes. We present two analytically simple EM-type algorithms for iteratively computing the maximum likelihood estimates. The observed information matrix is derived for obtaining the asymptotic standard errors of parameter estimates. A small simulation study is conducted to demonstrate the superiority of the skew Student-t-normal distribution compared to the skew t distribution. The proposed methodology is particularly useful for analyzing multimodal asymmetric data as produced by major biotechnological platforms like flow cytometry. We provide such an application with the help of an illustrative example. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Feng Z.,National Chung Hsing University
Natural Hazards and Earth System Science | Year: 2011

The Shiaolin landslide occurred on 9 August 2009 after Typhoon Morakot struck Taiwan, claiming over 400 lives. The seismic signals produced by the landslide were recorded by broadband seismic stations in Taiwan. The time-frequency spectra for these signals were obtained by the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and were analyzed to obtain the seismic characteristics of the landslide. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) was applied to differentiate weak surface-wave signals from noise and to estimate the surface-wave velocities in the region. The surface-wave velocities were estimated using the fifth intrinsic mode function (IMF 5) obtained from the EMD. The spectra of the earthquake data were compared. The main frequency content of the seismic waves caused by the Shiaolin landslide were in the range of 0.5 to 1.5 Hz. This frequency range is smaller than the frequency ranges of other earthquakes. The spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method is suggested for characterizing the shear-wave velocities of the strata in the region. © 2011 Author(s).


Huang Y.-L.,National Kaohsiung Marine University | Chau C.-F.,National Chung Hsing University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the water-soluble polysaccharide-rich sage weed (Salvia plebeia) extracts on intestinal function. The results showed that the extract is rich in water-soluble polysaccharides (60.5/100 g extract), which are mainly composed of pectic polysaccharides and hemicellulose. The inclusion of sage weed extract in the control diet at a level of 0.5/100 g diet resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) improved effects on intestinal and faecal parameters of the hamsters, such as shortened gastrointestinal transit time, reduced caecal ammonia, decreased daily faecal ammonia output, increased short-chain fatty acid concentrations in caecal content, and lowered activities of β-d- glucuronidase, β-d-glucosidase, mucinase, and urease. These findings suggest that an adequate intake of sage weed extracts (0.5/100 g diet) may play a role in the maintenance of intestinal health by reducing the exposure of intestinal mucosa to toxic materials and other harmful compounds. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yen D.C.,Miami University Ohio | Wu C.-S.,Tunghai University | Cheng F.-F.,National Chung Hsing University | Huang Y.-W.,Wufeng University
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2010

This paper reported the results of a survey study and provided evidences of empirically testing a model that integrates both technology acceptance model (TAM) and task-technology fit (TTF) model in understanding the determinants of users' intention to use wireless technology in organizations. Questionnaires were distributed to organizations that bring mobile commerce into practice through the wireless handheld devices. The results indicated that both technology acceptance model and task-technology fit model are robust models by themselves. First, both perceived usefulness and ease of use significantly influence users' behavior intention to utilize wireless technology. Perceived ease of use has significant effect on perceived usefulness. Second, characteristics of technology and task significantly predict the fit between these two constructs. Significant effect of characteristics of technology on perceived ease of use and usefulness were observed. Finally, significant relationships between TAM and TTF model were also observed. Task-technology fit is a significant direct predictor of technology adoption intention. Overall, users' intention to adopt wireless technology in organizations was determined directly by fit between characteristics of task and technology as well as users' perceived ease of use and usefulness. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hsieh H.-M.,Fu Jen Catholic University | Wu W.-M.,Fu Jen Catholic University | Hu M.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Hu M.-L.,China Medical University at Taichung
Life Sciences | Year: 2011

Aims: We investigated the mechanism of D-galactose (DG)-induced oxidative damage and the neuroprotective action of genistein in PC12 cells. Main methods: PC12 cells were treated with 40 mM DG dissolved in medium containing 85% RPMI1640, 10% HBS and 5% FBS with or without genistein. We measured the protein expression of β-amyloid (Aβ), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), IκB-α and manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) by western blotting, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by 2, 7- dichlorofluorescin-diacetate, and the binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) by electrophortic mobility shift assay. Key findings: DG (40 mM) completely retarded cell growth after incubation for 72 h, and this effect was not due to osmotic changes, as 40 mM mannitol had no effect. Mechanistically, we found that DG increased intracellular ROS starting at 4 h and increased Aβ and AGEs at 24 h. DG treatment for 24 h also increased the binding activity of NF-κB but strongly decreased the expression of IκB-α protein. Furthermore, DG treatment for 48 h increased MnSOD protein expression. All these effects of DG were effectively inhibited by genistein (0.5-10 μM). Significance: The present study indicates that the protection of genistein against DG-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells, and the effect is likely mediated by decreased intracellular ROS and binding activity of NF-κB. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Donati S.,University of Pavia | Donati S.,National Chung Hsing University | Martini G.,University of Pavia | Tambosso T.,Da - Yeh University
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics | Year: 2013

We analyze the random errors occurring in interferometric measurements because of the speckle pattern regime, when the remote target is a diffusing surface. First, we review the statistical properties of speckle and discuss amplitude fading that is affecting the self-mixing interferometer (SMI) signal and methods to alleviate it. Second, we derive intra-speckle phase errors using the bivariate conditional probability, and find that the noise-equivalent- displacement for small displacement Δ is proportional to the ratio of Δ to speckle longitudinal size sl. Last, we extend the analysis to inter-speckle displacements (Δ>sl) and, after deriving speckle systematic and random errors, show that operation up to meters on a diffusing surface target is possible with a small (λ) error. Results are mainly focussed on SMI, yet they have general validity for any configuration of interferometry. © 1965-2012 IEEE.


Ho K.I.-J.,Providence University | Leung C.-S.,City University of Hong Kong | Sum J.,National Chung Hsing University
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks | Year: 2010

In the last two decades, many online fault/noise injection algorithms have been developed to attain a fault tolerant neural network. However, not much theoretical works related to their convergence and objective functions have been reported. This paper studies six common fault/noise-injection-based online learning algorithms for radial basis function (RBF) networks, namely 1) injecting additive input noise, 2) injecting additive/multiplicative weight noise, 3) injecting multiplicative node noise, 4) injecting multiweight fault (random disconnection of weights), 5) injecting multinode fault during training, and 6) weight decay with injecting multinode fault. Based on the Gladyshev theorem, we show that the convergence of these six online algorithms is almost sure. Moreover, their true objective functions being minimized are derived. For injecting additive input noise during training, the objective function is identical to that of the Tikhonov regularizer approach. For injecting additive/multiplicative weight noise during training, the objective function is the simple mean square training error. Thus, injecting additive/multiplicative weight noise during training cannot improve the fault tolerance of an RBF network. Similar to injective additive input noise, the objective functions of other fault/noise-injection-based online algorithms contain a mean square error term and a specialized regularization term. © 2006 IEEE.


Huang H.,University of California at Berkeley | Liu C.-C.,University of Southern California | Liu C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Zhou X.J.,University of Southern California
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2010

The rapid accumulation of gene expression data has offered unprecedented opportunities to study human diseases. The National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus is currently the largest database that systematically documents the genome-wide molecular basis of diseases. However, thus far, this resource has been far from fully utilized. This paper describes the first study to transform public gene expression repositories into an automated disease diagnosis database. Particularly, we have developed a systematic framework, including a two-stage Bayesian learning approach, to achieve the diagnosis of one or multiple diseases for a query expression profile along a hierarchical disease taxonomy. Our approach, including standardizing cross-platform gene expression data and heterogeneous disease annotations, allows analyzing both sources of information in a unified probabilistic system. A high level of overall diagnostic accuracy was shown by cross validation. It was also demonstrated that the power of our method can increase significantly with the continued growth of public gene expression repositories. Finally, we showed how our disease diagnosis system can be used to characterize complex phenotypes and to construct a disease-drug connectivity map.


Wang E.S.-T.,National Chung Hsing University
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking | Year: 2010

Previous research on both hedonic and utilitarian value has focused considerable effort on outcomes. Few studies compare the impact of Internet usage purposes and gender differences on perceived value effect. The current study explores whether differences in the relative influence of hedonic and utilitarian value affect consumer information search and shopping intentions on the Internet. This study also compares perceived value impact on behavioral intention among respondents in regard to gender. This research uses structural equation modeling of survey data (N=341). Results show that perceived hedonic and utilitarian value have significantly different effect on information search and shopping intention through the Internet. Hedonic values have positively higher association with customer intention to buy than with intent to search information. Findings also show that hedonic values influence male user intentions to search information but do not influence females. This work presents a theoretical discussion and implications based on the results for the benefit of online practitioners. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2010.


Lee B.,Northwestern University | Stoumpos C.C.,Northwestern University | Zhou N.,Northwestern University | Hao F.,Northwestern University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

We introduce a new class of molecular iodosalt compounds for application in next-generation solar cells. Unlike tin-based perovskite compounds CsSnI3 and CH3NH3SnI3, which have Sn in the 2+ oxidation state and must be handled in an inert atmosphere when fabricating solar cells, the Sn in the molecular iodosalt compounds is in the 4+ oxidation state, making them stable in air and moisture. As an example, we demonstrate that, using Cs2SnI6 as a hole transporter, we can successfully fabricate in air a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with a mesoporous TiO2 film. Doping Cs2SnI6 with additives helps to reduce the internal device resistance, improving cell efficiency. In this way, a Z907 DSSC delivers 4.7% of energy conversion efficiency. By using a more efficient mixture of porphyrin dyes, an efficiency near 8% with photon confinement has been achieved. This represents a significant step toward the realization of low-cost, stable, lead-free, and environmentally benign next-generation solid-state solar cells. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Rodriguez-Celma J.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lin W.-D.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Fu G.-M.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Abadia J.,Aula Dei Experimental Station Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas | And 4 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

The generally low bioavailability of iron in aerobic soil systems forced plants to evolve sophisticated genetic strategies to improve the acquisition of iron from sparingly soluble and immobile iron pools. To distinguish between conserved and species-dependent components of such strategies, we analyzed iron deficiency-induced changes in the transcriptome of two model species, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and Medicago truncatula. Transcriptional profiling by RNA sequencing revealed a massive upregulation of genes coding for enzymes involved in riboflavin biosynthesis in M. truncatula and phenylpropanoid synthesis in Arabidopsis upon iron deficiency. Coexpression and promoter analysis indicated that the synthesis of flavins and phenylpropanoids is tightly linked to and putatively coregulated with other genes encoding proteins involved in iron uptake. We further provide evidence that the production and secretion of phenolic compounds is critical for the uptake of iron from sources with low bioavailability but dispensable under conditions where iron is readily available. In Arabidopsis, homozygous mutations in the Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase family gene F69H1 and defects in the expression of PLEIOTROPIC DRUG RESISTANCE9, encoding a putative efflux transporter for products from the phenylpropanoid pathway, compromised iron uptake from an iron source of low bioavailability. Both mutants were partially rescued when grown alongside wild-type Arabidopsis or M. truncatula seedlings, presumably by secreted phenolics and flavins. We concluded that production and secretion of compounds that facilitate the uptake of iron is an essential but poorly understood aspect of the reduction-based iron acquisition strategy, which is likely to contribute substantially to the efficiency of iron uptake in natural conditions. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.


Lai H.-T.,National Chiayi University | Wang T.-S.,National Chiayi University | Chou C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

In this study, the effects of natural, visible and ultraviolet lights, microbial activities and aerobic and anaerobic conditions on degradation of four different sulfonamide antibiotics (SAs) were studied. Water and sediment collected from a marine shrimp pond were examined and a factorial design was employed to evaluate the effects of selected parameters. The results showed that all the SAs in water and sediment had significant declines attributed to natural light and microbial activities. The half-lives (t 1/2s) of SAs in non-sterile water and sediment samples under natural light were 2.0-15.0 and 0.7-7.3days, respectively, and slowed to 2.9-62.9 and 6.9-85.6days after sterilized. Moreover, the declines of SAs were significantly faster under ultraviolet than visible light with 36.5-70.9% shorter t 1/2s. Anaerobic condition was also effective on declines of SAs in sediment. Both sulfate-reducing and methanogenic microbes were directly involved in the decline of SDM, and indirectly contributed to SMX declines. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Chang Y.-M.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chen C.K.-M.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Hou M.-H.,National Chung Hsing University
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2012

Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is an optical technique that measures the difference in the absorption of left and right circularly polarized light. This technique has been widely employed in the studies of nucleic acids structures and the use of it to monitor conformational polymorphism of DNA has grown tremendously in the past few decades. DNA may undergo conformational changes to B-form, A-form, Z-form, quadruplexes, triplexes and other structures as a result of the binding process to different compounds. Here we review the recent CD spectroscopic studies of the induction of DNA conformational changes by different ligands, which includes metal derivative complex of aureolic family drugs, actinomycin D, neomycin, cisplatin, and polyamine. It is clear that CD spectroscopy is extremely sensitive and relatively inexpensive, as compared with other techniques. These studies show that CD spectroscopy is a powerful technique to monitor DNA conformational changes resulting from drug binding and also shows its potential to be a drug-screening platform in the future. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Shih Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | Chen M.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Chen M.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Su Y.-F.,National Taiwan University
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2011

Bimetallic nanoparticles have been used for effective reduction of chlorinated compounds; however, the study of cation effect on degradation is limited. This study examined the effect of three selected cations normally co-present in soil and groundwater contamination sites on the degradation kinetics and removal efficiency of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by Pd/Fe nanoparticles. Degradation of PCP by Pd/Fe nanoparticles was carried out in aqueous solutions containing different cations in sulfate form, Na2SO4, CuSO4, NiSO4, and Fe2(SO4)3, respectively. The observed inhibitory effect of Na2SO4 on degradation of PCP was contributed to the existence of SO4 2- ions. Overcoming the inhibitory effect of SO4 2- ions, Cu2+, Ni2+, and Fe3+ could facilitate the degradation kinetics and efficiencies of PCP by Pd/Fe nanoparticles. XANES absorption spectra were performed to characterize their valences. The enhancement effect of Cu2+ and Ni2+ ions result from the presence of reduced forms of copper and nickel on Pd/Fe surfaces. The presence of reduced forms of copper and nickel on Pd/Fe nanoparticles were confirmed by ICP-MS analysis. The addition of Fe3+ ions caused a decrease in pH and can reasonably account for the enhancement seen in the PCP degradation process. These observations lead to a better understanding of PCP degradation with Pd/Fe nanoparticles and can facilitate the remediation design and prediction of treatment efficiency of PCP at remediation sites. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Wei J.-C.,National Taiwan University | Yen Y.-T.,National Taiwan University | Su H.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin J.-J.,National Taiwan University
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2011

We observed unexpected antimicrobial behavior from the silicate platelets, prepared from the exfoliation of natural clays, for a broad spectrum of microorganisms. The antimicrobial properties are attributed to the unique structure of the exfoliated platelets, which possess an average dimension of 80 nm × 80 nm × 1 nm and polyvalent ionic charges (ca. 18 000 sodium ions/platelet) on the surface of ultrathin platelets. The thin shape and ionic character of the silicates enables them to physically adhere to microbe surfaces and be directly observed by scanning electron microscopy. The nanometer-sized thin silicates with the uniquely combined features of large surface areas and polyvalent charges have potential uses for biomedical treatments. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Leung C.S.,City University of Hong Kong | Wang H.-J.,China University of Technology | Sum J.,National Chung Hsing University
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks | Year: 2010

The weight-decay technique is an effective approach to handle overfitting and weight fault. For fault-free networks, without an appropriate value of decay parameter, the trained network is either overfitted or underfitted. However, many existing results on the selection of decay parameter focus on fault-free networks only. It is well known that the weight-decay method can also suppress the effect of weight fault. For the faulty case, using a test set to select the decay parameter is not practice because there are huge number of possible faulty networks for a trained network. This paper develops two mean prediction error (MPE) formulae for predicting the performance of faulty radial basis function (RBF) networks. Two fault models, multiplicative weight noise and open weight fault, are considered. Our MPE formulae involve the training error and trained weights only. Besides, in our method, we do not need to generate a huge number of faulty networks to measure the test error for the fault situation. The MPE formulae allow us to select appropriate values of decay parameter for faulty networks. Our experiments showed that, although there are small differences between the true test errors (from the test set) and the MPE values, the MPE formulae can accurately locate the appropriate value of the decay parameter for minimizing the true test error of faulty networks. © 2006 IEEE.


Chen M.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University
International Journal of Consumer Studies | Year: 2016

This research considers how subjective nutrition knowledge and calorie consciousness moderate the effects of eating goals on indulgent vs. healthy consumers and their on subsequent choices. A two between-subjects design (an eating goal invoked by a main course: healthy vs. indulgent) was conducted, where the choice of salad dressing (healthy or indulgent) was a dependent variable. Two individual traits (subjective nutrition knowledge and calorie consciousness) were considered as moderators between eating goals and food choices. The results indicated that individuals with high levels of subjective knowledge about nutrition or with a high level of consciousness about calories were more likely to choose a healthy option when their indulgent goal had been invoked. However, they were more likely to make indulgent choices when their healthy goal had been fulfilled by the main course. In contrast, for those with low levels of subjective nutrition knowledge or with a low level of consciousness about calories, food choices were not influenced by the eating goal which had been invoked. The findings could help practitioners in the food industry to develop different food combinations with which to satisfy their customers through understanding personality traits. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Chen C.-Y.,National Chiayi University | Yu F.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Geomorphology | Year: 2011

Important factors for the initiation of debris flows include available loose sediment, torrential rainfall, and topographic conditions. The objective of this study is to identify topographic features of debris flows and conditions favorable for debris-flow initiation based on geomorphological analyses of 11 river basins in northern and central Taiwan. Morphometric indices were derived from 10-m grid digital terrain models before and after debris flow events using GIS. The indices include the stream power index (SPI), topographic wetness index (TWI), sediment transport capacity index, elevation-relief ratio, form factor, effective basin area, and slope gradient. The results show that debris flows tend to initiate from steep slopes or landslides with higher TWI values. Debris flows are expected in basins with higher SPI and TWI. Basins with lower slope gradients and SPI but higher TWI may also have a high potential for debris flow. SPI changes most significantly due to a debris flow event particularly in steep basins. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Li Y.-T.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen S.-Y.,National Cheng Kung University | Wang C.-R.,National Cheng Kung University | Liu M.-F.,National Cheng Kung University | And 4 more authors.
Arthritis and Rheumatism | Year: 2012

Objective. MicroRNA (miRNA) plays a role in autoimmune diseases. MiRNA-223 (miR-223) is upregulated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is involved in osteoclastogenesis, which contributes to erosive disease. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of using lentiviral vectors expressing the miR-223 target sequence (miR-223T) to suppress miR- 223 activity as a therapeutic strategy in a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Methods. Levels of miR-223 in the synovial tissue of patients with RA or osteoarthritis (OA), as well as in the ankle joints of mice with CIA, were determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Lentiviral vectors expressing miR- 223T (LVmiR-223T) or luciferase short hairpin RNA (LVshLuc) as a control vector were injected intraperitoneally into mice with CIA. Treatment responses and disease-related bone mineral density were monitored. Levels of nuclear factor 1A (NF-1A), a direct target of miR-223, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR), which is critical for osteoclastogenesis, were measured by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. Osteoclasts were assessed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Results. MiR-223 expression was significantly higher in the synovium of RA patients and in the ankle joints of mice with CIA as compared to OA patients and normal mice. LVmiR-223T treatment reduced the arthritis score, histologic score, miR-223 expression, osteoclastogenesis, and bone erosion in mice with CIA. Down-regulation of miR-223 with concomitant increases in NF-1A levels and decreases in M-CSFR levels was detected in the synovium of LVmiR-223T-treated mice. Conclusion. This study is the first to demonstrate that lentivirus-mediated silencing of miR-223 can reduce disease severity of experimental arthritis. Furthermore, our results indicate that inhibition of miR-223 activity should be further explored as a therapeutic strategy in RA. © 2012, American College of Rheumatology.


Hsu S.-H.,National Taiwan University | Chang J.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Cytotechnology | Year: 2010

Dental pulp cells (DPCs) can differentiate into osteoblasts and are deemed a promising cell source for bone regeneration. Static magnetic field (SMF) stimulates osteoblast differentiation but the effect in DPCs remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SMF exposure on the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of rat DPCs in vitro. Cells were continuously exposed to SMF at 290 mT in the presence/absence of osteogenic induction [dexamethasone (Dex)/β-glycerophosphate (β-GP)]. Results showed that SMF alone did not impair the cell cycle and proliferation. On the other hand, obvious condensation in the metachromatic staining of the extracellular matrix with toluidine blue was observed for SMF-exposed cells as well as the Dex/β-GP treated cells. SMF in combination with Dex/β-GP significantly increased the mRNA expression of osteogenic genes, as well as the ALP activity and extracellular calcium concentration at the early stage, followed by obvious calcium deposits later. Besides, SMF exposure increased the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) at 3 h and accelerated the mRNA expression of osteogenic transcription factor, Cbfa1, advancing its activation time from 168 to 72 h under osteogenic induction. In summary, SMF exposure in combination of Dex/β-GP induction could significantly accelerate the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of DPCs. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.


Kumar A.S.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Sornambikai S.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Deepika L.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Zen J.-M.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2010

An electrochemical route for highly selective immobilization of a β-lactam family antibiotic, amoxicillin (AMX), from the other drugs, penicillin and ampicillin, on multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE/AMX@MWNT), without any linkers and surface functionalization, has been successfully demonstrated. The electrochemical response of the AMX on GCE/MWNT showed an irreversible oxidation peak at 0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl (A1), followed by the growth of a new redox peak at 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl (A2/C2) in pH 7 phosphate buffer solution, which is in parallel to a control phenol electrochemical response, revealed that the phenoxy radical electrogenerated at A1 gets subsequently adsorbed on the underlying MWNT modified electrode with a specific surface confined A2/C2 redox peak with proton-coupled electron transfer behaviour. Physicochemical characterization from X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy collectively evidenced the immobilization of AMX both on the inner and outer (surface) walls of the carbon nanotubes. Further, the AMX@MWNT hybrid material was found to show enhanced antibacterial activity against three bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, over the unmodified AMX and MWNT. Finally, as an environmental pollution remedy, the uptake of the AMX drug from five different simulated sources: river water, sea water, river soil, sea soil and farm milk, was successfully demonstrated by this new electrochemical methodology. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Chang R.R.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes | Year: 2011

Removal of 2-chlorophenol from water using rice-straw derived ash (RSDA) was evaluated in this study to compare with commercial activated carbon. RSDA was obtained by burning rice-straw at 400 °C and 700 °C for 1 h. This ash can provide a better adsorbent for 2-chlorophenol. The adsorption capacities of RSDA at 400 °C and 700 °C are 37 and 52 mg g1 at pH 4, respectively, and decrease to 9.0 and 40 mg g1 at pH 10. Adsorption of either neutral or anionic 2-cholorphenol by the RSDA are shown as L-shaped nonlinear isotherms, suggesting surface adsorption rather than partitioning is occurring. At higher-burning temperatures, the surface area, porosity, point of zero charge and aromaticity of the resultant RSDA increase, but the oxygen content and surface acidity decrease. The combined effects result in a higher 2-chlorophenol adsorption of RSDA at 700 °C, which shows a slight pH effect on the adsorption of 2-chlorophenol, due to the lower content of oxygen-containing functional groups. Oxygen-containing functional groups contribute to surface acidity and H-bonding sites for adsorbed water, which compromises the interaction between 2-chlorophenol and the adsorbents. Thus, it suggests that rice-straw derived carbon (RSDC) can be used as an effective low-cost substitute material for activated carbon for removal of chlorophenols from wastewater.


Weng C.-H.,I - Shou University | Lin Y.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Yuan H.-M.,I - Shou University
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2013

The decoloration of reactive azo dye, Reactive Black 5(RB5), by an advanced Fenton process in conjunction with ultrasound (Fenton/US) was investigated. The Fenton/US process using zero-valent iron (ZVI) aggregates as catalyst could achieve synergistic degradation of RB5, as compared to Fe(0)/US and Fenton systems. A synergy factor of 22.9 based on the first-order rate constant (k) was found. The decoloration efficiency was strongly influenced by initial pH, ZVI dose, H2O2 dose, ultrasonic input power, and the presence of salts in reaction solution. Experimental results showed that the optimum conditions for the decoloration of RB5 were ZVI 1 g/L, initial pH 3.0, and H2O2 1.03 × 10-2 mol/L with acoustic power of 120 W/L at 60 kHz. These conditions yielded 99% decoloration of 5.0 × 10-4 M RB5 (ADMI 5605) solution within 10 min treatment and the operation cost was only 2.25 USD/m3. The dye solutions containing inorganic anions could retard the decoloration. The inhibitory effect of various inorganic anions on decoloration of RB5 followed the sequence of H 2PO-4 ≫ Cl- > ClO- -4 ≈ NO- 3 ≈ SO2- 4. High acoustic power accelerated the reaction rate and increased decoloration efficiency. ZVI aggregates were reusable and the decoloration efficiency did not decrease substantially with repeated use of ZVI. Findings showed that the Fenton/US process could effectively decolor the reactive azo dye RB5 in wastewater. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Weng C.-J.,Tainan University of Technology | Yen G.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Clinical and Experimental Metastasis | Year: 2010

The Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst, an edible mushroom, has been utilized for centuries in East Asia to prevent or treat various diseases and to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis. The primary bioactive compounds are commonly considered to be polysaccharides and triterpenoids. Evidence that G. lucidum extract and its bioactive compounds may have a potential inhibitory effect on cancer invasion and metastasis is increasingly being reported in the scientific literature. This review assembles and summarizes past publications on the in vitro and in vivo effects of G. lucidum on cancer invasion and metastasis, and concludes that these effects occur through modulation of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) or Akt kinase (protein kinase B). Activation of these kinases subsequently inhibits the activity or expression of activator protein-1(AP-1) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), resulting in the down-regulation of urokinase plaminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor (uPAR), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interleukin (IL)-8, inducible nitric oxide (NO) and β1-integrin as shown in various cell lines or animal models. G. lucidum may be an effective nutraceutical used in the prevention of cancer metastasis. To further elucidate the bioactive components present in G. lucidum and the anti-metastatic mechanisms underlying these compounds, more in vitro and in vivo tests as well as clinical trials are necessary. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Lo C.-M.,Chienkuo Technical University | Feng Z.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University
Engineering Geology | Year: 2014

This study investigated the deformation characteristics of consequent slate slopes in the region between Cuifeng and Wuling in Taiwan. Onsite surveys, terrain analysis, and UDEC numerical models were used to describe the characteristics of gravity-driven deformation under various conditions and identify the process of slate deformation as well as potential failure mechanisms. Our results demonstrate that valley erosion and slope toe soaking mechanisms play key roles in the deformation of slate and accelerate the weakening of slate material. Comparisons of material strength of rock and foliation, the location of erosion gullies, and the inclination of the foliation indicate that a reduction in the strength of rock material and foliation expanded the range of slate deformation. The inclination of foliation is the most important factor in the deformation of slate and the location of erosion gullies has relatively little influence. Slate deformation was shown to begin in the tension zone at the cliff top, wherein the slope body slips along the highly inclined foliation, contributing to shear failure or composite failure near the eroded zone of weakness. The phenomenon of foliation opening was widespread within the area of deformation, enabling surface water and groundwater to seep in, thereby accelerating failure in the slate deformation zone. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Huang Y.,Chaoyang University of Technology | Huang Y.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides a remote sensing method to explore the ground truth in all types of weather conditions. However, interpretation of SAR images is difficult because of the effects of speckle signals in the images. One method, the multilayer level set approach, segments an entire given SAR image into several sub-regions such that the segmented regions are homogeneous. This method employs two implicit functions with pre-selected level values. Based on the fact that the segmented regions are homogeneous and presented as regional constants, the energy defined by the segmented regions and their corresponding regional boundaries is minimized such that the relationships between the defined energy and the implicit functions can be transformed into the relationships between the implicit functions and time. By implementing the algorithm in terms of finite difference, this method offers an efficient and stable approach to a numerical solution. By increasing iterations and preselected level values, the implicit functions evolve close to the regional boundaries based on the energy minimization. From the processed results, the multilayer level set approach can efficiently segment the given SAR images, allowing further image interpretation to reveal the ground truth in the imaged areas. © 2011 IEEE.


Li C.-T.,Tainan University of Technology | Hwang M.-S.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Network and Computer Applications | Year: 2010

In this paper, we propose an efficient biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards, in which the computation cost is relatively low compared with other related schemes. The security of the proposed scheme is based on the one-way hash function, biometrics verification and smart card. Moreover, the proposed scheme enables the user to change their passwords freely and provides mutual authentication between the users and the remote server. In addition, many remote authentication schemes use timestamps to resist replay attacks. Therefore, synchronized clock is required between the user and the remote server. In our scheme, it does not require synchronized clocks between two entities because we use random numbers in place of timestamps. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chein R.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.-C.,National United University | Chung J.N.,University of Florida
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2012

The methanol-steam reforming (MSR) performance in micro-scale tubular reformers made by various materials is numerically studied. The physical domain considered includes an inlet section for methanol-steam mixture supply, a reformer section packed with CuO/ZnO/Al 2O 3 catalyst particles and an outlet section for reformed gas collection. The heat transfer effect with three different heat supply mechanisms on the MSR performance is addressed. For heat supplies from the applied heat fluxes at the reformer outer wall surface and from internal heat generation in the reformer wall, it is found that the axial conduction plays an important role in both heat transfer characteristics and MSR performance. It is suggested that the reformer have a small axial conduction parameter for high MSR performance which can be achieved by designing the reformer with low wall thermal conductivity, thin wall thickness and a small reactants feed rate. It is also found that an excess heat supply can be obtained when the axial conduction parameter is small. This excess heat supply enhances the MSR performance compared with the infinitely-thin walled reformer. For the reformer with a constant wall outer surface temperature, the wall material effect on the MSR performance is insignificant due to uniformly distributed reformer wall temperature. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hsu S.-P.,National Chung Hsing University
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control | Year: 2012

In this work the controlled continuous-time finite-state Markov chain with safety constraints is studied. The constraints are expressed as a finite number of inequalities, whose intersection forms a polyhedron. A probability distribution vector is called safe if it is in the polyhedron. Under the assumptions that the controlled Markov chain is completely observable and the controller induces a unique stationary distribution in the interior of the polyhedron, the author identifies the supreme invariant safety set (SISS) where a set is called an invariant safety set if any probability distribution in the set is initially safe and remains safe as time evolves. In particular, the necessary and sufficient condition for the SISS to be the polyhedron itself is given via linear programming formulations. A closed-form expression for the condition is also derived as the constraints impose only upper and/or lower bounds on the components of the distribution vectors. If the condition is not satisfied, a finite time bound is identified and used to characterize the SISS. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the results. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Wang E.S.-T.,National Chung Hsing University
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2014

With the growing number of online game players and the increasing of new online games development, it is imperative for marketers to develop a better understanding of players' new game adoption decisions. This study examines perceived control as a mediator of trialability-product adoption relationship, and gender difference as a moderator of the relationship between trialability-product adoptions. A field survey was conducted to test the hypotheses of the study. Respondents were graduate students from Taiwan universities. A total of 411 undergraduate students with massively multiplayer online gaming (MMOGs) experience participated in this study. The structural equation model (SEM) method was employed to analyze the data. The findings indicate that perceived product trialability has a direct influence on intent to play new games, and indirect effects through perceived process control. Gender differences also moderate the trialability effects on the adoption of new online games. Perceived trialability had more of an effect on intention to play new online games for female players than for male players. To develop an effective product development and communication strategy, the finding suggests that online game firms should focus on new product characteristics and consider consumer gender differences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chang Y.-J.,National Chung Hsing University
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs | Year: 2010

Due to having an additional don't care state, ternary content addressable memory (TCAM) is widely used in the forwarding table of the network router. However, the power consumption of TCAM is usually considerable. Instead of reducing the TCAM dynamic power, this brief introduces a leakage-suppressed technique, called dynamic power source (DPS), in which the TCAM leakage power is minimized by connecting the prefix power source to the mask data. Based on a 45-nm predictive technology model, the simulation results show that the DPS technique can deliver a TCAM leakage power reduction of 17% for a collection of real routing tables. In addition, the DPS also improves the search performance by 11% and reduces 18% of the TCAM dynamic power dissipated in the search-line switching activity. © 2010 IEEE.


Wan C.-H.,MingDao University | Lin M.-T.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2013

In this paper, 5 bi-layers of poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH)/polystyrene sulfonic acid sodium salt (PSS) containing Pt35-Ru65 catalyst are self-assembled on the Nafion membrane surface through the layer-by-layer technique to mitigate methanol crossover. This composite Nafion membrane coated with Pt35-Ru65 catalyst with loading of 0.46 μg cm-2 and layer thickness of 87.5 nm on both surfaces suppresses the methanol crossover by 22% (on average), improves the power density by 48% (@0.30 V) and the potential by 22% (@62.5 mA cm-2) at 80 °C. The Pt35-Ru65 catalyst in the PAH/PSS bi-layers serves multiple roles at the same time - a catalytically active layer, a methanol barrier and an electrode. In addition, the PAH/PSS bi-layers also acts as a methanol barrier. These roles contribute to the suppression of methanol crossover and improvement of the output performance. Compared with Pt-Ru directly deposited on Nafion surface, the deposition of Pt35-Ru65 in this study has less negative impact on the cell performance because 1) lesser and thinner deposited Pt35eRu65 is used, 2) the Pt35-Ru65 layer deposited on the additional PAH/PSS bi-layers does not reduce the proton conductivity of Nafion membrane. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Ho C.-T.B.,National Chung Hsing University | Oh K.B.,La Trobe University
International Journal of Systems Science | Year: 2010

The development of an efficient and scientific decision rule for selecting Internet stocks is a necessary and valuable investment tool. As a result, this article adopts two mathematical approaches: data envelopment analysis (DEA) and analytical hierarchical process (AHP) to construct a stock selection framework using 31 listed US Internet companies. The empirical results from this study form the basis for discussion of the combined DEA and AHP approach for selecting Internet stocks. The findings confirm the usefulness of the combined approach that incorporates efficiency analysis and structural decision making. Implications of these findings are also discussed. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Shen J.-J.,National Chung Hsing University | Ren J.-M.,National Tsing Hua University
Digital Signal Processing: A Review Journal | Year: 2010

In this paper, the concepts of vector quantization (VQ) and association rules in data mining are employed to propose a robust watermarking technique. Unlike ordinary or traditional watermarking techniques, our approach hides association rules of the watermark, instead of the whole watermark; in other words, the embedded information is the association rules of the watermark. First, VQ encoding is performed on the original image and watermark to generate the index tables, and from which association rules are further mined. Subsequently, by embedding the association rules of the watermark into the association rules of the original image, the purpose for watermarking is accomplished. Finally, VQ decoding technique is applied to reconstruct the watermarked image from the watermarked index table. Experimental results show that our proposed method achieves effective resistance against several image processings such as blurring, sharpening, adding in Gaussian noise, cropping, and JPEG lossy compression. Moreover, the embedding capacity is also significantly increased, so any a complex watermark image is still acceptable in this method. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Huang P.-H.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Lee J.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Precision Engineering | Year: 2010

Current algorithm system of the Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) widely adopts the least-squares (LS) method for form error quality inspections. This LS algorithm provides an approximate solution for form error evaluation only, with possible actual error overestimation and further leading some of acceptable mechanical components to be rejected. Moreover, the existing method for the evaluation of conicity error is actually infrequent. Thus, the paper elaborates a heuristic approach using an umbrella-shaped mechanical model for precisely evaluating the minimum zone conicity error based on minimum potential energy principle. The umbrella-shaped mechanical model consists of two coaxial and equal-vertex-angle conical surfaces by a fictitious spring connection. All measured data points are enclosed within two conical surfaces which are mathematically determined by the coordinates of 7 active data points. To allow the error assessment being conducted precisely, the non-linear model provides seven degrees of freedom to handle various possible situations. The shrinking spring reduces simulated mechanical system potential energy, yielding two new coaxial cones with smaller normal separation and new contact points on conical surfaces. The system eventually reaches a stable state with a minimum elastic potential energy. The normal separation between such two conical surfaces is minimum zone of conical form error. A direct searching technique based on the derived minimum zone criterion is demonstrated, and a fast and flexible computational algorithm is also proposed. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Farhadi R.,University of Tehran | Allahyari H.,University of Tehran | Chi H.,National Chung Hsing University
Biological Control | Year: 2011

The life history and predation rate of variegated lady beetle, Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), fed on the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli, were studied under laboratory conditions. Developmental, survival, fecundity, and predation rate data were analyzed using the age-stage, two-sex life table and the traditional age-specific female life table. Means and standard errors of population growth parameters were calculated using the jackknife method. Using the age-stage, two-sex life table, the intrinsic rate of increase (r), net reproductive rate (R0), mean generation time (T) and finite rate of increase (λ) were 0.2031d-1, 389.0 offspring, 29.4d, and 1.2252d-1, respectively. The population parameters r, R0, T, and (λ) calculated using the female age-specific life table were 0.2045d-1, 387.6 offspring, 29.16d, and 1.2269d-1, respectively. Although no statistically significant differences were found between population parameters of the two methods, the female age-specific life table could not include the male population and its contribution to predation, nor was it possible to describe the stage differentiation. The net predation rate (C0) using the age-stage, two-sex life table was 1127.1 aphids, and 1503.1 aphids when using the female age-specific life table. The higher net predation obtained when using the female age-specific life table was an overestimation caused by ignoring the male population. Our results demonstrate that by using the age-stage, two-sex life table we can accurately describe the survival, development, and predation capacity of the predator. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Ho H.J.,National Chung Hsing University
BMC bioinformatics | Year: 2012

Gradual or sudden transitions among different states as exhibited by cell populations in a biological sample under particular conditions or stimuli can be detected and profiled by flow cytometric time course data. Often such temporal profiles contain features due to transient states that present unique modeling challenges. These could range from asymmetric non-Gaussian distributions to outliers and tail subpopulations, which need to be modeled with precision and rigor. To ensure precision and rigor, we propose a parametric modeling framework StateProfiler based on finite mixtures of skew t-Normal distributions that are robust against non-Gaussian features caused by asymmetry and outliers in data. Further, we present in StateProfiler a new greedy EM algorithm for fast and optimal model selection. The parsimonious approach of our greedy algorithm allows us to detect the genuine dynamic variation in the key features as and when they appear in time course data. We also present a procedure to construct a well-fitted profile by merging any redundant model components in a way that minimizes change in entropy of the resulting model. This allows precise profiling of unusually shaped distributions and less well-separated features that may appear due to cellular heterogeneity even within clonal populations. By modeling flow cytometric data measured over time course and marker space with StateProfiler, specific parametric characteristics of cellular states can be identified. The parameters are then tested statistically for learning global and local patterns of spatio-temporal change. We applied StateProfiler to identify the temporal features of yeast cell cycle progression based on knockout of S-phase triggering cyclins Clb5 and Clb6, and then compared the S-phase delay phenotypes due to differential regulation of the two cyclins. We also used StateProfiler to construct the temporal profile of clonal divergence underlying lineage selection in mammalian hematopoietic progenitor cells.


Li W.,University of Southern California | Zhang S.,CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science | Liu C.,National Chung Hsing University | Zhou X.J.,University of Southern California
Bioinformatics | Year: 2012

Motivation: Eukaryotic gene expression (GE) is subjected to precisely coordinated multi-layer controls, across the levels of epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations. Recently, the emerging multi-dimensional genomic dataset has provided unprecedented opportunities to study the cross-layer regulatory interplay. In these datasets, the same set of samples is profiled on several layers of genomic activities, e.g. copy number variation (CNV), DNA methylation (DM), GE and microRNA expression (ME). However, suitable analysis methods for such data are currently sparse.Results: In this article, we introduced a sparse Multi-Block Partial Least Squares (sMBPLS) regression method to identify multi-dimensional regulatory modules from this new type of data. A multi-dimensional regulatory module contains sets of regulatory factors from different layers that are likely to jointly contribute to a local 'gene expression factory'. We demonstrated the performance of our method on the simulated data as well as on The Cancer Genomic Atlas Ovarian Cancer datasets including the CNV, DM, ME and GE data measured on 230 samples. We showed that majority of identified modules have significant functional and transcriptional enrichment, higher than that observed in modules identified using only a single type of genomic data. Our network analysis of the modules revealed that the CNV, DM and microRNA can have coupled impact on expression of important oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press.


Kim M.,Duke University | Wang C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Benedetti F.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Marszalek P.E.,Duke University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Into low force regime: A universal molecular force probe for measuring by AFM the strength of receptor-ligand and protein-protein complexes was developed. The protein-based force probe has the sensitivity on the order of piconewtons and provides a single-molecule fingerprint for identifying mechanical rupture events of individual complexes (see picture). © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Chen P.-N.,National Taiwan University | Lai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Lai C.-C.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chiu S.-H.,National Taiwan University
Organic Letters | Year: 2011

The one-pot synthesis of a hetero[3]rotaxane, assembled from five different molecular components under solvent-free conditions, through "self-sorting" of the bead and stopper units during the threading and stoppering processes, is reported. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Chen P.P.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Nagababu P.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Yu S.S.-F.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chan S.I.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan
ChemCatChem | Year: 2014

Following recent progress towards understanding the structure of the particulate methane monooxygenase in methanotrophic bacteria, it is now possible to attempt the development of laboratory catalysts for the conversion of methane into MeOH under ambient conditions. To this end, a class of tricopper complexes that are capable of efficiently oxidizing small hydrocarbon substrates at room temperature has recently been developed. In this Minireview, we describe the development of a tricopper cluster to accomplish the catalytic conversion of methane into MeOH, as well as a number of small n-alkanes into their corresponding alcohols and ketones, with high efficiencies. The properties of this robust catalytic system are discussed. Three and easy: A class of tricopper complexes has been developed as mimics of the catalytic site of particulate methane monooxygenase. These CuICuICu I clusters are capable of the efficient oxidation of methane into MeOH upon activation by O2 at room temperature. The conversion is catalytic if H2O2 is used to drive the turnover. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Donati S.,University of Pavia | Donati S.,National Chung Hsing University | Tambosso T.,Da - Yeh University
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics | Year: 2014

Solid-state photomultipliers (SSPM) made by multielement SPAD (single-photon avalanche detector) are nowadays jousted to replace the traditional, vacuum-tube photomultipliers (PMT) based on the photocathode and dynode-chain technology. We revisit the milestones and the conceptual steps leading to single-photon detectors, from the PMT to the SSPM. Then, we discuss state-of-the-art performances of the two detectors and point out that SSPMs are equalling or even surpassing PMTs for response time and sensitivity, while are still lagging for acceptance area, linearity and dark current. We finally compare the detectors in applications to pulse spectrometry, fast waveform analysis, and photon counting. © 1995-2012 IEEE.


Huang C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Optics Express | Year: 2010

I extend the full vector pseudospectral-based eigenvalue scheme, based on the transverse magnetic field components, to analyze the mode behaviors of dielectric optical waveguides with transverse, nondiagonal anisotropy. One of the principal axes of the anisotropic materials is thus constrained to point in the longitudinal direction of the waveguide. I expand the guided mode fields in the interior subdomains with finite extent by using Chebyshev polynomials and those in the exterior subdomains with semi-infinite extent by using Laguerre-Gaussian functions with an accurately determined scaling factor. This study analyzes two examples: (1) the circularly-polarized modes of a magneto-optical raised strip waveguide and (2) the guided mode patterns of a nematic liquid-crystal channel waveguide under different orientations of the liquid-crystal molecule. The comparison of the numerical results with those from the vector finite difference approach demonstrates that my numerical approach has a higher computational efficiency and requires less computer memory. © 2010 Optical Society of America.


Chen S.-T.,Feng Chia University | Kuo H.-I.,Chaoyang University of Technology | Chen C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Applied Energy | Year: 2010

The growth of corn-based ethanol production and soybean-based bio-diesel production following the increase in the oil prices have significantly affect the world agricultural grain productions and its prices. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between the crude oil price and the global grain prices for corn, soybean, and wheat. The empirical results show that the change in each grain price is significantly influenced by the changes in the crude oil price and other grain prices during the period extending from the 3rd week in 2005 to the 20th week in 2008 which implies that grain commodities are competing with the derived demand for bio-fuels by using soybean or corn to produce ethanol or bio-diesel during the period of higher crude oil prices in these recent years. The subsidy policies in relation to the bio-fuel industries in some nations engaging in bio-fuel production should be considered to avoid the consequences resulting from high oil prices. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hsiao L.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.-J.,University of California at Berkeley
Production and Operations Management | Year: 2014

Rapid advances of information technology in recent years have enabled both the manufacturers and the retailers to operate their own Internet channels. In this study, we investigate the interaction between the capabilities of introducing the Internet channels, the pricing strategies, and the channel structure. We classify consumers into two segments: grocery shoppers attach a higher utility from purchasing through the physical channel, whereas a priori Internet shoppers prefer purchasing online. We find that when the Internet shoppers are either highly profitable or fairly unimportant, the manufacturer prefers to facilitate the channel separation either through his own Internet channel or the retailer's. In the intermediate region, however, the manufacturer encroaches the grocery shoppers and steals the demand from the retailer's physical channel. With horizontal competition between retailers, a priori symmetric retailers may adopt different channel strategies as a stable market equilibrium. The manufacturer may willingly give up his Internet channel and leverage on the retailer competition. When the manufacturer sells through an online e-tailer, Internet shoppers may be induced to purchase through the physical channel. This reverse encroachment strategy emerges because selling through the e-tailer leads to a more severe double marginalization problem. © 2013 Production and Operations Management Society.


Weng C.-J.,Tainan University of Technology | Yen G.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Cancer Treatment Reviews | Year: 2012

Cancer metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related death, and chemoprevention is defined as the use of natural or synthetic substances to prevent cancer formation or cancer progress. Evidence that phenolic compounds may have a potential inhibitory effect on cancer invasion and metastasis is increasingly being reported in the scientific literature. Curcumin, resveratrol, and their related derivatives are the most studied compounds in this topic so far; gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, carnosol, capsaicin, 6-shogaol, 6-gingerol, and their corresponding derivatives are also suggested to be the active members of the phenolic family on anti-invasion and anti-metastasis. Because metastasis occurs through a multistep process, these bioactives might act on a variety of stages of the metastatic process to prevent tumor cells from metastasizing. This review summarizes the common protein targets and signaling pathways for the inhibition of invasion and metastasis as well as past publications on the in vitro and in vivo effects and molecular mechanisms of phenolic acids, monophenol, polyphenol, and their derivatives, except flavonoids, on cancer invasion and metastasis. Based on these data, we conclude that the daily consumption of natural dietary components that are rich in phenolics could be beneficial for the prevention of cancer metastasis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


San J.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University
Energy | Year: 2010

Exergy change rate in an ideal gas flow or an incompressible flow can be divided into a thermal exergy change rate and a mechanical exergy loss rate. The mechanical exergy loss rates in the two flows were generalized using a pressure-drop factor. For heat exchangers using in waste heat recovery, the consumed mechanical exergy is usually more valuable than the recovered thermal exergy. A weighing factor was proposed to modify the pressure-drop factor. An exergy recovery index (ηII) was defined and it was expressed as a function of effectiveness (ε), ratio of modified heat capacity rates (C*), hot stream-to-dead-state temperature ratio, cold stream-to-dead-state temperature ratio and modified overall pressure-drop factor. This ηII-ε relation can be used to find the ηII value of a heat exchanger with any flow arrangement. The ηII-Ntu and ηII-Ntuh relations of cross-flow heat exchanger with both fluids unmixed were established respectively. The former provides a minimum Ntu design principle and the latter provides a minimum Ntuh design principle. A numerical example showed that, at a fixed heat capacity rate of the hot stream, the heat exchanger size yielded by the minimum Ntuh principle is smaller than that yielded by the minimum Ntu principle. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Liu P.-L.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2010

We present first-principles calculations on the heterojunction between a wurtzite GaN(0001) film and a cubic CrN(111) substrate. Atomic and electronic structures of the interface in our heteroepitaxial compound semiconductor models are investigated with the use of four models with fixed stoichiometry Cr 16 N16 Ga12 N12. The relative stability of different models of the GaN(0001)/CrN(111) interface is examined as a function of the chemical potentials of Ga and Cr, and the most favorable interface consists of sixfold-coordinated Ga with three Ga-N and three Ga-Cr bonds. This interface structure gives rise to N-polarity in the GaN(0001) epitaxial film. The findings agree with previously reported experimental results. A detailed analysis of the bonding arrangements of the lowest energy interface indicates that hexagonal Cr2GaN "bulklike" interatomic distances relax this highly strained metastable interface. © 2010 The Electrochemical Society.


Yang W.-M.,National Chung Hsing University | Yao Y.-L.,Asia University, Taiwan
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Acetylation of lysines is a prominent form of modification in mammalian proteins. Deacetylation of proteins is catalyzed by histone deacetylases, traditionally named after their role in histone deacetylation, transcriptional modulation, and epigenetic regulation. Despite the link between histone deacetylases and chromatin structure, some of the histone deacetylases reside in various compartments in the cytoplasm. Here, we review how these cytoplasmic histone deacetylases are regulated, the identification of nonhistone substrates, and the functional implications of their nondeacetylase enzymatic activities. © 2011 Ya-Li Yao and Wen-Ming Yang.


Hwang B.-F.,China Medical University at Taichung | Liu I.-P.,China Medical University at Taichung | Huang T.-P.,National Chung Hsing University
Annals of Epidemiology | Year: 2012

Purpose: To assess the role of gene-environment interaction between interleukin (IL)-4 promoter and mold exposure on the development of asthma. Methods: We conducted a cohort-based, incident, case-control study. The case group consisted of 188 children with new asthma and the control group (n = 376) was matched for age and gender. The outcome of interest was the development of asthma over the 6-year study period. The studied determinants were three polymorphisms of IL-4 promoter (TT, CT, and CC) and three indicators of exposure including histories of water damage, presence of visible molds, and perceived mold odor in the home. Results: Apparent joint effects between IL-4 promoter and mold exposure were observed on both additive and multiplicative scales. Specially, the risk of asthma was significantly associated with children carrying the CT genotype and visible mold exposure comparing with those carrying the TT genotype without any exposure indicator (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-4.34; modified Rothman synergy index for directly use of odds and OR [s] = 1.41; P for interaction = .03). A similar tendency was found (s = 1.30; P for interaction = .04) for children who were exposed to mold odor and carried CT genotype (adjusted OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.03-4.41). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that gene-environment interactions between the IL-4 promoter and an indoor mold problem may play an important role in childhood asthma. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Tsai C.-M.,National Chung Hsing University
Mathematical Problems in Engineering | Year: 2015

This paper presents ray tracing algorithms to evaluate the geometrical modulation transfer function (GMTF) of optical lens system. There are two kinds of ray tracings methods that can be applied to help simulate the point spread function (PSF) in the image plane, for example, paraxial optics and real ray tracings. The paraxial optics ray tracing is used to calculate the first-order properties such as the effective focal length (EFL) and the entrance pupil position through less cost of computation. However, the PSF could have a large tolerance by only using paraxial optics ray tracing for simulation. Some formulas for real ray tracing are applied in the sagittal and tangential line spread function (LSF). The algorithms are developed to demonstrate the simulation of LSF. Finally, the GMTF is evaluated after the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the LSF. © 2015 Cheng-Mu Tsai.


Lin Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | Lai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Chiu S.-H.,National Taiwan University
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2014

Five analogues of the macrocycle BPX26C6 are also capable of recognizing single urea and/or amide functionalities in the presence of templating Na + ions. We have unambiguously confirmed the formation of such [2]pseudorotaxane complexes in solution through syntheses of the corresponding [2]rotaxanes. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Hsu S.-H.,National Taiwan University | Hsu S.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Huang G.-S.,National Taiwan University | Feng F.,Forward Dental Group
Biomaterials | Year: 2012

Literature has different opinions regarding the percentage of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like population in human gingival tissue. Isolation of these cells is thus important for clinical applications. In this study, two typical but distinct types of gingival fibroblasts (GF), GF-A and GF-B, were grown from human gingival biopsies. They were characterized for surface markers by flow cytometry as well as the expressions of stemness and neural crest marker genes by RT-PCR. The two types of GF were slightly different in their surface markers; however, they had dramatic difference in the expression levels of stemness marker genes and neural crest marker genes. They also demonstrated distinct differentiation capacity. Upon the appropriate induction, GF-A were capable of osteogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, and neurogenic differentiation while GF-B only underwent osteogenic differentiation. By culturing either type of GF on chitosan membranes for 24h, we were able to isolate two distinct subpopulations in each type of GF, i.e. cells with spheroid-forming ability (GF-AS and GF-BS) or those remained flat and attached (GF-AN and GF-BN). We further characterized these cells, and determined the common properties shared by the spheroid-forming subpopulation " S" , as well as those shared by the non-spheroid-forming subpopulation " N" The subpopulation " S" was capable of the multilineage differentiation, while the subpopulation " N" was only efficient in osteogenic differentiation. GF-A and GF-B had different proportions of subpopulations. Chitosan as the cell culture substratum up-regulated the N-cadherin expression of the " S" but not " N" subpopulation, which may account for the cell sorting effect. This study showed that chitosan membranes could be used for isolation of the spheroid forming subpopulation in human GF that contained multipotent adult stem cells of which the number varied among donors and sites. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Shih Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | Chou H.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Peng Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | Chang C.-Y.,National Taiwan University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardants. Owing to their toxicity and increasing accumulation in the environment, the fate of PBDEs in nature is of serious concern. The combined effects of microscale zerovalent iron (MZVI) and anaerobic sludge in decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) degradation were investigated. The co-incubation resulted in 63% and 29% enhancement of removal ability when compared to the single component conditions. By-products generated during the entire process followed a stepwise sequence with non-uniform accumulation rates. Microbes hindered the accessibility of MZVI to BDE-209 and reduced the removal ability in the initial stage (<12. h). According to the analysis of the microbial community change, co-incubation with MZVI leads to the enrichment of heterotrophic microbial populations bearing nitrate- or iron-reducing activities. The interaction between MZVI and microbes contributed to the synergistic effect. Our findings provide evidence for this synergistic effect and offer an alternative for developing better remediation strategies. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Huang M.J.,National Chung Hsing University | Sung P.-C.,National Tsing Hua University
Optics Express | Year: 2010

In this paper, a simple isoclinic phase map unwrapping method is proposed to retrieve map with ambiguities at photoelastic isotropic points. Regional phase unwrapping method is also utilized to enhance the retrieving efficiency after all phase inconsistencies have been fully detected and branch cutting works have been properly done to ensure blockings of all the paths which could cause incorrect integrations while involuntarily crossing them. The correctly retrieved isoclinic data are then fed into isochromatic formulation, and as a consequence an inconsistency free isochromatic phase map will be obtained. This map can be unwrapped by any simple and fast unwrapping algorithm accurately and effectively. Circular disk and ring under diametric compression samples are both applied for the verification of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show the proposed algorithm can successfully solve the annoying problems occurred at photoelastic isotropic points with a processing time of roughly 2 seconds for a 420 x 420 pixels map by a general personal computer. © 2010 Optical Society of America.


Lin K.-Y.A.,Columbia University | Lin K.-Y.A.,National Chung Hsing University | Petit C.,Columbia University | Park A.-H.A.,Columbia University
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2013

Liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs), consisting of silica nanoparticles with a grafted polymeric canopy, were synthesized. Previous work on NOHMs has revealed that CO2 capture behaviors in these hybrid materials can be tuned by modifying the structure of the polymeric canopy. Because SO2, which is another acidic gas found in flue gas, would also interact with NOHMs, this study was designed to investigate its effect on CO2 capture in NOHMs. In particular, CO2 capture capacities as well as swelling and CO2 packing behaviors of NOHMs were analyzed using thermogravimetric analyses and Raman and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies before and after exposure of NOHMs to SO2. It was found that the SO2 absorption in NOHMs was only prominent at high SO2 levels (i.e., 3010 ppm; Ptot = 0.4 MPa) far exceeding the typical SO2 concentration in flue gas. As expected, the competitive absorption between SO2 and CO2 for the same absorption sites (i.e., ether and amine groups) resulted in a decreased CO2 capture capacity of NOHMs. The swelling of NOHMs was not notably affected by the presence of SO 2 within the given concentration range (Ptot = 0-0.68 MPa). On the other hand, SO2, owing to its Lewis acidic nature, interacted with the ether groups of the polymeric canopy and, thus, changed the CO2 packing behaviors in NOHMs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Wu K.-D.,National Taiwan University | Lin Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | Lai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Chiu S.-H.,National Taiwan University
Organic Letters | Year: 2014

Threading of di-, tri-, and tetra(ethylene glycol) through the macrocycle BPX26C6 in the presence of templating Na+ ions was proven by the synthesis of the corresponding [2]rotaxanes under solvent-free conditions. Among them, a [2]rotaxane featuring both tetra(ethylene glycol) and carbamate stations behaves as a molecular switch that can be controlled reversibly through the application of the KTFPB/[2.2.2]cryptand reagent pair. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Chang C.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | McAleer M.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | McAleer M.,Tinbergen Institute | Tansuchat R.,Maejo University
Energy Economics | Year: 2010

Crude oil price volatility has been analyzed extensively for organized spot, forward and futures markets for well over a decade, and is crucial for forecasting volatility and Value-at-Risk (VaR). There are four major benchmarks in the international oil market, namely West Texas Intermediate (USA), Brent (North Sea), Dubai/Oman (Middle East), and Tapis (Asia-Pacific), which are likely to be highly correlated. This paper analyses the volatility spillover and asymmetric effects across and within the four markets, using three multivariate GARCH models, namely the constant conditional correlation (CCC), vector ARMA-GARCH (VARMA-GARCH) and vector ARMA-asymmetric GARCH (VARMA-AGARCH) models. A rolling window approach is used to forecast the 1-day ahead conditional correlations. The paper presents evidence of volatility spillovers and asymmetric effects on the conditional variances for most pairs of series. In addition, the forecast conditional correlations between pairs of crude oil returns have both positive and negative trends. Moreover, the optimal hedge ratios and optimal portfolio weights of crude oil across different assets and market portfolios are evaluated in order to provide important policy implications for risk management in crude oil markets. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Huang S.-M.,Army Academy | Liu C.-W.,National Yunlin University of Science and Technology | Liu C.-W.,Dow Chemical Company | Dow W.-P.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2012

Microvia filling of a printed circuit board by acidic copper electroplating was performed to evaluate whether the filling performance of an acidic copper plating solution could be quantified and monitored. The acidic copper plating solution was composed of polyethylene glycol, chloride ions, bis(3-sulfopropyl) disulfide and Alcian Blue. The electrochemical methodology for quantifying the filling performance of the copper plating solution is based on the adsorption and mass transfer of chloride ions. The potential difference that was obtained from galvanostatic measurements at two different rotating speeds of a copper working electrode was confirmed to be an effective indicator of filling performance. A larger potential difference reflected better filling performance. The individual contribution of each additive in the potential difference was explored in detail. The leveler and chloride ion concentrations dominated the potential difference, i.e., the filling performance. When the potential difference was larger than a critical value, i.e., 11 mV, the filling performance was higher than 80. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.


Yang M.-D.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Aeronautics, Astronautics and Aviation, Series A | Year: 2013

In recent years, smart devices are integrated into an image processing and display system for complex information, which involves real-time computing, motion tracking, pattern recognition, image projection, feature extraction, and computer science. 3D model generation by amateur devices becomes essential and highly demanded. In this study, 3D scene models were generated through reconstruction pipeline, which integrates structure from motion (SFM), multi-view stereo (MVS), and Poisson surface reconstruction (PSR) on images shot by a camera and four smart phones, without need of a priori internal and external camera parameters. In this research, the result of camera calibration is regard to represent the quality of 3D reconstruction. Four kinds of smart phones and amateur camera Canon EOS 500D+18 mm are calibrated by photogrammetric calibration and SFM. The focal lengths generated by the photogrammetric calibration are considered as true values. The equivalent focal lengths of IPHONE4S, SAMSUNG_S2, SONY_ACROS, SAMSUNG_GT-5660 and Canon EOS 500D calculated by SFM are 32.54 (mm), 36.52 (mm), 34.47 (mm), 36.12 (mm), and 28.37 (mm), respectively. The result shows that all smartphones can generate 3D models with acceptable accuracy and precision. This paper demonstrates that applying photos shot by smartphones for 3D reconstruction is available and feasible.


Huang C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Optics Express | Year: 2013

This study reports a symmetric hybrid plasmonic waveguide consisting of a cylindrical metal nanowire surrounded by low-index SiO2 and high-index Si covered with SiO2. The symmetric circumambience relative to the metal nanowire significantly facilitates the present design to minimize the energy attenuation resulting from Ohmic losses while retaining highly confined modes guided in the low-index nanoscale gaps between the metal nanowire and the high-index Si. The geometric dependence of the mode characteristics on the proposed structure is analyzed in detail, showing long propagation lengths beyond 10 mm with normalized mode areas on the order of 10-2. In addition to enabling the building of long-range plasmonic circuit interconnects, the compactness and high-density integration of the proposed structure are examined by analyzing crosstalk in a directional coupler composed of two such waveguides and bending losses for a 90° bend. A relatively short coupling length of 1.16 μm is obtained at a center-to-center separation of 0.26 μm between adjacent waveguides. Increasing the separation to 1.65 μm could completely prevent coupling between waveguides. Power transmission exceeds 80% in the case of a 90° bend with small radius of curvature of 0.5 μm. Moreover, the dependence of spectral response on coupling length and the transmission of a 90° bend, ranging from telecom wavelengths of 1.40 to 1.65 μm, are investigated. Over a wide wavelength range, a strong coupling length dependence on wavelength and a high transmission for a 90° bend also make the proposed plasmonic waveguide promising for the realization of wavelength-selective components. © 2013 Optical Society of America.


Donati S.,University of Pavia | Donati S.,National Chung Hsing University | Martini G.,University of Pavia
Applied Optics | Year: 2014

We consider the errors introduced by speckle pattern statistics of a diffusing target in the measurement of large displacements made with a self-mixing interferometer (SMI), with sub-λ resolution and a range up to meters. As the source on the target side, we assume a diffuser with randomly distributed roughness. Two cases are considered: (i) a developing randomness in z-height profile, with standard deviation σz, increasing from <<λ to >>λ and uncorrelated spatially (x;y), and (ii) a fully developed z-height randomness (σz>> λ) but spatially correlated with various correlation sizes ρxy. We find that systematic and random errors of all types of diffusers converge to that of a uniformly illuminated diffuser, independent of the actual profile of radiant emittance and phase distribution, when the standard deviation σzis increased or the scale of correlation ρxyis decreased. This convergence is a sign of speckle statistics development, as all distributions end up with the same errors of the fully developed diffuser. Convergence is earlier for a Gaussian-distributed amplitude than for other spot distributions. As an application of simulation results, we plot systematic and random errors of SMI measurements of displacement versus distance, for different source distributions standard deviations and correlations, both for intra- and inter-speckle displacements. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Hwang P.-P.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lee T.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin L.-Y.,National Taiwan Normal University
American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology | Year: 2011

Fish encounter harsh ionic/osmotic gradients on their aquatic environments, and the mechanisms through which they maintain internal homeostasis are more challenging compared with those of terrestrial vertebrates. Gills are one of the major organs conducting the internal ionic and acid-base regulation, with specialized ionocytes as the major cells carrying out active transport of ions. Exploring the iono/osmoregulatory mechanisms in fish gills, extensive literature proposed several models, with many conflicting or unsolved issues. Recent studies emerged, shedding light on these issues with new opened windows on other aspects, on account of available advanced molecular/cellular physiological approaches and animal models. Respective types of ionocytes and ion transporters, and the relevant regulators for the mechanisms of NaCl secretion, Na+ uptake/acid secretion/NH4 + excretion, Ca2+ uptake, and Cl- uptake/base secretion, were identified and functionally characterized. These new ideas broadened our understanding of the molecular/cellular mechanisms behind the functional modification/regulation of fish gill ion transport during acute and long-term acclimation to environmental challenges. Moreover, a model for the systematic and local carbohydrate energy supply to gill ionocytes during these acclimation processes was also proposed. These provide powerful platforms to precisely study transport pathways and functional regulation of specific ions, transporters, and ionocytes; however, very few model species were established so far, whereas more efforts are needed in other species. © 2011 the American Physiological Society.


Surface-initiated reversible-deactivation radical polymerization (SI RDRP) has become a powerful tool for the preparation of functional surfaces and interfaces to match the needs of applications. This focused review describes how surface properties can be manipulated by combining surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI ATRP) and the very-large-scale integration (VLSI) lithography process. These fabricated surfaces, which are solvent-responsive or bio-inert/bioactive, have been applied to volatile organic compound (VOC) sensors and to non-biofouling/cell-growing surfaces. The functionalization of renewable resources and how SI ATRP is being extended toward the applications of high-performance adsorbents are also discussed. © 2016 The Society of Polymer Science, Japan (SPSJ) All rights reserved.


Chen D.-T.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | Hsu Y.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Fulp W.J.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | Yeatman T.J.,The Interdisciplinary Center
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2011

Background The malignancy-risk gene signature is composed of numerous proliferative genes and has been applied to predict breast cancer risk. We hypothesized that the malignancy-risk gene signature has prognostic and predictive value for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods The ability of the malignancy-risk gene signature to predict overall survival (OS) of early-stage NSCLC patients was tested using a large NSCLC microarray dataset from the Director's Challenge Consortium (n = 442) and two independent NSCLC microarray datasets (n = 117 and 133, for the GSE13213 and GSE14814 datasets, respectively). An overall malignancy-risk score was generated by principal component analysis to determine the prognostic and predictive value of the signature. An interaction model was used to investigate a statistically significant interaction between adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) and the gene signature. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The malignancy-risk gene signature was statistically significantly associated with OS (P < .001) of NSCLC patients. Validation with the two independent datasets demonstrated that the malignancy-risk score had prognostic and predictive values: Of patients who did not receive ACT, those with a low malignancy-risk score had increased OS compared with a high malignancy-risk score (P = .007 and .01 for the GSE13212 and GSE14814 datasets, respectively), indicating a prognostic value; and in the GSE14814 dataset, patients receiving ACT survived longer in the high malignancy-risk score group (P = .03), and a statistically significant interaction between ACT and the signature was observed (P = .02). Conclusions The malignancy-risk gene signature was associated with OS and was a prognostic and predictive indicator. The malignancy-risk gene signature could be useful to improve prediction of OS and to identify those NSCLC patients who will benefit from ACT. © The Author 2011.


Rose A.,University of Southern California | Liao S.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Bonneau A.,Cornell University
Earthquake Spectra | Year: 2011

This paper advances the state of the art in the development and application of a computable general equilibrium model to estimate the business interruption impacts of a Verdugo scenario earthquake on the water system serving Los Angeles. The model has been especially designed to incorporate engineering and spatial aspects of this system in the context of the regional economy to include resilience responses at various water outage levels. The Verdugo earthquake scenario and Monte Carlo simulations show that water outages in LA County could result in business interruption losses of several billion dollars withoutany resilience adjustment. However, a reduction of these losses by more than 90% is possible through the application of several types of resilience on the customer side, most prominently rescheduling production, in addition to conservation, input substitution, and storage of water. Allowing the price of water to rise to reflect its scarcity would reduce the losses even further. © 2011, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.


Lin S.-D.,Hungkuang University | Mau J.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Hsu C.-A.,Hungkuang University
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Various ethanolic concentrations (0-95%, v/v) and temperatures (25-95 °C) were used to extract γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) tea leaves. Extraction yields, and contents of total phenols, various catechins, GABA, theanine, and antioxidant properties of extracts were determined. The 50% (v/v) ethanol at 50-95 °C gave higher yields (32.05-32.56 g dried extract/100 g dried tea leaves). The bioactive components and antioxidant properties of extracts were affected by the ethanolic concentrations and temperatures. Among catechins, epigallocatechin gallate was the main catechin in all extracts, followed by epigallocatechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, gallocatechin and gallocatechin gallate. The 50-75% (v/v) ethanol at 75-95 °C gave higher contents of ester type (102.92-104.54 mg/g extract) and non-ester type (61.75-63.55 mg/g extract) catechins. Water at 50-75 °C gave higher GABA and theanine contents and higher chelating ability of extracts. The 75% (v/v) ethanol at 25-75 °C gave higher scavenging ability and reducing power of extracts. Based on dried tea extracts or leaves results obtained, the optimal extraction conditions to maintain the total contents of various catechins, GABA and theanine in the maximum level were 50% ethanol (v/v) and 75-95 °C. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Huang C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics | Year: 2012

The proposed hybrid plasmonic waveguide comprises a semiconductor cylindrical nanowire embedded in a low-index dielectric above a metallic substrate with two grooves carved into the surface, between which a nanoscale metallic ridge is formed. Comparing the original hybrid plasmonic structure having a flat metal surface with the proposed structure significantly reduces the lateral mode size of the hybrid modes, and moderately increases the propagation distance. The mode area and propagation distance dependences on the geometry and material parameters are studied. A parametric plot of the figure of merit shows that the proposed structure outperforms the original hybrid structure. The mode performances can be improved further by rounding the metallic ridge corners with the maximum radius. Under an equal confinement of light, the propagation distance of the present structure is three times larger than that of the previously published hybrid structure. © 2012 IEEE.


Weng C.-J.,Tainan University of Technology | Yen G.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews | Year: 2012

Cancer metastasis refers to the spread of cancer cells from the primary neoplasm to distant sites, where secondary tumors are formed, and is the major cause of death from cancer. Natural phytochemicals containing phenolic compounds have been widely demonstrated to have the capability to prevent cancer metastasis. Among phenolic compounds, flavonoids are a very large subclass, and they are abundant in food and nutraceuticals. The number of reports demonstrating that flavonoids are an effective natural inhibitor of cancer invasion and metastasis is increasing in the scientific literature. Catechin derivatives, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, and (-)-epicatechin, are the most studied compounds in this topic so far; genistein/genistin, silibinin, quercetin, and anthocyanin have also been widely investigated for their inhibitory activities on invasion/metastasis. Other flavonoids in dietary vegetable foods that are responsible for anti-invasive and anti-metastatic activities of tumors include luteolin, apigenin, myricetin, tangeretin, kaempferol, glycitein, licoricidin, daidzein, and naringenin. To effectively overcome the metastatic cascade, including cell-cell attachment, tissue-barrier degradation, migration, invasion, cell-matrix adhesion, and angiogenesis, it is essential that a bioactive compound prevent tumor cells from metastasizing. This review summarizes the effects of flavonoids on the metastatic cascade and the related proteins, the in vitro anti-invasive activity of flavonoids against cancer cells, and the effects of flavonoids on anti-angiogenic and in vivo anti-metastatic models. The available scientific evidence indicates that flavonoids are a ubiquitous dietary phenolics subclass and exert extensive in vitro anti-invasive and in vivo anti-metastatic activities. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


McConnell I.L.,Yale University | Grigoryants V.M.,Albany State University | Scholes C.P.,Albany State University | Myers W.K.,Albany State University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

The synthesis of efficient water-oxidation catalysts demands insight into the only known, naturally occurring water-oxidation catalyst, the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Understanding the water oxidation mechanism requires knowledge of where and when substrate water binds to the OEC. Mn catalase in its Mn(III)-Mn(IV) state is a protein model of the OEC's S 2 state. From 17O-labeled water exchanged into the di-μ-oxo di-Mn(III,IV) coordination sphere of Mn catalase, CW Q-band ENDOR spectroscopy revealed two distinctly different 17O signals incorporated in distinctly different time regimes. First, a signal appearing after 2 h of 17O exchange was detected with a 13.0 MHz hyperfine coupling. From similarity in the time scale of isotope incorporation and in the 17O μ-oxo hyperfine coupling of the di-μ-oxo di-Mn(III,IV) bipyridine model (Usov, O. M.; Grigoryants, V. M.; Tagore, R.; Brudvig, G. W.; Scholes, C. P.J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 11886-11887), this signal was assigned to μ-oxo oxygen. EPR line broadening was obvious from this 17O μ-oxo species. Earlier exchange proceeded on the minute or faster time scale into a non-μ-oxo position, from which 17O ENDOR showed a smaller 3.8 MHz hyperfine coupling and possible quadrupole splittings, indicating a terminal water of Mn(III). Exchangeable proton/deuteron hyperfine couplings, consistent with terminal water ligation to Mn(III), also appeared. Q-band CW ENDOR from the S 2 state of the OEC was obtained following multihour 17O exchange, which showed a 17O hyperfine signal with a 11 MHz hyperfine coupling, tentatively assigned as μ-oxo- 17O by resemblance to the μ-oxo signals from Mn catalase and the di-μ-oxo di-Mn(III,IV) bipyridine model. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Qin C.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology | Chang C.-C.,Feng Chia University | Chang C.-C.,Asia University, Taiwan | Huang Y.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Liao L.-T.,Feng Chia University
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology | Year: 2013

In this paper, we propose a novel prediction-based reversible steganographic scheme based on image inpainting. First, reference pixels are chosen adaptively according to the distribution characteristics of the image content. Then, the image inpainting technique based on partial differential equations is introduced to generate a prediction image that has similar structural and geometric information as the cover image. Finally, by using the two selected groups of peak points and zero points, the histogram of the prediction error is shifted to embed the secret bits reversibly. Since the same reference pixels can be exploited in the extraction procedure, the embedded secret bits can be extracted from the stego image correctly, and the cover image can be restored losslessly. Through the use of the adaptive strategy for choosing reference pixels and the inpainting predictor, the prediction accuracy is high, and more embeddable pixels are acquired. Thus, the proposed scheme provides a greater embedding rate and better visual quality compared with recently reported methods. © 2012 IEEE.


Wang P.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications | Year: 2014

The key challenge to a datacenter network is its scalability to handle many customers and their applications. In a datacenter network, packet classification plays an important role in supporting various network services. Previous algorithms store classification rules with the same length combinations in a hash table to simplify the search procedure. The search performance of hash-based algorithms is tied to the number of hash tables. To achieve fast and scalable packet classification, we propose an algorithm, encoded rule expansion, to transform rules into an equivalent set of rules with fewer distinct length combinations, without affecting the classification results. The new algorithm can minimize the storage penalty of transformation and achieve a short search time. In addition, the scheme supports fast incremental updates. Our simulation results show that more than 90% hash tables can be eliminated. The reduction of length combinations leads to an improvement on speed performance of packet classification by an order of magnitude. The results also show that the software implementation of our scheme without using any hardware parallelism can support up to one thousand customer VLANs and one million rules, where each rule consumes less than 60 bytes and each packet classification can be accomplished under 50 memory accesses. © 2013 IEEE.


Tung S.-T.,National Taiwan University | Lai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Liu Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | Peng S.-M.,National Taiwan University | Chiu S.-H.,National Taiwan University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Take five: Two dialdehydes, two diamines, one Na+ ion have been used to generate a [2]catenane. This simple and efficient synthesis makes use of a Na+ ion as a template to align in an orthogonal manner two diethylene glycol chains between the two amine groups (see scheme, TFPB -=tetrakis(3,5-trifluoromethylphenyl)borate). © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Lo Y.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen C.-Y.,National Cheng Kung University | Lee C.-M.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang J.-S.,National Cheng Kung University
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

Engineering strategies were applied to promote the phototrophic H 2 production of an indigenous purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP3-5 using major components (i.e., acetate, butyrate, and lactate) of dark fermentation effluents as carbon sources. First, performance of cell growth and photo-H2 production on each carbon source was examined individually. It appeared that acetate was the most effective carbon source for photo-H2 production, giving an overall H2 production rate and H2 yield of 12.68 ml/h/l and 67.1%, respectively. Next, the effect of substrate concentration of each carbon source on photo-hydrogen production was investigated. Kinetic models were developed to describe the correlation between maximum specific growth rate/specific H 2 production rate and the substrate concentration. The results show that using acetate and lactate as the carbon source, the kinetics for the cell growth and photo-hydrogen production can be described by Monod-type and Michaelis-Menten models, respectively, whereas substrate inhibition occurred when using butyrate as the carbon source. The continuous cultures were also conducted at a hydraulic retention time of 96 h using synthetic dark fermentation soluble metabolites (with a 5 and 10 fold dilution) as the influent. The phototrophic H2 production efficiency was stably maintained for over 30 days with an overall H2 yield 10.30 and 11.97 mol H2/mol sucrose, when using 5-fold and 10-fold diluted dark fermentation effluent, respectively, as the substrate for dark fermentation. This demonstrates the feasibility of using the sequential dark and photo fermentation for high-yield biohydrogen production. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


This study develops an efficient mode solver based on pseudospectral eigenvalue algorithm to analyze liquid crystal waveguides with full 3 × 3 anisotropic permittivity tensors. Present formulation yields a cubic eigenvalue matrix equation with an eigenvalue of the propagation constant, and they are solved using an iterative approach following the transformation of the matrix equation to a standard linear eigenvalue equation. The proposed scheme significantly reduces the memory storage and computational time by using only transverse magnetic field components. Although the proposed scheme requires an iterative procedure, the convergent eigenvalues are achieved after performing only four iterations. Therefore, for this scheme, computational efforts remain greatly lower than those for other reported schemes that used at least three field components. For solving the modes of nematic liquid crystal waveguides, the numerical results obtained by the proposed scheme are in good agreement with those calculated by using the finite-element and the finite-difference frequencydomain schemes, thus verifying the applicability of the proposed approach. Furthermore, the mode patterns of liquid crystal waveguides under arbitrary molecular orientations are also characterized in detail. © 2011 Optical Society of America.


Hsiao L.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.-J.,University of California at Berkeley
Production and Operations Management | Year: 2012

In this article, we investigate the interplay between returns policy, pricing strategy, and quality risk. We define quality risk as the possibility of product misfit, defect, or unconformity with the consumers' perception. These notions of quality risks differ in return policy restriction, residual values, and whether it is possible to unambiguously reduce the probability of mismatch. Using a stylized two-segment market setting, we demonstrate that consumer returns are offered only when the high-segment consumers incur a higher hassle cost, and both the quality risk and the valuation of the low segment are moderate. Moreover, it is possible to wisely design the returns policy that eliminates all inappropriate returns. Furthermore, the seller with a high-quality risk may offer a refund that exceeds the selling price, which provides a theoretical ground and specific operating regime for the satisfaction guaranteed policy used in some e-tailers. In contrast, when the quality risk is relatively low, further improvement on mitigating the quality risk may not necessarily benefit the seller. Finally, we observe that the restocking fee may be non-monotonic in product quality; thus, a more generous returns policy does not necessarily indicate a lower quality risk. © 2011 Production and Operations Management Society.


Sharon J.,Boston University | Rynkiewicz M.J.,Boston University | Lu Z.,Boston University | Yang C.-Y.,Boston University | Yang C.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University
Immunology | Year: 2014

Summary: Protective antibodies play an essential role in immunity to infection by neutralizing microbes or their toxins and recruiting microbicidal effector functions. Identification of the protective B-cell epitopes, those parts of microbial antigens that contact the variable regions of the protective antibodies, can lead to development of antibody therapeutics, guide vaccine design, enable assessment of protective antibody responses in infected or vaccinated individuals, and uncover or localize pathogenic microbial functions that could be targeted by novel antimicrobials. Monoclonal antibodies are required to link in vivo or in vitro protective effects to specific epitopes and may be obtained from experimental animals or from humans, and their binding can be localized to specific regions of antigens by immunochemical assays. The epitopes are then identified with mapping methods such as X-ray crystallography of antigen-antibody complexes, antibody inhibition of hydrogen-deuterium exchange in the antigen, antibody-induced alteration of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the antigen, and experimentally validated computational docking of antigen-antibody complexes. The diversity in shape, size and structure of protective B-cell epitopes, and the increasing importance of protective B-cell epitope discovery to development of vaccines and antibody therapeutics are illustrated through examples from different microbe categories, with emphasis on epitopes targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies to pathogens of high antigenic variation. Examples include the V-shaped Ab52 glycan epitope in the O-antigen of Francisella tularensis, the concave CR6261 peptidic epitope in the haemagglutinin stem of influenza virus H1N1, and the convex/concave PG16 glycopeptidic epitope in the gp120 V1/V2 loop of HIV type 1. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Liu C.-C.,National Changhua University of Education | Liu C.-H.,National Chung Hsing University
Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2014

An analytical model based on a nonlinear deflection equation and the Reynolds equation is proposed to describe the dynamic behavior of an electrically actuated micro-beam with two piezoelectric layers. The proposed model takes explicit account of the fringing field effect, the axial stress effect, the residual stress effect, and the squeeze-film damping effect between the micro-beam and the lower electrode. The nonlinear governing equation of the micro-beam is solved using a hybrid computational scheme comprising the differential transformation method and the finite difference method. The validity of the analytical model and numerical solution procedure is demonstrated by comparing the result obtained for the pull-in voltage of a micro-beam actuated by a DC voltage only with that presented in the literature. It is shown that the nonlinear dynamic response of the micro-beam can be controlled using a combined driving scheme consisting of both the magnitude and the frequency of the AC actuating voltage and a DC driving voltage. The effects of the AC/DC actuating conditions, micro-beam geometry parameters, and squeeze-film damping force on the center-point displacement of the micro-beam are systematically examined. In addition, the actuating conditions which ensure the stability of the micro-beam are identified by means of phase portraits and Poincaré maps. In general, the results show that the analytical model and hybrid numerical scheme provide a feasible means of analyzing the dynamic response of a variety of electrostatically-actuated microstructures. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Tseng L.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Han T.-Y.,Chienkuo Technical University
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation | Year: 2010

We present a new evolutionary design method using genetic local search (GLS) algorithm to obtain broad/dual-band characteristics for circular polarization (CP) slot antennas. By employing this computer-aided design (CAD) technique, optimal or near-optimal impedance and axial-ratio bandwidths for a given operating frequency can be achieved without using the trial and error method. In our method, several key parameters were first investigated, and their effects on both the input impedance and the axial-ratio were obtained by simulation. Different local search procedures used in the GLS algorithm were then developed. The proposed design technique was evaluated by designing antennas using different slot shapes: the ellipse, the equilateral triangle, and the square. These antenna prototypes were constructed and measured to provide validation of the design method. © 2006 IEEE.


Zhang S.,University of Southern California | Zhang S.,CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science | Liu C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Li W.,University of Southern California | And 3 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2012

Recent technology has made it possible to simultaneously perform multi-platform genomic profiling (e.g. DNA methylation (DM) and gene expression (GE)) of biological samples, resulting in so-called 'multi-dimensional genomic data'. Such data provide unique opportunities to study the coordination between regulatory mechanisms on multiple levels. However, integrative analysis of multi-dimensional genomics data for the discovery of combinatorial patterns is currently lacking. Here, we adopt a joint matrix factorization technique to address this challenge. This method projects multiple types of genomic data onto a common coordinate system, in which heterogeneous variables weighted highly in the same projected direction form a multi-dimensional module (md-module). Genomic variables in such modules are characterized by significant correlations and likely functional associations. We applied this method to the DM, GE, and microRNA expression data of 385 ovarian cancer samples from the The Cancer Genome Atlas project. These md-modules revealed perturbed pathways that would have been overlooked with only a single type of data, uncovered associations between different layers of cellular activities and allowed the identification of clinically distinct patient subgroups. Our study provides an useful protocol for uncovering hidden patterns and their biological implications in multi-dimensional 'omic' data. © 2012 The Author(s).


Yang C.Y.,Delta Electronics Inc | Wu T.Y.,National Chung Hsing University
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2015

The research objective is to evaluate the diagnostic effectiveness of the gear deterioration through the feature extraction process as well as the feature sifting approach. The gear fault-related features in the vibration signals are extracted by using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (EEMD) and the marginal Hilbert spectrum analysis. The extracted features in different scales of time domain and frequency domain are sifted through the principal component analysis (PCA). The features of high priority in the principal space represent the majority of the dynamical characteristics of the faulted gears. The artificial neural network (ANN) is employed to classify the selected dominated principal components for the purpose of diagnosing the gear deterioration. The diagnostic results obtained using the ANN classifier show that the different types and levels of gear malfunctions can be identified effectively by the proposed approach. It is also noted that the PCA process can simultaneously enhance the accuracy of gear fault diagnosis and reduce the feature dimensionality for the purpose of increasing the computational efficiency. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wang C.-H.,National Chiao Tung University | Wang J.,National Chung Hsing University
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2014

In an era of global customization, dominating the majority market with a single product has become increasingly difficult and almost impossible for most companies. In contrast, they must provide various product varieties that attract diverse customers, particularly when acquiring distinct market segments. In practice, however, most companies cannot effectively reduce the gap between customer requirements and design characteristics, although this impacts the profitability and future growth of companies. Meanwhile, companies often get stuck in the trade-offs between enhancing product varieties and controlling manufacturing costs. Accordingly, this paper proposes a hybrid framework that combines fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP), fuzzy Kano model with zero-one integer programming (ZOIP) to incorporate customer preferences and customer perceptions into the decision-making process of product configuration. Specifically, fuzzy AHP is used to extract customer preferences for core attributes while fuzzy Kano model is utilized to elicit customer perceptions of optional attributes. Finally, by virtue of ZOIP, the optimal product varieties (smart cameras) for distinct segments are determined by maximizing overall customer utility (OCU) and taking a firm's pricing policy into account. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Yang N.-C.,ChungChou Institute of Technology | Lee C.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Song T.-Y.,ChungChou Institute of Technology
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Polyphenols can oxidize in culture medium and produce artifacts in cell culture studies. However, the extent and mechanism of the oxidation of resveratrol, a polyphenol abundant in red wine, is unclear. We investigated the oxidation of resveratrol in vitro and the effects of various components of the culture medium on the degradation of resveratrol and the production of H 2O2. We found that 96% of resveratrol at a concentration of 200 μM was degraded in Base Modified Eagle Medium after 24 h of incubation at 37 °C, producing about 90 μm of H2O2. Including sodium bicarbonate in the medium markedly stimulated resveratrol degradation and H2O2 production. In sum, we found that bicarbonate ions played a crucial role in the oxidative degradation of resveratrol in vitro, and that the degradation of resveratrol can be avoided by withdrawing sodium bicarbonate from the medium. A mechanism for the oxidation of resveratrol is proposed.


Chen S.-L.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen G.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.-N.,National Cheng Kung University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

Entanglement plays a central role in the field of quantum information science. It is well known that the degree of entanglement cannot be increased under local operations. Here, we show that the concurrence of a bipartite entangled state can be increased under the local PT-symmetric operation. This violates the property of entanglement monotonicity. We also use the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt and steering inequalities to explore this phenomenon. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Hwang L.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Tseng H.-H.,Chung Shan Medical University | Chen J.-C.,Hungkuang University
Journal of Membrane Science | Year: 2011

In this study, a blending technique was employed to prepare an antifouling ultrafiltration membrane for humic acid (HA) separation. Using a nonsolvent induced phase separation method, negatively charged/hydrophobic polyphenylsulfone (PPSU) was blended with positively charged/hydrophilic polyetherimide (PEI) to form PPSU/PEI blend membranes. Depending on the blending ratio, the membrane surface properties, such as morphology, hydrophilicity, roughness, and surface charge, were tailored to improve the resistance of the membrane to fouling. For example, the blend membranes possessed a weak negative charge and exhibited good resistance to the negatively charged HA due to the effect of electrostatic repulsion. As the PEI content increased, the hydrophilic PEI segregated to the membrane/water interfaces, creating a hydrophilic surface and changing the surface charge from negative to neutral. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Chung P.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Liu C.-W.,Asia University, Taiwan | Hwang M.-S.,Asia University, Taiwan
International Journal of Network Security | Year: 2014

Attribute-based proxy re-encryption (ABPRE) scheme is one of the proxy cryptography, which can delegate the re-encryption capability to the proxy and re-encrypt the en-crypted data by using the re-encryption key. ABPRE ex-tending the traditional proxy cryptography and attributes plays an important role. In ABPRE, users are identified by attributes, and the access policy is designed to con-trol the user's access. Using ABPRE can have these ad-vantages: (i) The proxy can be delegated to execute the re-encryption operation, which reduces the computation overhead of the data owner; (ii) The authorized user just uses his own secret key to decrypt the encrypted data, and he doesn't need to store an additional decryption key for deciphering; (iii) The sensitive information cannot be re-vealed to the proxy in re-encryption, and the proxy only complies to the data owner's command. In this paper, we survey two various access policy attribute-based proxy re-encryption schemes and analyze these schemes. There-after, we list the comparisons of them by some criteria.


Phuvasate S.,Oregon State University | Chen M.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Su Y.-C.,Oregon State University
Food Microbiology | Year: 2012

Consumption of raw oysters has been linked to several outbreaks of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection in the United States. This study investigated effects of ice storage and UV-sterilized seawater depuration at various temperatures on reducing V. parahaemolyticus in oysters. Raw Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were inoculated with a mixed culture of five clinical strains of V. parahaemolyticus (10290, 10292, 10293, BE 98-2029 and 027-1c1) at levels of 10 4-6 MPN/g. Inoculated oysters were either stored in ice or depurated in recirculating artificial seawater at 2, 3, 7, 10, 12.5, and 15 °C for 4-6 days. Holding oysters in ice or depuration of oysters in recirculating seawater at 2 or 3 °C for 4 days did not result in significant reductions (P > 0.05) of V. parahaemolyticus in the oysters. However, depuration at temperatures between 7 and 15 °C reduced V. parahaemolyticus populations in oysters by >3.0 log MPN/g after 5 days with no loss of oysters. Depuration at refrigerated temperatures (7-15 °C) can be applied as a post-harvest treatment for reducing V. parahaemolyticus in Pacific oysters. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Wang S.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Lee J.-F.,National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2011

It has been suggested that lignocellulosic materials are cost-effective materials for remediation of toxic Cr(VI) pollution; however, inconsistent interpretations of the reaction mechanism are frequently found in the literature. To clarify the reaction mechanism, the reaction of Cr(VI) with individual components of lignocellulosic materials must be better understood. Thus, the purpose of this work was to investigate the reaction mechanism of Cr(VI) with cellulose, which is one of the main components of lignocellulosic materials. The Cr(VI) reaction was evaluated at pH 2 and the results showed that Cr(VI) could be reduced to Cr(III) by cellulose. As indicated by the FT-IR spectra, the hydroxyl groups in cellulose were the reactive sites for Cr(VI) reduction, giving rise to the formation of carboxyl groups. The resultant Cr(III) was either bound to cellulose or released into solution. As revealed by the Cr K-edge EXAFS of cellulose after its reaction with Cr(VI), Cr(III) was bound to cellulose by forming bidentate-mononuclear complexes with carboxyl groups, which resulted from the oxidation of hydroxyl groups. The first-order rate constant of Cr(VI) reaction with cellulose was determined to be 3.84×10-7s-1 at pH 2. The slow reduction of Cr(VI) by cellulose was attributed to the existence of H-bonding networks in cellulose, which restrict the accessibility of Cr(VI) to the hydroxyl groups in cellulose. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Han P.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Optics | Year: 2011

It is shown that spectral switches of a double slit can be controlled by an electro-optic effect that has the benefit of high speed modulation without using any movable part of the aperture and this is a remarkable improvement compared with the schemes which use aperture mechanisms or a light source mechanism to perform this task. In particular, we find that phase singularities and spectral switches can be produced right at the center of the detection plane, which usually cannot be achieved by other mechanisms, and it should be a favorable property for data transmission usage. Also a data transmission scheme that utilizes the novel electro-optic phase modulation is presented. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Wang E.S.T.,National Chung Hsing University
International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management | Year: 2013

Purpose: Although the increase in point-of-purchase decisions heightens the communication potential of food product packaging, empirical research on understanding how visual packaging affects consumers' subsequent product and brand evaluations and perceptions is scant. This study seeks to develop a theoretical model to show the effects of consumer attitudes toward visual food packaging on perceived product quality, product value, and brand preference. Design/methodology/approach: A self-administered questionnaire developed from the literature was conducted, and 315 undergraduate students participated in the study. Findings: The empirical results show that attitudes toward visual packaging directly influence consumer-perceived food product quality and brand preference. Perceived food product quality also directly and indirectly (through product value) affects brand preference. Originality/value: This paper offers directions for understanding the effects of visual packaging on positive consumer product and brand evaluations. Based on the study findings, food firms should emphasize the visual packaging design factors such as color, typeface, logo, graphics, and size to form consumers' positive perceptions and brand preference. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Lin S.-D.,Hungkuang University | Sung J.-M.,Hungkuang University | Chen C.-L.,National Chung Hsing University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Fresh flowers, leaves, stems and roots of Echinacea purpurea were subjected to vacuum freeze-drying, cool wind-drying (30°C), and hot air-drying (40, 55 or 70°C), and then stored under different environmental conditions. The cichoric acid was the main phenolic compound detected in dried E. purpurea materials, followed by caftaric acid. The bioactive constituent contents in different plant parts were in the descending order: flowers >leaves >stems >roots. Both caffeic acid derivatives and total phenolics contents were affected by drying method and storage condition. Cool wind-dried materials retained more bioactive constituents content (>85%) compared to vacuum freeze-dried materials. The packing material also affected the storability of E. purpurea materials. The storability results indicated that the freeze-dried E. purpurea materials sealed in polyethylene terephthalate/aluminum foil/polyethylene or nylon/polyethylene bags and stored under 10-20°C and 40-60% relative humidity without light conditions retained the highest content of bioactive compounds. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Ismayilov R.H.,National Taiwan University | Wang W.-Z.,National Taiwan University | Lee G.-H.,National Taiwan University | Yeh C.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | And 5 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

Nickel′s eleven: A metal chain consisting of four dinuclear mixed-valent Ni2 3+ units linked together by three square-planar Ni2+ units has been prepared (see picture of the real molecular model in the lobby of the chemistry building at National Taiwan University). The electronic and magnetic properties of this linear complex containing 11nickel atoms are reported. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Weng C.-H.,I - Shou University | Lin Y.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang C.-K.,I - Shou University | Liu N.,Jilin University
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry | Year: 2013

Decolourization of direct azo dye, direct blue 15 (DB15), by an advanced Fenton process coupled with ultrasonic irradiation (Fenton/US) was investigated. Zero-valent iron (ZVI) aggregates were used as the catalyst. A positive synergistic effect occurred when Fenton's reagent was combined with ultrasonic irradiation. Experimental results showed that the optimum conditions for decolourization were pH 3.0, Fe(0) 1 g/L, H2O2 5.15 × 10-3mol/L with ultrasound density of 120 W/L at 60 kHz. These conditions yielded 99% decolouration of 4.7 × 10-5 M DB15 (4130 ADMI) solution within 10 min. DB15 decolouration follows the first-order decolouration kinetics. Although the solutions containing H2CO 3, Cl-, ClO4-, NO3- and SO42- ions did not have a significant effect on the decolouration, the H2PO4- ion did decrease the decolouration rate. High ultrasonic input power accelerated the reaction and increased decolourization efficiency. The cost effectiveness of this process at high ultrasound density could be controlled despite the high electricity costs incurred by the process. ZVI aggregates were reusable; however, an increase in the number of times ZVI was recycled decreased the decolourization rate. This study demonstrates that a Fenton/US process can effectively decolour the direct azo dye DB15 in wastewater. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Chang C.-C.,National Taiwan University | Wang Y.-R.,National Taiwan University | Chen S.-F.,National Taiwan University | Wu C.-C.,National Taiwan University | And 2 more authors.
Current Opinion in Structural Biology | Year: 2013

Type IIA topoisomerases catalyze the passage of two DNA duplexes across each other to resolve the entanglements and coiling of cellular DNA. The ability of these enzymes to interact simultaneously but differentially with two DNA segments is central to their DNA-manipulating functions: one duplex DNA is bound and cleaved to produce a transient double-strand break through which another DNA segment can be transported. Recent structural analyses have revealed in atomic detail how type IIA enzymes contact DNA and how the enzyme-DNA interactions may be exploited by drugs to achieve therapeutic purposes. This review summarizes these new findings, with a special focus on the assembly and structural features of the enzymes' composite DNA-binding surfaces. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Lee C.-C.,Chung Yuan Christian University | Chang S.-T.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Year: 2012

For the purpose of enhancing performance in NMOSFETs, inducing an ever increasing tensile stress along Si channel direction is bene?cial through the use of advanced strained engineering. By means of the lattice mismatched SiC with different carbon mole fraction, integrated with tensile contact etch stop layer (CESL), the obtainment of signi?cant mobility gain is expected. In the present research, the stress distribution in NMOSFETs with the combinations of Silicon-Carbon (SiC) stressor and tensile CESL is systematically studied by using three-dimensional (3D) ?nite element analysis (FEA). Width dependency in conjunction with different nanoscale gate length is also analyzed. The analysis results indicate that the stress impact of SiC stressor resulting from the stress component along channel direction on Si region dominates and tensile CESL could enhance this effect. Further important is that the vertical stress within NMOSFETs, is raised greatly due to tensile CESL through the examined range of gate widths, especially for narrower width. Therefore, the predicted results reveal excellent mobility gain through such strain engineering. © 2012 American Scientific Publishers.


Gangula S.,Western Kentucky University | Suen S.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Conte E.D.,Western Kentucky University
Microchemical Journal | Year: 2010

A current literature review, consisting of 42 publications, is provided on the topic of using admicelle/hemimicelle formations on solids for the analytical scale preconcentration of a variety of organic analytes. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Ou S.-L.,National Chung Hsing University
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2012

Agriculture is the foundation of the national economy. Thus, an appropriate tool for forecasting agricultural output is very important for policy making. In this study, both modified background value calculation and use of a genetic algorithm to find the optimal parameters were adopted simultaneously to construct an improved GM(1,1) model (GAIGM(1,1)). The sample period of the forecasting models includes the annual values for the data of Taiwan's agricultural output from 1998 to 2010. The mean absolute percentage error and the root mean square percentage error are two criteria with which to compare the various forecasting models results. Both in-sample and out-of-sample forecast performance results show that the GAIGM(1,1) model has highly accurate forecasting. Therefore, the GAIGM(1,1) model can raise the forecast accuracy of the GM(1,1) model, and it is suitable for use in modeling and forecasting of agricultural output. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..


Lin C.-H.,National Taichung University of Science and Technology | Chen H.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Wu Y.-S.,National Taichung University of Science and Technology
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2014

This paper proposes a genetic algorithm feature selection (GAFS) for image retrieval systems and image classification. Two texture features of adaptive motifs co-occurrence matrix (AMCOM) and gradient histogram for adaptive motifs (GHAM) and color feature of an adaptive color histogram for K-means (ACH) were used in this paper. In this paper, the feature selections have adopted sequential forward selection (SFS), sequential backward selection (SBS), and genetic algorithms feature selection (GAFS). Image retrieval and classification performance mainly build from three features: ACH, AMCOM and GHAM, where the classification system is used for two-class SVM classification. In the experimental results, we can find that all the methods regarding feature extraction mentioned in this study can contribute to better results with regard to image retrieval and image classification. The GAFS can provide a more robust solution at the expense of increased computational effort. By applying GAFS to image retrieval systems, not only could the number of features be effectively reduced, but higher image retrieval accuracy is elicited. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Tubtimtae A.,Kasetsart University | Lee M.-W.,National Chung Hsing University
Superlattices and Microstructures | Year: 2012

We present the growth of ZnO nanostructures on indium-doped ZnO film on a non-conductive glass substrate. The indium-doped ZnO film was used as the transparent conductive layer replaces the ITO layer. Various indium doping concentrations can change the electrical properties of ZnO film. The reduced electrical resistivity was investigated from 16.60 × 10 -2 to 10 × 10 -2 Ω cm. after doping with the optimal concentration of 2 wt% indium. It is found that the characteristic of ZnO nanostructures was strongly affected with indium doping concentration in ZnO films. The overall structural characteristics of ZnO ranged from 100-500 nm in size and 7-10 μm in length and the branch-like structures can be revealed from the 2 wt% indium-doped ZnO film. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectra show a sharp ultraviolet band of 353 nm, indicated to the ZnO nanorods structure. The branch-like structures on the 2 wt% indium-doped film can be yielded the photovoltaic properties with a short-circuit current density of 3.96 mA/cm 2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.72 V, a fill factor of 20% and an overall power conversion efficiency of 0.56% under irradiance of 100 mW/cm 2 (AM 1.5 G). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Lin Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | Lai C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Liu Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | Peng S.-M.,National Taiwan University | Chiu S.-H.,National Taiwan University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Picking up the thread: The macrocycle bis-p-xylyl[26]crown-6 is capable of forming pseudorotaxane-like structures with single, nonconjugated urea or amide moieties when assisted by templating Na+ ions (see example). By using this approach, rotaxanes were synthesized with glycine residues or the repeating unit of nylon-6,6 as key components in the threadlike units. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Liu C.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Cheng C.-H.,National Taiwan University
Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical | Year: 2012

A multi-degree-of-freedom laser linear encoder that can simultaneously measure the position, straightness, pitch, roll, and yaw errors of a linear stage is developed. The proposed laser encoder uses the phase and spatial information of diffracted light. When the light is reflected from a grating and diffracts, the relative movement makes the orders of diffracted light have both phase and spatial geometric variations. The proposed encoder design makes the ±1 order diffracted light interfere and outputs pure sine and cosine wave signals for linear displacement. The ±2 order diffracted light spots are received by two quadrant photodiode detectors and analyzed to inversely calculate the other motion errors. The experimental results show that the measurement error is ±0.6 μm for straightness, ±0.8 arcsec for angular error, and ±1.2 μm for linear displacement. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Ke C.-J.,National Tsing Hua University | Chiang W.-L.,National Tsing Hua University | Liao Z.-X.,National Tsing Hua University | Chen H.-L.,National Tsing Hua University | And 3 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2013

Chemotherapy research highly prioritizes overcoming the multi-drug resistance (MDR) effect in cancer cells. To overcome the drug efflux mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporters, we developed pH-responsive poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) hollow particles (PLGA HPs), capable of delivering doxorubicin (DOX) into MDR cells (MCF-7/ADR). The shell wall of PLGA HPs contained DiO (a hydrophobic dye), and their aqueous core carried DOX hydrochloride salt and sodium bicarbonate, a gas-generating agent when present in acidic environments. Both DiO and DOX could serve as fluorescence probes to localize HPs and visualize their intracellular drug release in real-time. Real-time confocal images provided visible evidences of the acid-responsive intracellular release of DOX from PLGA HPs in MDR cells. Via the macropinocytosis pathway, PLGA HPs taken up by cells experienced an increasingly acidic environment as they trafficked through the early endosomes and then matured into more acidic late endosomes/lysosomes. The progressive acidification of the internalized particles in the late endosomes/lysosomes generated CO2 bubbles, leading to the disruption of HPs, prompt release of DOX, its accumulation in the nuclei, and finally the death of MDR cells. Conversely, taken up via a passive diffusion mechanism, free DOX was found mainly at the perimembrane region and barely reached the cell nuclei; therefore, no apparent cytotoxicity was observed. These results suggest that the developed PLGA HPs were less susceptible to the P-gp-mediated drug efflux in MDR cells and is a highly promising approach in chemotherapy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Huang C.-S.,Asia University, Taiwan | Hu M.-L.,National Chung Hsing University
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2011

Epidemiologic studies suggest that lycopene may reduce the risk of certain cancers, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We hereby examined in vivo anticarcinogenic effects of supplemental lycopene on hepatic DNA damage (Comet formation and levels of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-oxo-dG) and human MutT homologue (hMTH1) mRNA expression in Mongolian gerbils injected i.p. with ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe/NTA). Gerbils were pre-treated with two dose (10 and 20. mg/kg BW) of lycopene on alternate morning for 10. d. Six hours after the last lycopene supplementation, the gerbils received Fe/NTA (0.16. mmol/10. mL/kg BW) and were killed 3. h later. We found that the livers of Fe/NTA-treated animals exhibited a 5-fold increase in Comet formation (expressed as tail moment), a 2.6-fold increase in 8-oxo-dG levels and a significant increase in hMTH1 mRNA expression. Supplemental lycopene completely inhibited Comet formation (P<0.001) and significantly suppressed 8-oxo-dG levels and hMTH1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. The expression levels of hMTH1 mRNA are highly correlated with hepatic levels of 8-oxo-dG and tail moment, suggesting that hMTH1 gene expression represents a molecular marker of oxidative DNA damage. These results demonstrate the potential of lycopene as a promising chemopreventive agent against hepatotumorigenesis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Tu C.-Y.,China Medical University at Taichung | Tu C.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen C.-H.,China Medical University at Taichung
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine | Year: 2012

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Spontaneous bacterial empyema (SBEM) is defined as spontaneous infection of a preexisting hepatic hydrothorax. SBEM is diagnosed after exclusion of pneumonia, and, in patients with liver cirrhosis, it is still associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To date, studies focusing on SBEM are rare. This review will highlight the recent data focusing on the clinical characteristics, bacteriology, management, and outcome predictors of cirrhotic patients with SBEM. RECENT FINDINGS: The Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) are the major causative pathogens isolated from SBEM patients. Therefore, the cornerstone of therapy is antibiotic therapy with immediate empirical use of third-generation cephalosporins as first-line treatment. Chest-tube placement is not necessary. Regression analysis identified three independent factors related to poor outcome: high score of the model for end-stage liver disease-sodium (MELD-Na), initial ICU admission, and initial antibiotic treatment failure. High MELD-Na score may be a useful predictor of SBEM mortality in cirrhotic patients. SUMMARY: Although SBEM is a rare complication of cirrhosis, the high mortality rate should increase physicians' index of suspicion in cirrhotic patients with hydrothorax and prompt immediate diagnostic thoracentesis. The MELD-Na score rather than Child-Pugh score may be a strong predictor of in-hospital mortality of SBEM patients. Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.


Wang Y.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group - carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. Pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. Pylori vacA -positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. Pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. Pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N -acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. Pylori -induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. Pylori -induced inflam-mation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. Pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. Pylori activity as well as an anti-H. Pylori -induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. Pylori eradication and H. Pylori induced related gastric disease prevention. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.


Huang J.,University of Maryland University College | Ng A.L.,University of Maryland University College | Piao Y.,University of Maryland University College | Chen C.-F.,University of Maryland University College | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

Atom-thick materials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene exhibit ultrahigh sensitivity to chemical perturbation partly because all of the constituent atoms are surface atoms. However, low selectivity due to nonspecific binding on the graphitic surface is a challenging issue to many applications including chemical sensing. Here, we demonstrated simultaneous attainment of high sensitivity and selectivity in thin-film field effect transistors (TFTs) based on outer-wall selectively functionalized double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs). With carboxylic acid functionalized DWCNT TFTs, we obtained excellent gate modulation (on/off ratio as high as 4000) with relatively high ON currents at a CNT areal density as low as 35 ng/cm 2. The devices displayed an NH3 sensitivity of 60 nM (or ∼1 ppb), which is comparable to small molecule aqueous solution detection using state-of-the-art SWCNT TFT sensors while concomitantly achieving 6000 times higher chemical selectivity toward a variety of amine-containing analyte molecules over that of other small molecules. These results highlight the potential of using covalently functionalized double-walled carbon nanotubes for simultaneous ultrahigh selective and sensitive detection of chemicals and illustrate some of the structural advantages of this double-wall materials strategy to nanoelectronics. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Lin T.-I.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin T.-I.,China Medical University at Taichung
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2014

A framework of using t mixture models with fourteen eigen-decomposed covariance structures for the unsupervised learning of heterogeneous multivariate data with possible missing values is designed and implemented. Computationally flexible EM-type algorithms are developed for parameter estimation of these models under a missing at random (MAR) mechanism. For ease of computation and theoretical developments, two auxiliary indicator matrices are incorporated into the estimating procedure for exactly extracting the location of observed and missing components of each observation. Computational aspects related to the specification of starting values, convergence assessment and model choice are also discussed. The practical usefulness of the proposed methodology is illustrated with real data examples and a simulation study with varying proportions of missing values. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wang E.S.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen L.S.-L.,Tamkang University
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2012

Although administrators of online communities (OCs) may focus on improving their OCs through upgrading technology and enhancing the usability of their OCs to attract additional users, the level of OC participation may be associated with social motives. The purpose of this study is to understand how social motivations (that is, network externalities and social norms) affect members committed to OCs. This study tests the hypotheses on data collected from 396 undergraduate students. Data analyses show that network externalities and social norms directly influence social interaction ties, which subsequently results in commitment toward a community. Social norms also directly influence relationship commitments to a community. The results provide insights into how social motivations lead to commitment to an OC, reminding OC administrators to encourage member commitment to the OC from the perspective of social motivations. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wu M.-H.,China Medical University at Taichung | Huang C.-Y.,China Medical University at Taichung | Huang C.-Y.,Asia University, Taiwan | Lin J.-A.,China Medical University at Taichung | And 5 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2014

Chondrosarcoma is the second most common sarcoma in bone malignancy and is characterized by a high metastatic potential. Angiogenesis is essential for the cancer metastasis. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. However, the relationship of ET-1 with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. Here, we found that the expression of ET-1 and VEGF were correlated with tumor stage and were significantly higher than that in the normal cartilage. Exogenous ET-1 with chondrosarcoma cells promoted VEGF expression and subsequently increased migration and tube formation in endothelial progenitor cells. ET-1 increased VEGF expression and angiogenesis through ET A R, integrin-linked kinase (ILK), Akt and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling cascades. Knockdown of ET-1 decreased VEGF expression and also abolished chondrosarcoma conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis in vitro as well as angiogenesis effects in the chick chorioallantoic membrane and Matrigel plug nude mice model in vivo. In addition, in the xenograft tumor angiogenesis model, knockdown of ET-1 significantly reduced tumor growth and tumor-associated angiogenesis. Taken together, these results indicate that ET-1 occurs through ET A R, ILK and Akt, which in turn activates HIF-1α, resulting in the activation of VEGF expression and contributing to the angiogenesis and tumor growth of human chondrosarcoma cells. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Yen G.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.-C.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Chang W.-T.,Chung Shan Medical University | Hsu C.-L.,Chung Shan Medical University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Over the last few decades, obesity has become a global epidemic in both developed and developing countries. Recent studies have indicated that obesity is closely associated with chronic inflammation characterized by abnormal levels of adipocytokines and inflammatory cytokines in adipocytes. The aim of this work was to study the effects of 21 polyphenolic compounds on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced changes of adipokines and oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The results showed that p-coumaric acid, quercetin, and resveratrol have greater inhibition (p < 0.05) of a TNF-α-induced increase in the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) among 21 tested polyphenolic compounds. p-Coumaric acid, quercetin, and resveratrol demonstrated inhibitions of TNF-α-induced changes in levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, and resveratrol increased levels (p < 0.05) of secreted adiponectin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in TNF-α-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results indicate that the inhibition of TNF-α-induced changes of adipokines and oxidative stress by some polyphenolic compounds might have further implications in preventing obesity-related pathologies. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Chen H.-B.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Li W.-T.,National Chung Hsing University
Order | Year: 2014

Consider families of subsets of [n]: = {1,2,...,n} that do no contain a given poset P as a subposet. Let La(n, P) denote the largest size of such families and h(P) denote the height of P. The best known general upper bound for La(n, P) is (Formula presented.), due to Bursi and Nagy (2012). This paper provides an improved upper bound (Formula presented.), where m can be any positive integer less than (Formula presented.). © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Yang C.-C.,Hsiuping University of Science and Technology | Lin C.-L.,National Chung Hsing University
Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2012

Unlike taking the same external electrical stimulation to discuss chaotic synchronization in the literature, the synchronization between two uncouple FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neurons with different ionic currents and external electrical stimulations is considered. The main contribution of this study is the application of a robust adaptive sliding-mode controller instead of the active elimination. The proposed sliding mode controller associated with time varying feedback gains cannot only tackle the system uncertainties and external disturbances, but also compensate for the mismatch nonlinear dynamics of synchronized error system without direct cancellation. Meanwhile, these feedback gains are not determined in advance but updated by the adaptive laws. Sufficient conditions to guarantee the stable synchronization are given in the sense of the Lyapunov stability theorem. In addition, numerical simulations are also performed to verify the effectiveness of presented scheme. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.


Hypoxia, or oxygen deficiency, is an abiotic stress that plants are subjected to during soil flooding. Therefore, plants have evolved adaptive mechanisms to sense oxygen deficiency and make coordinated changes at the transcriptional level. The results of this study show that the interplay between hydrogen peroxide and ethylene affected the transcriptional responses of ERF73/HRE1 and ADH1 during hypoxia signaling. H2O2 affected the abundance of ERF73/HRE1 and ADH1 mRNAs in both wild-type Arabidopsis and the ethylene-insensitive mutant, ein2-5. Promoter analysis was conducted using transgenic plants expressing an ERF73/HRE1 promoter-β-glucuronidase reporter gene construct. GUS staining observations and activity assays showed that GUS was regulated similarly to, and showed a similar accumulation pattern as, H2O2 during hypoxia. The transcript levels of ERF73/HRE1 and ADH1 were significantly decreased in the WT by combined hypoxia and diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor) treatment. In ein2-5, induction of ERF73/HRE1 was also reduced significantly by the combined hypoxia and DPI treatment. In contrast, ADH1 mRNA levels only slightly decreased after this treatment. When DPI was supplied at different time points during hypoxia treatment, H2O2 had critical effects on regulating the transcript levels of ERF73/HRE1 and ADH1 during the early stages of hypoxia signaling. The induction of hypoxia-inducible genes encoding peroxidases and cytochrome P450s was affected, and accumulation of H2O2 was reduced, in ein2-5 during hypoxic stress. Together, these results demonstrate that H2O2 plays an important role during primary hypoxia signaling to control the transcriptional responses of ERF73/HRE1 and ADH1 via modulation of ethylene signaling. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Shih Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | Chou H.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Peng Y.-H.,National Taiwan University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardant additives for many plastic and electronic products. Owing to their ubiquitous distribution in the environment, multiple toxicity to humans, and increasing accumulation in the environment, the fate of PBDEs is of serious concern for public safety. In this study, the degradation of 4-monobrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-3) in anaerobic sludge and the effect of carbon source addition were investigated. BDE-3 can be degraded by two different anaerobic sludge samples. The by-products, diphenyl ether (DE) and bromide ions, were monitored, indicating the reaction of debromination within these anaerobic samples. Co-metabolism with glucose facilitated BDE-3 biodegradation in terms of kinetics and efficiency in the Jhongsing sludge. Through the pattern of amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments in denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), the composition of the microbial community was analyzed. Most of the predominant microbes were novel species. The fragments enriched in BDE-3-degrading anaerobic sludge samples are presumably Clostridium sp. This enrichment coincides with the H 2 gas generation and the facilitation of debromination during the degradation process. Findings of this study provide better understanding of the biodegradation of brominated DEs and can facilitate the prediction of the fate of PBDEs in the environment. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Chen J.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang C.-R.,National Taiwan University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

The geometrical effect of a two-dimensional electron gas system with the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbital interactions on a curved surface is studied; it corresponds to a non-Abelian gauge field and a scalar field. The behavior of electrons with spin on a curved space can be transformed into that of a simple system of an electron with spin on a flat surface with a geometrical metric tensor. In addition to the dynamic phase of traveling electrons on a flat surface, a geometrical phase induced by curved space is also observed, and this phase can be demonstrated by use of the path integral. Therefore, the spin-rotation operator and quantum loop of electrons with spin on a curved space are obtained. The induced phases on three curved spaces with flat, cylindrical, and spherical geometry are calculated, and the roles of space curvature in spin precession are also analyzed. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Han P.,National Chung Hsing University
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

It is shown theoretically that the nonlinear optical Kerr effect can be used to build an all optical configuration controlling spectral switches. The main advantage in it is that it can greatly simplify the control method compared to previous schemes using the aperture mechanism or electro-optical one. © 2012 Optical Society of America.


Han P.,National Chung Hsing University
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

The behavior of a limited bandwidth light wave reflected from a material interface is studied theoretically. It is shown that near the anomalous dispersion zone, if the incident center wavelength is shifted by a small amount, this shift can be amplified by about three times in the reflected light. © 2012 Optical Society of America.


Huang K.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2012

In this study, we present an application of neural networks and image processing techniques for detecting and classifying the quality of areca nuts. Defects with diseases or insects of areca nuts were segmented by a detection line (DL) method. Six geometric features (i.e., the principle axis length, the secondary axis length, axis number, area, perimeter and compactness of the areca nut image), 3 color features (i.e., the mean gray level of an areca nut image on the R, G, and B bands), and defects area were used in the classification procedure. A back-propagation neural network classifier was employed to sort the quality of areca nuts. The methodology presented herein effectively works for classifying areca nuts to an accuracy of 90.9%. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Lycopene is primarily metabolized by carotenoid monoxygenase II into apo-8'- and apo-12'-lycopenal in the rat liver. Although lycopene possesses antimetastatic activity in a highly invasive hepatoma SK-Hep-1 cell line, little is known whether its metabolites have a similar effect. In this study, we investigated the antimetastatic effects of apo-8'-lycopenal (1-10 μM) in comparison with lycopene (10 μM) in SK-Hep-1 cells. We found that both apo-8'-lycopenal and lycopene inhibited the invasion and migration of SK-Hep-1 cells, and the effect of apo-8'-lycopenal was stronger than that of lycopene at the same concentration (10 μM). Mechanistically, apo-8'-lycopenal: 1) decreased the activities and protein expression of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9; 2) increased the protein expression of nm23-H1 and the tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1 and -2; 3) suppressed protein expression of Rho small GTPases; and 4) inhibited focal adhesion kinase-mediated signaling pathway, such as ERK/p38 and PI3K-Akt axis. Overall, these results demonstrate that apo-8'-lycopenal possesses antimetastatic activity in SK-Hep-1 cells and that this effect is stronger than that of lycopene, suggesting that the antimetastatic effect may be attributed, at least in part, to its metabolites such as apo-8'-lycopenal.


Yu J.-Z.,Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute | Chi H.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen B.-H.,Council of Agriculture
Biological Control | Year: 2013

The life histories and predation rates of the ladybird beetle Harmonia dimidiata (F.) were compared among beetles kept at 15, 20, and 25°C. The beetles were fed on Aphis gossypii Glover and were maintained at 70±10% RH and a 14:10 (L:D)h photoperiod. According to the age-stage, two-sex life table, the net reproductive rates (R0) were 147.4, 98.7, and 62.5 offspring for beetles kept at 15, 20, and 25°C, respectively. Additionally, we employed both the jackknife and bootstrap techniques for estimating the means, variances, and standard errors of the population parameters. The sample means of R0 and the other population parameters obtained using the bootstrap technique fit a normal distribution, but the jackknife technique generated biologically meaningless zero values for R0. The net predation rates were 10963, 13050, and 7492 aphids for beetles kept at 15, 20, and 25°C, respectively. For a comprehensive comparison of predation potential, we incorporated both the finite rate and the predation rate into the finite predation rate. When both the growth rate and the predation rate were considered, our results showed that H. dimidiata is a more efficient biological control agent for A. gossypii at 20 and 25°C than at 15°C. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Cheng Y.-M.,National Chung Hsing University
Chromosome Research | Year: 2010

Evolution of heterochromatic regions in the B long arm was studied in two directions: construction of a phylogenetic tree from mutational variants of CL-repeat and analysis of the XbaI fragments carrying CL-repeat and the repeat structural variants. Using tertiary trisomes and hypoploids of a set of B-10L translocations, the fragments associated with CLrepeat and the variants in each of the three distal heterochromatic (DH) regions were identified. Twenty fragments comprising the CL-repeat were observed in the B-chromosome, and each was assigned to an individual DH region. Four deletions, one insertion, and a large number of mutational variants from each of the three DH regions were isolated and sequenced. The sequences of 27 mutational variants were used to establish a phylogenetic tree which divided the 27 variants into three groups, each of which was associated with a distinct DH region and elucidated an evolution order of the three DH regions. According to the tree, the DH2 was the earliest DH region, which gave rise to the DH3 to be followed by the DH1. The distributions of the fragments including CL-repeat and structural variants in the three DH regions were consistent with such evolution order. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Li Q.,Southwest University for Nationalities | Gau H.,National Chung Hsing University
Synlett | Year: 2012

We describe a convenient method for the synthesis of terminal allenes from cross-coupling of propargylic bromide with Grignard reagent. The reaction of propargylic bromide with 1.2 equivalents of Grignard reagent mediated by Ni(acac) 2 (2 mol%) and Ph 3P (4 mol%) in THF may produce terminal allenes in good yields and high regioselectivities at room temperature. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.


Shih Y.-h.,National Chung Hsing University | Tai Y.-t.,Agricultural Engineering Research Center
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) recognized as a new class of environmental persistent toxic contaminants have been distributed widely in the world. In this study, the synthesized nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) in the laboratory was used to investigate the removal kinetics and mechanisms of decabrominated diphenyl ether (DBDE) at different pH. Within 40 min 90% of DBDE was rapidly removed by NZVI as compared to around 40 d needed for 24-fold weight of microscale ZVI. The removal by NZVI is much faster than that by microscale ZVI due to its high surface area and reactivity. At a different pH, the pseudo-first-order removal rate constants of DBDE linearly increased from 0.016 to 0.024 min-1 with the decreasing of aqueous initial pH values from 10 to 5. The degradation of DBDE with NZVI is favorable in an acid condition. The debromination pathways of DBDE with NZVI were proposed on the basis of the identified reaction intermediates ranging from nona- to mono-brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) for an acid condition and from nona- to penta-BDEs for an alkaline condition. The debromination of PBDEs from para positions is more difficult than that from meta or ortho positions. Adsorption on NZVI also plays a role on the removal of DBDE. These findings can facilitate the treatment and fate prediction of PBDEs with NZVI in the environment. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Lee C.-C.,Fu Jen Catholic University | Chung P.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Hwang M.-S.,Asia University, Taiwan
International Journal of Network Security | Year: 2013

In Attribute-based Encryption (ABE) scheme, attributes play a very important role. Attributes have been ex- ploited to generate a public key for encrypting data and have been used as an access policy to control users' access. The access policy can be categorized as either key-policy or ciphertext-policy. The key-policy is the access struc-ture on the user's private key, and the ciphertext-policy is the access structure on the ciphertext. And the access structure can also be categorized as either monotonic or non-monotonic one. Using ABE schemes can have the advantages: (1) to reduce the communication overhead of the Internet, and (2) to provide ne fia-grained access control. In this paper, we survey a basic attribute-based encryption scheme, two various access policy attribute-based encryption schemes, and two various access struc-tures, which are analyzed for cloud environments. Finally, we list the comparisons of these schemes by some criteria for cloud environments.


Tsai J.,National Chung Hsing University
IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems | Year: 2013

Most existing global-snapshot algorithms in distributed systems use control messages to coordinate the construction of a global snapshot among all processes. Since these algorithms typically assume the underlying logical overlay topology is fully connected, the number of control messages exchanged among the whole processes is proportional to the square of number of processes, resulting in higher possibility of network congestion. Hence, such algorithms are neither efficient nor scalable for a large-scale distributed system composed of a huge number of processes. Recently, some efforts have been presented to significantly reduce the number of control messages, but doing so incurs higher response time instead. In this paper, we propose an efficient global-snapshot algorithm able to let every process finish its local snapshot in a given number of rounds. Particularly, such an algorithm allows a tradeoff between the response time and the message complexity. Moreover, our global-snapshot algorithm is symmetrical in the sense that identical steps are executed by every process. This means that our algorithm is able to achieve better workload balance and less network congestion. Most importantly, based on our framework, we demonstrate that the minimum number of control messages required by a symmetrical global-snapshot algorithm is Ω (N log N), where N is the number of processes. Finally, we also assume non-FIFO channels. © 2013 IEEE.


Tao C.-W.,National Ilan University | Taur J.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang Y.-H.,Chang Gung University | Chang C.-W.,Chang Gung University
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2010

In this paper, a novel fuzzy-sliding and fuzzy-integral-sliding controller (FSFISC) is designed to position the yaw and pitch angles of a twin-rotor multi-inputmulti-output system (TRMS). With the coupling effects, which are considered as the uncertainties, the highly coupled nonlinear TRMS is pseudodecomposed into a horizontal subsystem and a vertical subsystem (VS). The proposed FSFISC consists of a fuzzy-sliding controller and an FISC for the horizontal and the VSs, respectively. The reaching conditions and the stability of the TRMS with the proposed controller are guaranteed. Simulation results are included to indicate that TRMS with the presented FSFISC can greatly alleviate the chattering effect and remain robust to the external disturbances. In addition, the performance comparisons with the proportionalintegraldifferential (PID) approach using a modified real-value-type genetic algorithm are provided to show that the FSFISC has better performance in the aspects of error and control indexes. © 2010 IEEE.


Tao C.W.,National Ilan University | Taur J.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang J.H.,National Ilan University | Su S.-F.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics | Year: 2010

In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy switched swing-up and sliding controller (AFSSSC) is proposed for the swing-up and position controls of a double-pendulum-and-cart system. The proposed AFSSSC consists of a fuzzy switching controller (FSC), an adaptive fuzzy swing-up controller (FSUC), and an adaptive hybrid fuzzy sliding controller (HFSC). To simplify the design of the adaptive HFSC, the double-pendulum-and-cart system is reformulated as a double-pendulum and a cart subsystem with matched time-varying uncertainties. In addition, an adaptive mechanism is provided to learn the parameters of the output fuzzy sets for the adaptive HFSC. The FSC is designed to smoothly switch between the adaptive FSUC and the adaptive HFSC. Moreover, the sliding mode and the stability of the fuzzy sliding control systems are guaranteed. Simulation results are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed AFSSSC. © 2009 IEEE.


Chen M.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Teng C.-I.,Chang Gung University
Electronic Commerce Research | Year: 2013

The aim of this study is to identify structural relationships between aspects of online store image and purchase intention. Responses from 211 website visitors were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the research hypotheses. The results demonstrated that enjoyment and familiarity are predictors of ease-of-use and settlement performance, respectively. Settlement performance and usefulness are positively related to purchase intention. The results provide some suggestions for online store owners to help them arrange budget priorities for website design. Moreover, it is important to manage image familiarity for an online store through image-enhancing techniques, such as advertising and publicity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Wu C.-S.,Tunghai University | Cheng F.-F.,National Chung Hsing University
Electronic Commerce Research and Applications | Year: 2011

This article reports on an experiment that examines the influence of message framing and anchor points, and the joint effect of these two information cues on Internet consumers' judgments regarding attitude, purchase intention and willingness to pay. The role of participants' subjective knowledge is also evaluated. The experimental results suggest that message framing, which describes a product's attribute in positive or negative terms, significantly influences participants' attitude toward and their intention to buy the product. In addition, participants' willingness to pay was significantly influenced by the presentation of anchors embedded in banner advertisements. Further, a significant interaction effect for message framing and anchor points indicate that their congruence enhances the effects of information presentation on people's responses. Specifically, describing a product attribute in positive terms along with a high anchor point induces more favorable response than any other framing and anchoring combinations. Finally, online shoppers who are low in product knowledge are more susceptible to framing and anchoring influences. The findings provide guidance for designing appropriate product and price cues to induce Internet consumer responses that favor online retailers. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Chen C.-L.,Chaoyang University of Technology | Liao J.-J.,National Chung Hsing University
Electronic Commerce Research and Applications | Year: 2011

In recent years, purchase of digital content using the Internet has been increasing both in popularity and convenience. On the other hand, there are a multitude of pirated editions for digital products which have become more available and easier to attain. Therefore, proving legal ownership of digital content has become important. Many researchers have proposed various schemes to protect consumer's ownership using watermark mechanisms on secure payment systems. In our scheme, we want to achieve this same result with the concept of subliminal channels and propose an intact arbitration mechanism to solve the fairness of the transaction between both the customer and the shop. Our scheme not only protects customers' legal ownership of digital content, but also provides a fair and secure protocol. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Tsai H.-P.,National Chung Hsing University | Yang D.-N.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chen M.-S.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chen M.-S.,National Taiwan University
IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering | Year: 2011

Existing object tracking applications focus on finding the moving patterns of a single object or all objects. In contrast, we propose a distributed mining algorithm that identifies a group of objects with similar movement patterns. This information is important in some biological research domains, such as the study of animals' social behavior and wildlife migration. The proposed algorithm comprises a local mining phase and a cluster ensembling phase. In the local mining phase, the algorithm finds movement patterns based on local trajectories. Then, based on the derived patterns, we propose a new similarity measure to compute the similarity of moving objects and identify the local group relationships. To address the energy conservation issue in resource-constrained environments, the algorithm only transmits the local grouping results to the sink node for further ensembling. In the cluster ensembling phase, our algorithm combines the local grouping results to derive the group relationships from a global view. We further leverage the mining results to track moving objects efficiently. The results of experiments show that the proposed mining algorithm achieves good grouping quality, and the mining technique helps reduce the energy consumption by reducing the amount of data to be transmitted. © 2006 IEEE.


Leung C.-S.,City University of Hong Kong | Sum J.P.-F.,National Chung Hsing University
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems | Year: 2012

Fault tolerance is an interesting topic in neural networks. However, many existing results on this topic focus only on the situation of a single fault source. In fact, a trained network may be affected by multiple fault sources. This brief studies the performance of faulty radial basis function (RBF) networks that suffer from multiplicative weight noise and open weight fault concurrently. We derive a mean prediction error (MPE) formula to estimate the generalization ability of faulty networks. The MPE formula provides us a way to understand the generalization ability of faulty networks without using a test set or generating a number of potential faulty networks. Based on the MPE result, we propose methods to optimize the regularization parameter, as well as the RBF width. © 2012 IEEE.


Wang Y.C.,National Chung Hsing University
Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) | Year: 2012

Methionine S-adenosyltransferase (MAT) catalyzes the only reaction that produces the major methyl donor in mammals. Low-dose methotrexate is the most commonly used disease-modifying antirheumatic drug in human rheumatic conditions. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that methotrexate inhibits MAT expression and activity in vitro and in vivo. HepG2 cells were cultured under folate restriction or in low-dose methotrexate with and without folate or methionine supplementation. Male C57BL/6J mice received methotrexate regimens that reflected low-dose clinical use in humans. S-adenosylmethionine and MAT genes, proteins and enzyme activity levels were determined. We found that methionine or folate supplementation greatly improved S-adenosylmethionine in folate-depleted cells but not in cells preexposed to methotrexate. Methotrexate but not folate depletion suppressed MAT genes, proteins and activity in vitro. Low-dose methotrexate inhibited MAT1A and MAT2A genes, MATI/II/III proteins and MAT enzyme activities in mouse tissues. Concurrent folinate supplementation with methotrexate ameliorated MAT2A reduction and restored S-adenosylmethionine in HepG2 cells. However, posttreatment folinate rescue failed to restore MAT2A reduction or S-adenosylmethionine level in cells preexposed to methotrexate. Our results provide both in vitro and in vivo evidence that low-dose methotrexate inhibits MAT genes, proteins, and enzyme activity independent of folate depletion. Because polyglutamated methotrexate stays in the hepatocytes, if methotrexate inhibits MAT in the liver, then the efficacy of clinical folinate rescue with respect to maintaining hepatic S-adenosylmethionine synthesis and normalizing the methylation reactions would be limited. These findings raise concerns on perturbed methylation reactions in humans on low-dose methotrexate. Future studies on the clinical physiological consequences of MAT inhibition by methotrexate and the potential benefits of S-adenosylmethionine supplementation on methyl group homeostasis in clinical methotrexate therapies are warranted.


Su H.-N.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen C.M.-L.,Applied Information Sciences | Lee P.-C.,Applied Information Sciences
Scientometrics | Year: 2012

This study aims to propose an early precaution method which allows predicting probability of patent infringement as well as evaluating patent value. To obtain the purposes, a large-scale analysis on both litigated patents and non-litigated patents issued between 1976 and 2010 by USPTO are conducted. The holistic scale analysis on the two types of patents (3,878,852 non-litigated patents and 31,992 litigated patents in total) issued by USPTO from 1976 to 2010 has not been conducted in literatures and need to be investigated to allow patent researchers to understand the overall picture of the USPTO patents. Also, by comparing characteristics of all litigated patents to that of non-litigated patents, a precaution method for patent litigation can be obtained. Both litigated patents and non-litigated patents are analyzed to understand the differences between the two types of patents in terms of different variables. It is found that there are statistically significant differences for the two types of patents in the following 11 variables: (1) No. of Assignee, (2) No. of Assignee Country, (3) No. of Inventor, (4) Inventor Country, (5) No. of Patent Reference, (6) No. of Patent Citation Received, (7) No. of IPC, (8) No. of UPC, (9) No. of Claim, (10) No. of Non-Patent Reference, and (11) No. of Foreign Reference. Finally, logistic regression is used for predicting the probability of occurrence of a patent litigation by fitting the 11 characteristics of 3,910,844 USPTO patents to a logistic function curve. © 2012 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


Yang H.,National Chung Hsing University | Dou X.,University of Florida | Fang Y.,University of Florida | Jiang P.,University of Florida
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2013

Here, we report a simple and inexpensive bottom-up technology for fabricating superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical micro-/nano-structures, which are inspired by the binary periodic structure found on the superhydrophobic compound eyes of some insects (e.g., mosquitoes and moths). Binary colloidal arrays consisting of exemplary large (4 and 30. μm) and small (300. nm) silica spheres are first assembled by a scalable Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technology in a layer-by-layer manner. After surface modification with fluorosilanes, the self-assembled hierarchical particle arrays become superhydrophobic with an apparent water contact angle (CA) larger than 150°. The throughput of the resulting superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical structures can be significantly improved by templating the binary periodic structures of the LB-assembled colloidal arrays into UV-curable fluoropolymers by a soft lithography approach. Superhydrophobic perfluoroether acrylate hierarchical arrays with large CAs and small CA hysteresis can be faithfully replicated onto various substrates. Both experiments and theoretical calculations based on the Cassie's dewetting model demonstrate the importance of the hierarchical structure in achieving the final superhydrophobic surface states. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Wang Y.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Jeng B.-W.,National Taichung University of Education | Chien C.-S.,Chien Hsin University of Science and Technology
Communications in Computational Physics | Year: 2013

We study efficient spectral-collocation and continuation methods (SCCM) for rotating two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and rotating two-component BECs in optical lattices, where the second kind Chebyshev polynomials are used as the basis functions for the trial function space. A novel two-parameter continuation algorithm is proposed for computing the ground state and first excited state solutions of the governing Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPEs), where the classical tangent vector is split into two constraint conditions for the bordered linear systems. Numerical results on rotating two-component BECs and rotating two-component BECs in optical lattices are reported. The results on the former are consistent with the published numerical results. © 2013 Global-Science Press.


Tsai K.-Y.,National Tsing Hua University | Tsai M.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Yeh J.-W.,National Tsing Hua University
Acta Materialia | Year: 2013

Sluggish diffusion kinetics is an important contributor to the outstanding properties of high-entropy alloys. However, the diffusion kinetics in high-entropy alloys has never been probed directly. Here, the diffusion couple method was used to measure the diffusion parameters of Co, Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni in ideal-solution-like Co-Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni alloys. These parameters were compared with those in various conventional face-centered cubic metals. The results show that the diffusion coefficients in the Co-Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni alloys are indeed lower than those in the reference metals. Correspondingly, the activation energies in the high-entropy alloys are higher than those in the reference metals. Moreover, the trend of the normalized activation energy is positively related to the number of composing elements in the matrix. A quasi-chemical model is proposed to analyze the fluctuation of lattice potential energy in different matrices and to explain the observed trend in activation energies. Greater fluctuation of lattice potential energy produces more significant atomic traps and blocks, leading to higher activation energies, and thus accounts for the sluggish diffusion in high-entropy alloys. © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Pai M.-H.,Taipei Medical University | Kuo Y.-H.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chiang E.-P.I.,National Chung Hsing University | Tang F.-Y.,China Medical University at Taichung
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Oral cancer is prevalent worldwide. Studies have indicated that an increase in the osteopontin (OPN) plasma level is correlated with the progression of oral cancer. Our previous report showed that the aqueous garlic extract S-allylcysteine (SAC) inhibited the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human oral cancer CAL-27 cells in vitro. Therefore, the present study investigated whether SAC consumption would help prevent tumour growth and progression, including the EMT, in a mouse xenograft model of oral cancer. The results demonstrated that SAC dose-dependently inhibited the growth of oral cancer in tumour-bearing mice. The histopathological and immunohistochemical staining results indicated that SAC was able to effectively suppress the tumour growth and progression of oral cancer in vivo. The chemopreventive effect of SAC was associated with the suppression of carcinogenesis factors such as N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase and OPN. SAC significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin, inhibitor of κBα and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in tumour tissues. The results demonstrated that the SAC-mediated suppression of cyclin D1 protein was associated with an augmented expression of the cell-cycle inhibitor p16Ink4. Furthermore, SAC inhibited the expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2, vimentin and NF-κB p65 (RelA). These results show that SAC has potential as an agent against tumour growth and the progression of oral cancer in a mouse xenograft model. © 2011 The Authors.


Rajasree K.P.,Indian National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology | Mathew G.M.,National Chung Hsing University | Pandey A.,Indian National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology | Sukumaran R.K.,Indian National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Aspergillus unguis NII-08123, a filamentous fungus isolated from soil, was found to produce β-glucosidase (BGL) activity with high glucose tolerance. Cultivation of the fungus in different carbon sources resulted in the secretion of different isoforms of the enzyme. A low molecular weight isoform, which retained ∼60 % activity in the presence of 1.5 M glucose, was purified to homogeneity and the purified enzyme exhibited a temperature and pH optima of 60 C and 6, respectively. The K m and V max of the enzyme were 4.85 mM and 2.95 U/mg, respectively, for 4-nitrophenyl β-d- glucopyranoside. The glucose inhibition constant of the enzyme was 0.8 M, indicating high glucose tolerance, and this is the second-highest glucose tolerance ever reported from the Aspergillus nidulans group. The glucose-tolerant BGL from A. unguis, when supplemented to cellulase preparation from Penicillium, could improve biomass hydrolysis efficiency by 20 % in 12 h compared to the enzyme without additional beta glucosidase supplementation. The beta glucosidase from A. unguis is proposed as a highly potent "blend-in" for biomass saccharifying enzyme preparations. © 2013 Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology.


Tsai C.-M.,National Chung Hsing University
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2015

This paper is to employ liquid lens elements to design a lens with zoom function by using the genetic algorithm (GA) optimization. The liquid lens elements used in the proposal can apply voltage adjustment to generate the electrical field that induces the liquid with electric conductivity to vary the surface curvature between two different kinds of liquids. According to the voltage level, the liquid lens element makes the discrete variation of the curvature and thickness realize the zoom function without moving the lens groups so that the overall length can be reduced. However, it is difficult to design the zoom lens under the discrete variation of the curvature and thickness in the liquid lens elements and the mechanical space that is constantly limited. The GA offers a flexible way for lens optimization. We regarded the spot size as the fitness function to look for the optimum curvatures, thickness, and the corresponding statuses of liquid lens elements for the zoom lens. As a result, the zoom lens with constant space can be realized by running the selection, crossover, and mutation operation in the GA optimization. Copyright © 2015 Cheng-Mu Tsai.


Wang W.-L.,Feng Chia University | Lin T.-I.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin T.-I.,China Medical University at Taichung
Statistics in Medicine | Year: 2014

The multivariate nonlinear mixed-effects model (MNLMM) has emerged as an effective tool for modeling multi-outcome longitudinal data following nonlinear growth patterns. In the framework of MNLMM, the random effects and within-subject errors are assumed to be normally distributed for mathematical tractability and computational simplicity. However, a serious departure from normality may cause lack of robustness and subsequently make invalid inference. This paper presents a robust extension of the MNLMM by considering a joint multivariate t distribution for the random effects and within-subject errors, called the multivariate t nonlinear mixed-effects model. Moreover, a damped exponential correlation structure is employed to capture the extra serial correlation among irregularly observed multiple repeated measures. An efficient expectation conditional maximization algorithm coupled with the first-order Taylor approximation is developed for maximizing the complete pseudo-data likelihood function. The techniques for the estimation of random effects, imputation of missing responses and identification of potential outliers are also investigated. The methodology is motivated by a real data example on 161 pregnant women coming from a study in a private fertilization obstetrics clinic in Santiago, Chile and used to analyze these data. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Sun C.-L.,Chang Gung University | Lee H.-H.,Chang Gung University | Yang J.-M.,Chang Gung University | Wu C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2011

In this study, a graphene/Pt-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode was created to simultaneously characterize ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) levels via cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). During the preparation of the nanocomposite, size-selected Pt nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 1.7. nm were self-assembled onto the graphene surface. In the simultaneous detection of the three aforementioned analytes using CV, the electrochemical potential differences among the three detected peaks were 185. mV (AA to DA), 144. mV (DA to UA), and 329. mV (AA and UA), respectively. In comparison to the CV results of bare GC and graphene-modified GC electrodes, the large electrochemical potential difference that is achieved via the use of the graphene/Pt nanocomposites is essential to the distinguishing of these three analytes. An optimized adsorption of size-selected Pt colloidal nanoparticles onto the graphene surface results in a graphene/Pt nanocomposite that can provide a good platform for the routine analysis of AA, DA, and UA. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Donati S.,University of Pavia | Donati S.,National Chung Hsing University | Norgia M.,Polytechnic of Milan
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics | Year: 2014

Self-mixing interferometry is a noncontact method well suited for measuring a variety of biological signals, like blood pressure wave at wrist and thorax (the optical stethoscope), blood velocity in vein and in external circulation, THz echoes from skin, ear drum vibration, and oculomotor reflex measurements. In this review, after presenting the underlying theory and the main developments of self-mixing, we analyze the applications to biosignal measurement reported so far, and illustrate potentialities and perspectives of the technique. © 2013 IEEE.


Chou S.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Galperin M.Y.,U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2016

Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) synthetases and hydrolases (GGDEF, EAL, and HD-GYP domains) can be readily identified in bacterial genome sequences by using standard bioinformatic tools. In contrast, identification of c-di-GMP receptors remains a difficult task, and the current list of experimentally characterized c-di-GMP-binding proteins is likely incomplete. Several classes of c-di-GMP-binding proteins have been structurally characterized; for some others, the binding sites have been identified; and for several potential c-di-GMP receptors, the binding sites remain to be determined. We present here a comparative structural analysis of c-di-GMP-protein complexes that aims to discern the common themes in the binding mechanisms that allow c-di-GMP receptors to bind it with (sub)micromolar affinities despite the 1,000-fold excess of GTP. The available structures show that most receptors use their Arg and Asp/Glu residues to bind c-di-GMP monomers, dimers, or tetramers with stacked guanine bases. The only exception is the EAL domains that bind c-di-GMP monomers in an extended conformation. We show that in c-di-GMPbinding signature motifs, Arg residues bind to the O-6 and N-7 atoms at the Hoogsteen edge of the guanine base, while Asp/Glu residues bind the N-1 and N-2 atoms at its Watson-Crick edge. In addition, Arg residues participate in stacking interactions with the guanine bases of c-di-GMP and the aromatic rings of Tyr and Phe residues. This may account for the presence of Arg residues in the active sites of every receptor protein that binds stacked c-di-GMP. We also discuss the implications of these structural data for the improved understanding of the c-di-GMP signaling mechanisms. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Tang N.,Nanjing University | Wen J.,Nanjing University | Zhang Y.,Nanjing University | Liu F.,Nanjing University | And 2 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2010

The exact knowledge of helical carbon nanotube (HCNT) growth mechanism has not yet been completely clarified, and effective synthesis of high-purity helical carbon nanotubes in high yield still remains a tremendous challenge. In this study, HCNTs were synthesized via a catalytic chemical vapor deposition method using Fe nanoparticles as catalysts. We performed systematic experiments to investigate the specific effect of catalytic particle size (CPS) on the selective growth of HCNTs, such as on the morphology, yield, mobility of carbon atoms, and HCNT purity of carbon products. Our study showed that the CPS plays a key role in the selectivity to HCNTs, yield, and morphology of the carbon products, and a small catalytic particle is favorable to HCNT formation. We hope that this result may give a beneficial suggestion to obtain highly pure HCNTs. A CPS-dependent growth mechanism for HCNTs was finally proposed. Magnetic measurements demonstrated that the HCNTs are ferromagnetic properties and show high magnetization at room temperature. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Sun C.-H.,National Chung Hsing University
Pharmacogenomics Journal | Year: 2016

Screening for drug compounds that exhibit therapeutic properties in the treatment of various diseases remains a challenge even after considerable advancements in biomedical research. Here, we introduce an integrated platform that exploits gene expression compendia generated from drug-treated cell lines and primary tumor tissue to identify therapeutic candidates that can be used in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Our framework combines these data with patient survival information to identify potential candidates that presumably have a significant impact on AML patient survival. We use a drug regulatory score (DRS) to measure the similarity between drug-induced cell line and patient tumor gene expression profiles, and show that these computed scores are highly correlated with in vitro metrics of pharmacological activity. Furthermore, we conducted several in vivo validation experiments of our potential candidate drugs in AML mouse models to demonstrate the accuracy of our in silico predictions.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 15 March 2016; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.18. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited


Chein R.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.-C.,National United University | Chung J.N.,University of Florida
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2012

We numerically investigate hydrogen production based on methanol-steam reforming (MSR) using a micro-scale cylindrical packed bed reformer. The reformer wall is included in the physical model. The heat required for the reforming reaction is supplied either internally using a heating rod placed along the center of the reformer or externally by a heat flux applied at the reformer outer wall. Our results show that the thermal resistance from the heat source to the reformer environment plays an important role in the reformer performance. This thermal resistance depends on the reformer geometry, wall material and heat transfer coefficients inside the catalyst bed and outside the reformer. Based on our numerical results, it is suggested that better methanol conversion and hydrogen yield can be obtained using reformer wall material with low thermal conductivity and thin thickness. For both internal and external heating under the same heat rate supply, no significant difference in reformer performance was found. A water gas shift (WGS) reaction model was included in the present numerical model. In the reformer low-temperature zone the forward WGS reaction was clearly demonstrated, resulting in a decrease in carbon monoxide (CO) selectivity. In the high temperature zone the backward WGS reaction was also clearly demonstrated in which CO selectivity increases with the increase in temperature. For both internal and external heating under the same heat rate supply, our results indicated that CO selectivity is about thirty times lower when the WGS reaction is neglected. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hsu S.-L.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Intellectual Property Rights | Year: 2015

Given that the need for food, the adaptation for climate change and the cure for diseases are crucial challenges of the 21st century, the acceleration of breeding new plant varieties to address these challenges is therefore regarded as an effective way to address these issues. The emphasis on plant research and development makes intellectual property rights (IPR) protection for plants a hot issue. Although, there are already laws and regulations in place to offer intellectual property protection for new plant varieties, the exemptions of IPR for researchers and farmers are inequitable. The scope of exemptions defined by patent or plant variety rights in some major countries serve as good references for improving the domestic regulation in Taiwan. Historically, from the narrowest US system to the fairest European one, such exemptions have already impacted the Taiwanese IPR system. Currently, as review of the Taiwanese ‘Plant Variety and Seedling Act (PVSA)’ is in process, deliberation upon a sustainable IPR system is necessary. This paper proposes the introduction of mechanisms such as proportional reward to breeders/farmers of merit for innovative application of research results, discounted royalty payment for conduction of preliminary research, and broader exemption for negligence of the third party. By means of such system reform in plant IPR protection, hopefully a better environment for plant breeding research and agricultural growing may be anticipated. © 2015 National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.


Huang D.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Lee J.-H.,French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation
Mathematical and Computer Modelling | Year: 2013

Ubiquitous computing is a technology to assist many computers available around the physical environment at any place and anytime. This service tends to be invisible from users in everyday life. Ubiquitous computing uses sensors extensively to provide important information such that applications can adjust their behavior. A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has been applied to implement such an architecture. To ensure continuous service, a dynamic N threshold power saving method for WSN is developed. A threshold N has been derived to obtain minimum power consumption for the sensor node while considering each different data arrival rate. We proposed a theoretical analysis regarding the probability variation for each state considering different arrival rate, service rate and collision probability. Several experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our research. Our method can be applied to prolong the service time of a ubiquitous computing network to cope with the network disconnection issue. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Hsu Y.-C.,China Medical University at Taichung | Hsu Y.-C.,Center for Database Research | Hsu Y.-C.,I - Shou University | Ho H.J.,Taichung Veterans General Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2015

Objective: To elucidate the association between antiviral therapy and extrahepatic outcomes in individuals infected with HCV. Methods: This nationwide cohort study screened 293 480 Taiwanese residents with HCV infection and excluded those with substantial comorbidity. A total of 12 384 eligible patients who had received pegylated interferon plus ribavirin between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2010 were enrolled in the treated cohort; they were matched 1: 2 with 24 768 untreated controls in the propensity score and post-diagnosis treatment-free period. The incidences of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), acute coronary syndrome (ACS), ischaemic stroke and catastrophic autoimmune diseases were calculated after adjustment for competing mortality. Results: The treated and untreated cohorts were followed up for a mean (±SD) duration of 3.3 (±2.5) and 3.2 (±2.4) years, respectively, until 31 December 2011. The calculated 8-year cumulative incidences of ESRD, ACS, ischaemic stroke and autoimmune catastrophes between treated and untreated patients were 0.15% vs 1.32% (p<0.001), 2.21% vs 2.96% (p=0.027), 1.31% vs 1.76% (p=0.001) and 0.57% vs 0.49% (p=0.816), respectively. Multivariate-adjusted Cox regression revealed that antiviral treatment was associated with lower risks of ESRD (HR 0.15; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.31; p<0.001), ACS (HR 0.77; 95% CI 0.62 to 0.97; p=0.026) and ischaemic stroke (HR 0.62; 95% CI 0.46 to 0.83; p=0.001), but unrelated to autoimmune catastrophes. These favourable associations were invalid in incompletely treated patients with duration <16 weeks. Conclusions: Antiviral treatment for HCV is associated with improved renal and circulatory outcomes, but unrelated to catastrophic autoimmune diseases.


Hu M.-L.,National Chung Hsing University
Chang Gung Medical Journal | Year: 2011

High intake of fruit and vegetables is believed to be beneficial to human health. Fruit, vegetables and some beverages, such as tea and coffee, are particularly rich in dietary polyphenols. Various studies have suggested (but not proven) that dietary polyphenols may protect against cardiovasucalar diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and some forms of cancer. Dietary polyphenols may exert their anticancer effects through several possible mechanisms, such as removal of carcinogenic agents, modulation of cancer cell signaling and antioxidant enzymatic activities, and induction of apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest. Some of these effects may be related, at least partly, to their antioxidant activities. In recent years, a new concept of the antioxidant effects of dietary polyphenols has emerged, i.e., direct scavenging activity toward reactive species and indirect antioxidant activity; the latter activity is thought to arise primarily via the activation of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 which stimulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase, catalase, NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), and/or phase II enzymes. The direct antioxidant activity of dietary polyphenols in vivo is probably limited because of their low concentrations in vivo, except in the gastrointestinal tract where they are present in high concentrations. Paradoxically, the pro-oxidant effect of dietary polyphenols may contribute to the activation of antioxidant enzymes and protective proteins in cultured cells and animal models because of the adaptation of cells and tissues to mild/moderate oxidative stress. Despite a plethora of in vitro studies on dietary polyphenols, many questions remain to be answered, such as: (1) How relevant are the direct and indirect antioxidant activities of dietary polyphenols in vivo? (2) How important are these activities in the anticancer effects of dietary polyphenols? (3) Do the pro-oxidant effects of dietary polyphenols observed in vitro have any relevance in vivo, especially in the potential anticancer effect of dietary polyphenols? Apparently, more carefully-designed in vivo studies are needed to answer these questions.


Chein R.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.-C.,National United University | Chung J.N.,University of Florida
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2013

This study presents numerical studies of hydrogen production performance via water gas shift reaction in membrane reactor. The pre-exponential factor in describing the hydrogen permeation flux is used as the main parameter to account for the membrane permeance variation. The operating pressure, temperature and H2O/CO molar ratio are chosen in the 1-20 atm, 400-600 °C and 1-3 ranges, respectively. Based on the numerical simulation results three distinct CO conversion regimes exist based on the pre-exponential factor value. For low pre-exponential factors corresponding to low membrane permeance, the CO conversion approaches to that obtained from a conventional reactor without hydrogen removal. For high pre-exponential factor, high CO conversion and H 2 recovery with constant values can be obtained. For intermediate pre-exponential factor range both CO conversion and H2 recovery vary linearly with the pre-exponential factor. In the high membrane permeation case CO conversion and H2 recovery approach limiting values as the operating pressure increases. Increasing the H2O/CO molar ratio results in an increase in CO conversion but decrease in H2 recovery due to hydrogen permeation driving force reduction. As the feed rate increases in the reaction side both the CO conversion and hydrogen recovery decrease because of decreased reactant residence time. The sweep gas flow rate has a significant effect on hydrogen recovery. Low sweep gas flow rate results in low CO conversion H2 recovery while limiting CO conversion and hydrogen recovery can be reached for the high membrane permeance and high sweep gas flow rate cases. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC.


Guo J.-S.,Tamkang University | Wu C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Differential Equations | Year: 2016

We study the traveling wave solutions for a three-component lattice dynamical system. This problem arises in the modeling of three species competing two food resources in an environment with migration in which the habitat is one-dimensional and is divided into countable niches. We are concerned with the case when two species have different preferences of food and the third species has both preferences of food. To understand which species win the competition under the bistable condition, the existence of a traveling wave solution for this lattice dynamical system is proven. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Tao C.W.,National Ilan University | Taur J.S.,National Chung Hsing University | Chang C.-W.,Chang Gung University | Chang Y.-H.,Chang Gung University
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2012

Wing rock is a highly nonlinear phenomenon in which aircrafts with slender delta wings undergo limit cycle roll oscillations at high angles of attack. A simplified type-2 fuzzy sliding controller is designed for suppressing wing rock phenomena and tracking the desired trajectories. To reduce the computational complexity of a type-reducer, the end points of a type-reduced set are approximated by the outputs of two standard fuzzy sliding mechanisms in the proposed simplified type-2 fuzzy sliding controller. Furthermore, the sliding modes of the fuzzy sliding control system are guaranteed. Simulation results are included to show the effectiveness of the proposed simplified type-2 fuzzy sliding controller. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Yen T.-M.,National Chung Hsing University | Wang C.-T.,Hualien Forest District Office
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to assess the carbon storage (CS) and mean carbon sequestration (MCS) for natural forests, man-made forests, and bamboo forests. The study site was located in central Taiwan. We predicted the CS and MCS for a natural forest and two man-made forests (Taiwan red cypress and Japanese cedar) and cited the CS and MCS for two bamboo forests (Makino and Moso) from the previous studies. The results showed that the CS and MCS, respectively, were 192.84 Mg ha-1 and 0.67 Mg ha-1 yr -1 for the natural forest; 68.85-96.81 Mg ha-1 and 3.47-4.45 Mg ha-1 yr-1 for the Taiwan red cypress; 101.14-164.80 Mg ha-1 and 2.66-5.23 Mg ha-1 yr -1 for the Japanese cedar; 49.8 Mg ha-1 and 9.89 Mg ha-1 yr-1 for the Makino bamboo; and 40.6 Mg ha -1 and 8.13 Mg ha-1 yr-1 for the Moso bamboo. The natural forest had the highest CS and the lowest MCS; conversely, bamboo forests had the lowest CS and the highest MCS. Moreover, the ratios of MSC to CS (RMCS/CS) were 0.0034, 0.0229-0.0562, and 0.2 for the natural forests, man-made forests, and bamboo forests, respectively. © Taylor & Francis.


Lin K.C.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin C.W.,Hsiuping University of Science and Technology
International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics | Year: 2011

In this research, both Lagrangian and Eulerian description are used to derive the finite deformation analysis. By choosing the deformed radius of curvature and deformed angle of tangent slope as parameters, the governing equations of laminated curved beam under static loading are transformed into a set of equations in terms of angle of tangent slope. All the quantities of axial force, shear force, radial and tangential displacements of laminated curved beam are expressed as functions of angle of tangent slope. The analytical solutions of laminated curved beams of circular and spiral are presented. The analytical solutions of circular beam under a pair of forces are presented as well. The results are also compared with the results using ANSYS. It shows good consistency. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Shih H.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Ng P.K.L.,National University of Singapore
Systematics and Biodiversity | Year: 2011

The diversity and biogeography of the two families of freshwater crabs in East Asia (China, Taiwan, Ryukyus and mainland Japan) were studied. The richness in different areas, as well as the distributions of all 40 genera and 311 species were analysed, the patterns examined and possible mechanisms discussed. The published data of freshwater crab species and their distributions in East Asia were analysed by using clustering, diversity index and graphical methods. Six biogeographical districts were recognized for the East Asian freshwater crabs based on similarity of distribution: (I) Hengduanshan Area, including Yunnan and Tibet; (II) Karst Area of Guizhou; (III) Yangtze River Basin, extending to Yellow River basin, with three subdivisions; (IV) Wuyishan Area and Pearl River Basin in Southeast and South China; (V) Hainan Island; and (VI) East Asian Islands, with subdivisions of Taiwan, Ryukyus and mainland Japan. The most diverse genera are the potamids Sinopotamon (84 species) and Geothelphusa (54 species), as well as the gecarcinucid Somanniathelphusa (27 species). Yunnan has the highest species richness (48 species) and diversity (Shannon index 2-21) in continental China, while Taiwan has the highest species richness (42 species) of the island systems. The distribution of the species of the potamid Sinopotamon and other genera along China's longest drainage, the Yangtze River, can be subdivided into several zones corresponding to the upper, middle and lower reaches of the river basin. The freshwater crab fauna of continental China, the East Asian islands and Hainan Island were all different from each other, and this finding agreed with the findings of molecular phylogenetic studies. The distribution of freshwater crabs in the Yangtze River showed a similar pattern with other freshwater organisms in this drainage. The present biogeographical interpretation contrasts sharply with the traditional zoogeographical patterns proposed that are based on Chinese terrestrial vertebrates. The present analyses of crab distributions suggest that Yunnan is a possible centre of origin for the Potamidae of China and perhaps the whole of East Asia. The freshwater crab species richness in Yunnan is probably the result of its generally warmer climate, more diverse habitats and a long history of cladogenesis. © 2011 The Natural History Museum.


Tseng H.-W.,National Chung Hsing University | Chuang Y.-R.,Fu Jen Catholic University
IEEE Sensors Journal | Year: 2013

In IEEE 802.15.4 wireless personal area networks (WPANs), reliable data transmission is an important issue in areas such as body information for medical treatments. Some handshaking mechanisms in literatures are studied and proposed to guarantee successful data frame transmission. One is to adopt ACK frame, which is replied by the receiver back to the sender when the data frame is correctly received. This is a popular mechanism. However, there are many different reasons, such as the fading channel, data frame collision, and hidden terminal problem, by which data frames cannot be correctly received on the receiver. Therefore, a sender should have different data retransmission policies and procedures for data frame retransmission. Neglecting these measures of failed transmission, the data frame retransmission may fail again, and the transmission efficiency will be degraded. In this paper, we propose a cross-layer judgment scheme (CL-JS) to solve the retransmission problem. It does not require the extra control overhead, but it can correctly judge the reasons of failed transmission from overlapped signals. Thus, the sender can adaptively adjust system parameters to handle the different retransmission procedures. Simulation results validated by mathematical analysis show that the proposed scheme significantly improves the goodput with the reduction in power consumption. © 2001-2012 IEEE.


Chein R.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.-C.,National United University | Chung J.N.,University of Florida
Applied Energy | Year: 2013

This study presents the numerical simulation on the performance of mini-scale reactors for hydrogen production coupled with liquid methanol/water vaporizer, methanol/steam reformer, and methanol/air catalytic combustor. These reactors are designed similar to tube-and-shell heat exchangers. The combustor for heat supply is arranged as the tube or shell side. Based on the obtained results, the methanol/air flow rate through the combustor (in terms of gas hourly space velocity of combustor, GHSV-C) and the methanol/water feed rate to the reformer (in terms of gas hourly space velocity of reformer, GHSV-R) control the reactor performance. With higher GHSV-C and lower GHSV-R, higher methanol conversion can be achieved because of higher reaction temperature. However, hydrogen yield is reduced and the carbon monoxide concentration is increased due to the reversed water gas shift reaction. Optimum reactor performance is found using the balance between GHSV-C and GHSV-R. Because of more effective heat transfer characteristics in the vaporizer, it is found that the reactor with combustor arranged as the shell side has better performance compared with the reactor design having the combustor as the tube side under the same operating conditions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Chang H.L.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Chen Y.C.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Tan F.J.,National Chung Hsing University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative properties of a chitosan-glucose Maillard reaction product (CG-MRP), and its effect on pork qualities during refrigerated storage. Chitosan (1%), which was dissolved in acetic acid (1%) with 1.0%, 1.5%, or 2.0% glucose, pH adjusted to 6.0, autoclaved (121°C, 15. min) and cooled, was prepared. The results showed that the 2,2-dipheny1-1-picrylhydrazy1 (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, ferrous ion chelating abilities, and reducing powers of various CG-MRP solutions were not significantly different. Pork loins soaked in the CG-MRP solutions or deionized water for 10. min and without dipping were stored at 4°C for 7. days. Little influence was observed on the L*, a*, and b* colour values of the samples. Dipping in CG-MRP tended to retard the increases in volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, and resulted in lower microbial counts during storage. No detrimental influence on the sensory characteristics was found. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Chieh J.J.,National Taiwan Normal University | Hong C.Y.,National Chung Hsing University
Review of Scientific Instruments | Year: 2011

Although magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been widely applied to animals in biomedicine, MNPs within animals should be examined in real time, in vivo, and without bio-damaged possibility to evaluate whether the bio-function of MNPs is valid or to further controls the biomedicinal process because of accompanying complex problems such as MNPs distribution and MNPs biodegradation. The non-invasive and high-sensitivity scanning detection of MNPs in animals using ac susceptometry based on a high-Tc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is presented. The non-invasive results and biopsy results show good agreement, and two gold-standard biomedicine methods, Prussian blue stain and inductively coupled plasma, prove the magnetic results. This confirms that the future clinical diagnosis of bio-functional MNPs could be operated by using scanning SQUID biosusceptometry as conveniently as an ultrasonic probe. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.


Hwang B.-F.,China Medical University at Taichung | Liu I.-P.,China Medical University at Taichung | Huang T.-P.,National Chung Hsing University
Indoor Air | Year: 2011

To assess the independent and joint effects of parental atopy and exposure to molds on the development of asthma in childhood, the authors conducted a cohort-based, incident case-control study in 2008. The case group consisted of 188 children with new asthma, and the control group (n = 376) was matched one to two for age and sex. The outcome of interest was the development of asthma during the study period. The studied determinants were parental atopy and three indicators of exposure including histories of water damage, presence of visible molds, and perceived mold odor in the home at baseline in 2002. In conditional logistic regression adjusting for confounding, parental atopy [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.29, 95% CI 2.19-4.94] and the presence of mold odor (aOR 2.09, 95% CI 1.30-3.37) and visible mold (aOR 1.76, 95% CI 1.18-2.62) were independent determinants of incident asthma, and apparent interaction in additive scale was observed. Our finding suggests that the interaction between parental atopy and molds may play a role in the development of asthma in children. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


The genus Paraloxoblemmus Karny has not been revised since 1907. In this paper, I present a lectotype designation and photographs of the type species, Paraloxoblemmus loxoblemmoides (Karny). In addition, a new combination Paraloxoblemmus longifrons (Chopard, 1969) is established. This species is transferred from Loxoblemmus Saussure based on the structure of the male genitalia of the holotype. Loxoblemmus longifrons Chopard is relegated as a subjective synonym. Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press.